Latin/Lesson 7-Future and Past Perfect

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Latin
Intro: 12
Chapter 1 123456
Chapter 2 12345678
Chapter 3 12345678
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Chapter 5 123456789

Future perfect[edit]

The future perfect tense is used for an action that will have been completed in the future by the time something else has happened.

English example: "I will have seen the movie by the time it comes out."

To form the future perfect, take the perfect stem and add the future perfect endings:

-erō -erimus
-eris -eritis
-erit -erint

Note the similarities to the future tense of sum, except for the third person plural ending -erint[1] in place of -erunt, which serves as the perfect ending instead.

Hence: amāverō, I will have loved; vīderitis, you (pl.) will have seen


  1. -int as an ending is rare; -erint and sint are two of the most common

Pluperfect[edit]

The pluperfect tense is used to describe something in the past that happened before another event in the past.

English example: "I had graduated by the time I applied for a job."

To form the pluperfect, take the perfect stem and add the pluperfect endings:

-eram -erāmus
-erās -erātis
-erat -erant

Hence: amāveram, I had loved; vīderātis, you (pl.) had seen


Examples[edit]

De Acutiliano autem negotio quod mihi mandaras (mandaveras), ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni, confeceram. (Cicero, Ad Atticum 1.5)

"But as to the business of Acutilius that you had entrusted with me, I had already taken care of it when I came to Rome first thing after your departure." Note the relationship of the pluperfect verbs mandaras (-aras is a common contraction for -averas) and confeceram to the perfect verb veni.

Ego certe meum officium praestitero. (Caesar, De Bello Gallico IV)

"I certainly will have prevailed in my duty."