|Intro:||1 • 2|
|Chapter 1||1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6|
|Chapter 2||1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8|
|Chapter 3||1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8|
|Chapter 4||1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10|
|Chapter 5||1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9|
Personal Pronouns in English[edit | edit source]
Pronouns are nouns which are used instead of another noun ('pro', in place of 'noun', noun.)
There are three categories of pronouns which are divided up into persons: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. In addition, pronouns can be singular or plural. They are declined like all other nouns.
|2nd||you, thou||you (all)|
Personal Pronouns in Latin[edit | edit source]
1st/2nd Person Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Table of Personal Pronouns in all of their cases: I, thou, we, ye[edit | edit source]
|Case||1st Person||2nd Person||1st Person||2nd Person|
|Genitive||meī||of me||tuī||of you||nostrī(nostrum)||of us||vestrī (vestrum)||of you|
|Dative||mihi||to me||tibi||to/for you||nōbīs||to us||vōbīs||to/for you|
|Ablative||mē||from me||tē||from you||nōbīs||from us||vōbīs||from you|
Nota Bene: the genitive is used in certain phrases like:
- memor nostrī, mindful of us
- paucī vestrum, a few of you.
For the possessive uses (my sister, your bicycle) sometimes uses the possessive adjectives:
|meus, mea, meum||my|
|tuus, tua, tuum||thy|
|suus, sua, suum||his/hers, its, their|
|noster, nostra, nostrum||our|
|vester, vestra, vestrum||your|
|Pater noster||Our father|
3rd Person Pronouns[edit | edit source]
Technically, 3rd person pronouns do not exist in Latin as they do in English. However, they do have equivalents.
Adjectives modify nouns and take the gender of the noun which they modify. However, adjectives do not necessarily need a substantive present in the sentence to modify. The substantive can be presumed. In this way, '3rd person' pronouns are formed.
Example 1[edit | edit source]
Take the masculine form of the adjective 'ille'. Literally it means 'That (masculine) thing.' However one could take it for simply meaning 'he', depending on the context. Similarly, the pronoun 'iste' means 'that (masc.) thing'. Iste and ille are declined in exactly the same way, but there are a slight difference of meaning between them: 'ille' is often used with proper names for marking dignity or worth and 'iste' conveys a contemptuous sense.
- Annibal, ille inclytus filius Amilcaris (Hannibal, that renowned Hamilcar's son).
- Iste servus improbus ante te (this bad slave in front of you).
If no substantive is provided assume words like these: 'man', 'woman', 'thing', 'idea', 'concept', 'reason' etc. Let context be your guide.
Common Adjectives Used as 3rd Person Pronouns In Latin[edit | edit source]
Declension of Ille (that)[edit | edit source]
|Dative||illī||illī||illī||to him||to her||to it|
|Ablative||illō||illā||illō||by, with, from him||her||it|
|Genitive||illōrum||illārum||illōrum||their, theirs, of those|
|Dative||illīs||illīs||illīs||to them, to those|
|Ablative||illīs||illis||illīs||by, with, from them, those|
Ille is often used as a kind of pronoun. In situations with multiple phrases or sentences, however, it is syntactically different from is, ea, id (see below).
For example: "Canis puero cibum dat. Is laborat in agro." means "The dog gives food to the boy. The dog works in the field".
However: "Canis puero cibum dat. Ille laborat in agro." means "The dog gives food to the boy. The boy works in the field".
Thus, ille, unlike the other pronouns makes a previous object into the subject (and vice versa).
Examples of the Usage of Ille:[edit | edit source]
|Ille est dominus.||He is the master. (ille as pronoun)|
|Ille dominus est malus.||That master is bad. (ille as adjective)|
|Illam videt||He sees her. (or 'she sees her' - illam as pronoun)|
|Illam puellam videt||He (or she) sees that girl (illam as adjective).|
Declension of Is, ea, id: (personal pronouns w/ translations)[edit | edit source]
|Dative||eī||to him||to her||to it|
|Ablative||eō||eā||eō||by/with him||by/with her||by/with it|
|Genitive||eōrum||eārum||eōrum||their, theirs, of those|
|Dative||eīs, iīs||to them, to those|
|Ablative||eīs, iīs||by, with, from them, those|
Like ille, is can be used as a form of a pronoun.
Examples of the Usage of Is[edit | edit source]
|Is est dominus.||He is the master. ("is" as pronoun)|
|Is dominus est malus.||The master is bad. ("is" as adjective)|
|Eam videt.||He sees her. (or 'she sees her', "eam" as pronoun)|
|Eam puellam videt.||He (or she) sees the girl. ("eam" as adjective)|
Declension of the Relative pronoun qui, quae, quod: (meaning who, which)[edit | edit source]
|Dative||cuī||to whom||to which|
|Ablative||quō||quā||quō||by, with, from whom, which|
|Ablative||quibus||quibus||quibus||by which, in which, etc|
Uses of the Relative Pronoun[edit | edit source]
The relative pronoun takes on the case depending on the function it serves in the relative clause. For example, in the sentence "He sees the man who has a slave," "who" is translated as nominative because it is the subject of the clause "who has a slave." The antecedent (noun to which the pronoun refers) is usually before the relative clause.
Examples of the Usage of the Relative Pronoun[edit | edit source]
- Virum videt (he/she sees) qui servum (servant) habet (he/she has).
- He sees the man who has a slave
- Ille est vir cujus servus est malus.
- That's the man whose slave is bad.
- Quis eum videt?
- Who sees him?
Declension of hic, haec, hoc (meaning "this")[edit | edit source]
N.B. Hic as an adverb that means 'here'. N.B. Hic can also be used as a pronoun.
Example of the Usage of Hic[edit | edit source]
|'Hic' servus, non ille, est malus.||This slave, not that one, is bad.|