Latin/Lesson 6-The Subjunctive Perfect Passive
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Subjunctive Passive Verbs
Subjunctive Passive Perfect
Subjunctive passive verbs form from the 4th principle part as shown in the example below.
The verb's third principle part, e.g. in the word impedire(to obstruct): impedio, impedire, impedivi, impeditus; gains the passive ending for the appropriate person.
This is an example of the Subjunctive Passive in the perfect tense. muto, mutare, mutavi, mutatum -- to change
To make the verb into a perfect passive, take the fourth principle part, make it agree with the subject in gender, number, and case, and then add in the appropriate form of esse. In the perfect, we use the present form of esse, and specifically the subjunctive present(sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint.)
For example, Do you know what has been done to him? would be made into: scis quid eum factum sit?
mutatus sim I have been changed. mutatus sis You have been changed. mutatus sit He has been changed.
mutati simus We have been changed. mutati sitis You have been changed. mutati sint They have been changed.
- Note well that in the plural, the word "mutatus" becomes "mutati," thus taking on the plural nominative. Remember that the perfect passive verbs require the fourth participle to agree in gender and number!
In this section, it is only truly necessary to translate the italicized portion. The rest exists in order to make the subjunctive necessary.
the children were so bad that they have been scolded. (Children- Liberi; To scold- vitupero, vituperare, vituperavi)
He asked how I was tricked.(trick-ludo, ludere, lusi, lusus)
My parents drove to town so that now I have been born in a hospital.(born- cresco, crescere, crevi, cretus; Hospital- valetudinarium, valetudinarii-n.)
Subjunctive Passive Pluperfect
The subjunctive passive pluperfect is very similar to the perfect, with the major difference being the way esse is conjugated. In specific, the word esse is simply given the active endings(m,s,t,mus,tis, nt)
mutavi + isse -->
mutatus essem I had been changed. mutatus esses You had been changed. mutatus esset He had been changed.
mutati essemus We had been changed. mutati essetis You had been changed. mutati essent They had been changed.
In these exercises, only the italicized parts require translation. The rest exist to make the subjunctive necessary. Remember, the subjunctive is not used in any but complex sentences or other rare circumstances.
Ovid wrote so much in the Metamorphoses that his hand had been changed into stone.