Handbook of Management Scales/Process management
Process management (alpha = 0.82; composite reliability = 0.81)
Eight quality management practices were identiﬁed by the authors: customer focus, employee relations, management leadership, process management, product/service design, quality data and reporting, supplier quality management, and training.
- Extent to which inspection, review, or checking of work is automated. (0.64)
- Stability of production schedule/work distribution. (0.68)
- Degree of automation of the process. (0.62)
- Extent to which process design is "foolproof" and minimizes the chances of employee errors. (0.81)
- Extent to which statistical techniques are used in order to reduce variance in processes. (0.64)
Items 1–4 were adapted from Saraph et al. (1989); item 5 was adopted from Anderson et al. (1995).
- Kaynak/Hartley (2008): A replication and extension of quality management into the supply chain. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 468–489.
Process management (composite reliability = 0.89)
The authors identify improvement and innovation as two critical plant level capabilities. These capabilities are each conceptualized as a second-order factor and measured through a distinct bundle of routines. The following routines underlying improvement capabilities are identified: continuous improvement, process management, and leadership involvement in quality. The routines closely related to improvement capability are: search for new technologies, cross-functional product design, and processes and equipment development. The items to measure each routine were selected based on a review of the relevant literature. Items were included that have been used in prior studies. A panel of five academic researchers and managers with expertise in manufacturing operations reviewed each of the items.
Process management is based on the view that an organization consists of systems of interrelated processes. It typically involves efforts to map, improve, and adhere to organizational processes.
- A large percent of the processes on the shop floor are currently under statistical quality control.
- We make extensive use of statistical techniques to reduce variance in processes.
- We use charts to determine whether our manufacturing processes are in control.
- We monitor our processes using statistical process control.
- Peng et al. (2008): Linking routines to operations capabilities: A new perspective. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 730-748. Based on: Cua et al. (2001) and Ketokivi and Schroeder (2004).