Human Physiology

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  1. Physiology Introduction
  2. Homeostasis
  3. Cell Physiology
  4. Integumentary System
  5. The Nervous System
  6. Senses
  7. The Muscular System
  8. Blood Physiology
  9. The Cardiovascular System
  10. The Immune System
  11. The Urinary System
  12. The Respiratory System
  13. The Gastrointestinal System
  14. Nutrition

VITAMIN -- SUGGESTIVE DOSE INTERACTION INDICATION Vitamin A Beta Carotene Males: 5,000 I.U per day. Females: 4,000 I.U per day. TDR: 15,000 I.U per day.

Take one tablet daily. Antibiotics, laxatives, and some cholesterol lowering drugs interfere with A’s absorption. Consult a physician if the following occur: Cystic fibrosis, diabetes, intestinal disorders, thyroid disorders, kidney, liver, and /or pancreatic disease. Deficiency symptoms include night blindness, dry skin, impaired growth, defective teeth and gums, dry inflamed eyes, diarrhea, and respiratory infection. Depleting factors include caffeine, alcohol, mineral oil, excess iron, and tobacco. Prolonged doses (greater than 25,000 I.U) may lead to bone and joint pain, hyperostosis, hair loss and anorexia. Anti-infective, antioxidant, essential for function of retina, possible co-factor in enzyme systems, normal development and health of skin, teeth, bones, vision, hair, tolerance to sunlight/normal night vision, tissue growth, protein digestion, liver, immune system, eyes, and reproductive system. Important for integrity of the epithelial tissue. Vitamin B1 Thiamine RDA: 1.0mg – 1.4mg per day. ODR: 25mg – 50mg per day. TDR: 100mg per day.

Take one tablet daily. Avoid when liver or kidney disease is present. Antibiotics, sulfa drugs and oral contraceptives may decrease levels. May cause excessive muscle relaxation in presence of some anesthetics. Deficiency symptoms include edema, enlarged liver, muscular atrophy, heart enlargement, and Beriberi. Disorder of the peripheral nervous system, loss of appetite, gastric distress, insomnia, mental confusion, depression, fatigue, and nausea. Numbness of limbs, irritability and stress on nervous system. Depleting factors include stress, tobacco, fever, caffeine, alcohol, antibiotics, and surgery. Aids in carbohydrate metabolism, promotes normal cell growth, enhances circulation, restores deficiencies caused from over consumption of alcohol, prolonged diarrhea, or an over active thyroid. Essential for healthy nervous system, muscle tone, normal digestion, and energy. Stabilizes appetite, nervous system, heart and muscle.

Vitamin B2 Riboflavin RDA: 1.0mg – 1.7mg per day. ODR: 25mg – 50mg per day. TDR: 50mg per day.

Take one tablet daily. Avoid if kidney disease is present. May decrease the efficiency of methotrexate. Oral contraceptives and tiring exercise increases the need of B2. Anti-depressants, phenothiazines decrease effectiveness. Deficiency symptoms include mouth disorders, ariboflavinosis, insomnia, itching, scaling of skin, slow mental responses, retarded growth, weakness, dizziness, sore tongue, digestive disturbances, dermatitis, nervous instability, and burning eyes. Depleting factors include alcohol, tobacco, sugar, caffeine, and copper toxicity. Dosages of 50mg per day have caused retinal damage in experimental animals. Maintains integrity of mucous membranes, aids in metabolism of certain foods, necessary for red blood cell formation, antibody production, and cellular respiration. Assists in skin, hair, vision and nails. Builds and maintains body tissue.

Vitamin B3 Niacin RDA: 13mg-9mg per day. ODR: 100mg-250mg per day. TDR: 250mg-1,000mg per day.

Take one tablet daily. Decreases the effects of anti-diabetics and chenodiol. Lowers blood pressure when used with mecamylamne, beta-adrenergic blockers and pargyline. Flushing is normal and will decrease with time. Liver toxicity is possible at 2-3 grams. Deficiency symptoms include pellagra, dermatitis, and loss of memory, irritability, anger and depression. Depleting factors include stress, infection, antibiotics, sugar, caffeine, alcohol and excess water. Reduces cholesterol and triglycerides. Aids in energy production, amino acid metabolism and converts fats into eicosanoids. Regulates synthesis of sex hormones, growth and health. Maintains normal function of the skin, tongue and nervous system.

Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include muscle cramps, dermatitis, abdominal pain, insomnia, fatigue, stress, hypoglycemia, arthritis, eczema, kidney troubles, premature aging and infections. Depleting factors include caffeine, alcohol, stress, antibiotics, and insecticide. Metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates. Aids in premature aging and wrinkles. Synthesis of cholesterol fatty acids and steroids. Aids growth. Maintenance of healthy skin, nerves and digestive tract.

Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine RDA: 2mg per day. ODR: 50mg-100mg per day. TDR: 200mg-500mg per day.

Take one tablet daily. Diuretics and cortisone drugs block absorption. In large doses, breaks down phenytoin. Interferes with the efficacy of levodopa. Depleted with use of cycloserine ethionamide, hydralazine, isoniazid and immuno-suppressants. Deficiency symptoms include depression, insomnia, nervousness, muscle spasms, possible convulsions, mental confusion, water retention, irritability, low blood sugar, and loss of hair. Depleting factors include x-rays, caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and birth control pills. Promotes the change of tryptophan to serotonin, essential for the metabolic process of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Regulates water retention and secretion. Mixture of RNA/DNA. Balance of sodium and potassium. Critical for diets rich in protein. Important for proper functioning of the immune system and hormone balance (regulates females).

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin RDA: 3mcg per day. ODR: 50-100mcg per day TDR: 1,000mcg per day. Take one tablet daily. Low incidence of toxicity with dosages of up to 850mcg per day. Deficiency symptoms include harmful anemia, sub-acute shared degeneration of the spinal cord, lethargy, weakness, muscle soreness, mental, nervous and digestive disorders, poor reflexes, speaking difficulty, nerve degeneration, depression and enlarged liver. Depleting factors include laxatives, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol. Important role in energy production, immune, central nervous system functions in folic acid metabolism. Stops the buildup of homocysteine in blood. Assists with fat and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes formation of red blood cells. Aids with fatigue, general weakness, mood swings, loss of appetite and with the production of DNA/RNA, Crucial for the use of iron.

Vitamin B15 Pangamic Acid, Calcium Pangamate (Calcium Salt) Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include glandular and nervous disorders and diminished oxidation of cells. Promotes cell respiration and glucose oxidation, promotes protein, fat and sugar metabolism. Treats high cholesterol levels, impaired circulation and premature aging.

Vitamin C RDA: 60mg per day. ODR: 500mg per day. TDR: 1,000+mg per day.

Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include frequent or prolonged infections, fatigue, joint pain, bleeding gums, scurvy, hemorrhages, poor resistance to infection, anemia, colds, and allergies, shortness of breath, bruising, and gout. Depleting factors include mercury, stress, high fever, cortisone, tobacco, aspirin, air pollution, D.D.T, sulfonamides, and excess water. Decreases anti-cholinergic effectiveness. Combined with sulfa drugs may lead to kidney stones. Aids in utilization of carbohydrates, strengthens blood vessels, synthesis fats and proteins. Aids in production of interferon. Boosts resistance to infection, promotes normal teeth, bones, blood vessels, formation of collagen and connective tissue. For muscles and bones, detoxifies nicotine, mobilizes iron in blood, stimulates growth, and iron assimilation.

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) RDA: 7.5mcg-10mcg per day. ODR: 200 IU per day. TDR: 400 IU-600 IU per day.

Take one tablet daily. Increased risk of hypercalcemia when used with diuretics and thiazide, irregular heartbeats when used with digitalis. Reduces effectiveness of calcitonin in hyperclacemia treatment. Deficiency symptoms include bone diseases, rickets, osteomalacia, softening of bones, poor growth, porous and brittle bones, teeth and gum problems, lack of resilience in skin and tissue, and colds. Mineral oil is the only depleting factor. Controls absorption of phosphorous and calcium in small intestine. Promotes health development of bones, and teeth. Necessary for thyroid function. Used in treatment of herpes zoster and herpes simplex, cystic fibrosis, arthritis, normal use of calcium and phosphorous for strong bones and teeth, calcium absorption, maintains stable nervous system and normal heart action, aids sleep by helping absorb calcium, and blood clotting.

Vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol) RDA: 8 IU-10 IU per day. ODR: 200 IU-400 IU per day. TDR: 500 IU-1000 IU per day.

Take one tablet daily. High doses deplete Vitamin A stores in the body. High doses over a long time may alter metabolism of thyroid and pituitary hormones. Use caution in presence of diabetes and rheumatic heart disease. Anticoagulants and Vitamin E together may result in spontaneous or hidden bleeding. Deficiency symptoms include fragility of the red blood cells, liver and kidney disease, gastrointestinal problems, muscular wasting, enlarged prostate, sterility, impotence, dry dull hair, fat deposits in muscles (especially in the heart), atherosclerosis, varicose veins, hypertension, lethargy, lack of mental alertness, infertility, and neuromuscular impairment. Depleting factors include rancid fat, mineral oil, chlorine, birth control pills and air pollution. Antioxidant, aids in formation of red blood cells, lowers LDL’s, helps eliminate triglycerides, increases HDL’s , assists in preventing blood clots Useful in premenstrual syndrome and fibrocystic disease of the breast. Increases the body’s ability to utilize oxygen, Protects Vitamin A from damage in the body, protects unsaturated fats from abnormal breakdown, extends the life of red blood cells and promotes cell respiration, reported to be the “anti-aging” vitamin, helps minimize scarring and aids in the healing of wounds, retards blood clotting, and keeps the youthful elasticity in tissues.

Vitamin H Biotin RDA: not established ODR: 100mg-150mg per day. TDR: advised by practitioner.

Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include fatigue, depression, and inflammation of mucous membranes, baldness, mental health, muscle pain, mild skin disorders, and lack of energy, poor appetite, extreme exhaustion, and dry gray skin. Depleting factors include alcohol, raw egg white, caffeine, and antibiotics. Assists in utilization of B-complex vitamins. Helps in metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids and the formation of fatty acids. Maintains reproductive and nervous systems, and promotes growth.

Bioflavonoids (Vitamin P)

Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include the tendency to bleed and bruise easily, and bleeding gums. Depleting factors include colds and surgery. Capillary fragility, allergies, nosebleeds, inflammations, strengthens collagen and connective tissues. Helps strengthen capillaries; helps prevent colds and influenza, asthma, regulation of menstrual flow, and rheumatoid arthritis. Choline Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include fatty deposits in the liver, high blood pressure, and cirrhosis of the liver. Depleting factors include sugar, caffeine, alcohol, and insecticide. Recommended for people taking niacin or nicotinic acid. Prevents fat buildup in the liver. Essential for health of liver, kidneys, and healthy nerves.

Folic Acid RDA: 400mcg per day. ODR: 400mcg per day. TDR: 800mcg per day. Do not take in combination with phenytoin or pyrimethamine. Folic acid is depleted in presence of analgesics, anti-convulsants, chloramphenicol, cortisone, oral contraceptives, quinine, sulfa drugs, and trimethoprim. Deficiency symptoms include hemolytic and megaloblastic anemia. Weakness, mood disorders, insomnia, diarrhea, confusion, retarded growth, anemia, mental deterioration, gastro intestinal disorders, birth defects, B12 deficiency, gray hair, and a low pain to tolerance. Possibly related to forms of depression and psychosis. Depleting factors include stress, caffeine, alcohol, and streptomycin. Promotes normal red blood cell formation. Maintains health of intestinal tract, formation of white blood cells. Regulates embryonic and fetal development. Used in treating anemia developed from liver disease, pregnancy, and use of oral contraceptives. Acts as co-enzyme in formation of red blood cells, and nucleic acid. Breakdown and utilization of protein, aids in performance of the liver. Mental and emotional health.

Inositol Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include constipation, eczema, hair loss, high blood cholesterol, and eye problems. Depleting factors include caffeine, sulfonamide, and excess water. Promotes the body’s production of lecithin, aids in the metabolism of fats and helps to reduce blood cholesterol. Growth of hair, vital organs, bone marrow and eye membranes.

PABA Para Amino Benzoic Acid Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include fatigue, depression, nervousness, irritability, constipation, graying hair, digestive problems, eczema, sunburn, and lack of pigment. Depleting factors include sulfonamides, caffeine, and alcohol. Co-enzyme in breakdown and utilization of proteins and formation of red blood cells. Acts as sunscreen. Skin health, hair pigmentation. Stimulates intestinal bacteria and the production of folic acid.


MINERAL INTERACTION INDICATION Calcium Suggested Dose: RDA: 800mg-1000mg per day. ODR: 800mg-1500mg per day. Needs acidic medium for absorption.

Take two tablets daily. Avoid if kidney stones, chronic constipation, colitis, intestinal bleeding, stomach disorders or irregular heart beat is present. Use with digitalis or ephedrine preparations may cause heartbeat indiscretion. Decreases absorption of tetracycline. Deficiency symptoms include osteomalacia, joint pains, rickets, insomnia, hypertension, osteoporosis, bone diseases, tetany, heart problems, excessive bleeding, poor development and brittleness of teeth and bones, muscle and menstrual cramps. Depleting factors include aspirin, corticosteroid, and drugs. Stimulates bone loss if combined with large doses of Vitamin A. Vital for proper functioning of the nervous muscular and skeletal systems. Necessary for blood coagulation, retain acid balance and maintaining the permeability of membranes. Keeps muscle strength, elasticity and tone, needed for strong bones and teeth, blood clotting process, metabolism of Vitamin D, and the use of Iron.

Chlorine Excess chlorine destroys Vitamin E and Intestinal flora. Deficiency symptoms include hair and tooth loss, poor muscle contractions and impaired digestion. Chlorine (an amine) is an ancestor to an ester called acetylcholine which is needed for the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses and myoneural junctions. Suggested for people taking niacin or nicotinic acid for high serum cholesterol and triglycerides due to reduction of chlorine and lecithin. Liver disease, tardive dyskinesia, hormone and lecithin production. Regulates acid/alkali balance in the blood and maintains fluid pressure in cell membranes, stimulates the production of hydrochloric acid, stimulates liver, helping it clear toxic waste, aids in keeping joints and tendons in tone and helps to distribute hormones.

Chromium Suggestive Dose: RDA: 50mcg-200mcg per day. ODR: 200mcg-400mcg per day. TDR: 400mcg-1000mcg per day.

Take one tablet daily. Chromium should be used only under care of a physician when diabetes is at hand due to the change in the insulin requirements. Deficiency symptoms include anxiety, glucose intolerance, and chance of arteriosclerosis, poor metabolism of amino acids, retarded growth, mental and emotional disorder, hypoglycemia, weakness and fatigue. The depleting factor is air pollution. Metabolizes glucose, aids in regulation of blood sugar, vital in synthesis of cholesterol, fats and protein. Stimulates enzymes involved in metabolism of glucose. Increases the effect of insulin and synthesis of protein.

Cobalt Deficiency symptoms include vegetarians vulnerable to deficiency, pernicious anemia, slow rate of growth, and nervous disorders. There are no depleting factors. Vital part of B12 activates a number of enzymes required for functioning and maintenance of red blood cells and body cells in general.

Copper Suggestive Dose: RDA: 2mg-3mg per day. Avoid in the presence of hepatolenticular degeneration. Absorption is decreased in the presence of Vitamin C. Deficiency symptoms include general weakness, impaired respiration, lower collagen and lower white blood cell formation, retarded growth, skin ores, pernicious anemia, and respiratory problems. There are no depleting factors. Aids in the formation of bone hemoglobin, and red blood cells. Needed for integrity of joints and nerves. Necessary for formation of elastin. Aids with production of enzymes needed for respiration, protein metabolism, healing process, hair and skin pigment, oxidation of Vitamin C and iron absorption. Fluorine Deficiency symptoms include poor teeth development, gum disorders, osteoporosis and loss of hearing. Depleting factors include excess fluorine which may destroy the enzyme Phosphates. Affects vitamin metabolism and brain tissues, aluminum salts and insoluble calcium. Aids in tissue, skeleton and teeth, supports deposition of calcium by strengthening bones and teeth.

Iodine Suggestive Dose: RDA: 150mcg-200mcg per day. ODR: 100mcg-150mcg per day. TDR: 3mg per day. Works with lithium carbonate to make oddly low thyroid activity. Deficiency symptoms include mental retardation, apathy, deafness, dry hair, delayed growth, obesity, slowed mental reaction, sluggish metabolism, irritability, cold extremities, sexual development in children and Goiters in adults. Depleting factors include raw foods such as nuts and cabbage which may interfere with the use of iodine in thyroid hormone production. Maintains health of the thyroid gland, helps to metabolized excess fats. Treats angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, helps with the growth and development of hair, skin, nails, teeth, speech, mentality and the oxidation of fat protein, and encourages the rate of metabolism.

Iron Suggestive Dose: RDA: 18mg per day for men, 30mg per day for pregnant females. ODR/TDR: Toxicity of overdoses of ferrous sulfate indicates appropriate amounts in RDA. Avoid in the presence of hepatitis hemolytic anemia. Excessive dosages can cause bloody diarrhea, heart irregularities, weakness, and shortness of breath. Supplementation with iron combined with the intake of alcohol can cause organ damage. Deficiency symptoms include fatigue, pale skin, irritability, general malaise, difficulty swallowing, weakness, brittle nails, general lethargy, constipation iron-deficiency, and breathing difficulty. Depleting factors include coffee, tea, bleeding, excess Phosphorous, diarrhea, stress, lack of hydrochloric acid, antacids, and aspirins. Vital to hemoglobin, myoglobin formation, aids in tissue respiration as well as cellular oxygenation. Aids nutrition of epithelial tissues. Needed for proper assimilation of B Vitamins, increases resistance to stress and disease.

Magnesium Suggestive Dose: RDA: 300mg-400mg per day. ODR: 400mg-1000mg per day. TDR: 1,000mg per day. Reduces absorption of ketoconazole. May slow excretion (urinary) of mecamylamine. Reduces absorption of tetracycline. Deficiency symptoms include cardiovascular problems, confusion, insomnia, irritability, rapid heartbeat, seizures or tetany, depression, tremors, muscle twitch, convulsions, kidney stones, tooth decay, exhaustion and soft bones. Depleting factors include alcohol, diuretic, high cholesterol, and corticosteroid drugs. Activates enzymes responsible for catalytic reactions between phosphate ions and adenosine triphosphate. Controls body temperature, prevents calcification of soft tissue, and synthesizes proteins. Assists in calcium and potassium uptake. Activates enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, helps to regulate acid/alkaline balance in the body, bone growth, teeth enamel, used for proper function of nerves, memory, muscles, liver and glands.

Manganese Suggestive Dose: RDA: not established ODR/TDR: calculated in relation to zinc intake. 35mg per day of Manganese when taken with 100mg of zinc. Excess amounts lead to poor iron absorption. The following deplete manganese: calcium supplementation, oral contraceptives, and magnesium. Deficiency symptoms in children are an abnormal rate of development and growth, high blood sugar, ataxia, glandular disorders, muscular in coordination, poor growth, convulsion, loss of hearing, dizziness and paralysis. Depleting factors include excess phosphorous, calcium and antibiotics. Antioxidant, assists with managing blood glucose levels, helps to lower triglycerides, strengthens arterial tissues, and stabilizes LDL’s. Vital part of glucosamine, therefore useful in treatment of arthritis. Helps to maintain sex hormone, protein, fat and carbohydrate productions. Formation of blood cells, activates numerous enzymes, bones and tissue growth, synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.


Suggestive Dose: RDA: not established. ODR: 200mcg per day. TDR: 200mcg-1000mcg per day. Use with caution in presence of gout. Copper levels decline with excessive molybdenum intake. Deficiency symptoms include impotence, anemia, digestive disorders and tooth decay. Depleting factors are food refining and processing. Aids in eliminating aldehydes. Promotes normal cell growth. Generates energy, assists with production of hemoglobin. Aids in mobilization of iron from the liver. Vital for oxidation of fats.

Nickel Deficiency symptoms include cirrhosis of liver, kidney failure, excessive sweating, aggravates anemia, and intestinal malabsorption. Depleting factors include tobacco, alcohol and stress. May be a factor in hormone, lipid and membrane metabolism activator of some enzymes, and is involved in glucose metabolism.

Phosphorous Deficiency symptoms include bone diseases and weakness, gum and tooth diseases, nervous disorders, under or overweight, stunted growth, and irregular bleeding. Depleting factors include antacids, alcohol, aspirin, corticosteroid drugs and diuretics. Used in combination with calcium for the building of bones and teeth, repair of cells, growth maintenance, teeth and bones, skeletal growth, carbohydrates, kidney functioning, fat, protein metabolism, muscle contractions and nerve activity.

Potassium Suggestive Dose: RDA: not established. ODR: 50mg per day. TDR: available only by prescription. Overdose may result in irregular heartbeat, partial paralysis, coma and convulsions. Combination of ameliorate can cause serious rise in blood pressure. Heart irregularities may occur in presence of digitalis or calcium. Intestinal disorders in the presence of belladonna and atropine. Deficiency symptoms include hypokalemia, vomiting, perspiration, severe cardiac problems, nervous disorders, insomnia, and general weakness. Depleting factors include diuretics, caffeine, stress, diarrhea, alcohol, excess salt, high cholesterol, aspirin, sugar, and corticosteroid drugs. An electrolyte responsible for aced/base balance. Promotes regular heartbeat, normal muscle contraction, regulates water balance, essential for proper muscle function, helps regulate water/fluid balance, stimulates kidney to remove body waste, cell metabolism, heart rhythm, growth, protein and glucose absorption.


Suggestive Dose: RDA: not established. ODR: 200mcg. TDR: 400mcg. Take one tablet daily. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting and hair loss. Deficiency symptoms include cardiomyopathy, myocardial death, premature aging, infertility, insomnia, and arteriosclerosis. Depleting factor is mercury poisoning. Antioxidant, especially when used with Vitamin E. Strengthens immune system, promotes normal growth and development. Major studies in cancer treatment. Preserves elasticity of tissue, normal body growth and hair growth, production of prostaglandin substances that effect blood pressure, fertility, and metabolism. Silicon Depleting factor is Atherosclerosis. Aids in the connective tissues, bones and blood. Sodium Deficiency symptoms include weight loss, alkalosis, nausea, muscle cramps, excess thirst, edema high blood pressure insomnia and irritability. Depleting factor is excessive perspiration. Aids in water balance, osmotic pressure, blood and lymph health, nerves, muscle contractions, and acid/alkaline balance.

Zinc Suggestive Dose: RDA: 15mg-25mg per day. ODR: 15mg-25mg per day. TDR: 100mg per day temporarily. Take one tablet daily. Deficiency symptoms include loss of taste and smell, alopecia, glossitis, stomachitis, paronychia, sterility, enlarged liver or spleen, decreased size of testicles, dwarfism, baldness, stretch marks in the skin, retarded growth, prolonged healing of wounds, sterility, prostate problems. Depleting factors include lack of phosphorous, excess calcium, alcohol, cadmium, corticosteroid drugs, oral contraceptives, and diuretics. Antioxidant, aids in wound and burn healing, supports normal fetal growth and development, helps synthesize DNA and RNA, promotes normal cellular functioning, strengthens immune system, aids in regulating blood sugar. Used in treatment of prostate disorders. Topical application for wounds and skin irritations. Proper growth and function of reproductive organs, carbohydrates, digestive and phosphorous metabolism, needed to break down alcohol, phosphorous and protein metabolism, and component of insulin.

  1. The Endocrine System
  2. The Male Reproductive System
  3. The Female Reproductive System
  4. Pregnancy and Birth
  5. Genetics and Inheritance
  6. Development: Birth through Death
  7. Appendix 1: Answers to Review Questions
  8. Authors
  9. Further Reading

See also[edit]