Handbook of Management Scales/Employee relations

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Employee relations (alpha = 0.91; composite reliability = 0.90)[edit]


Eight quality management practices were identified by the authors: customer focus, employee relations, management leadership, process management, product/service design, quality data and reporting, supplier quality management, and training.


  • Amount of feedback provided to employees on their quality performance. (0.84)
  • Degree of participation in quality decisions by hourly/nonsupervisory employees. (0.88)
  • Extent to which building quality awareness among employees is ongoing. (0.87)
  • Extent to which employees are recognized for superior quality performance. (0.75)

All items were adapted from Saraph et al. (1989).