Handbook of Management Scales/Management leadership

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Management leadership (alpha = 0.94; composite reliability = 0.93)[edit]


Eight quality management practices were identified by the authors: customer focus, employee relations, management leadership, process management, product/service design, quality data and reporting, supplier quality management, and training.


  • Degree to which organization top management (top organization executive and major department heads) is evaluated for quality performance. (0.81)
  • Degree of participation by major department heads in the quality improvement process. (0.79)
  • Extent to which the organizational top management has objectives for quality performance. (0.88)
  • Comprehensiveness of the goal-setting process for quality within the organization. (0.88)
  • Amount of review of quality issues in organizational top management meetings. (0.81)
  • Degree to which the organizational top management considers quality improvement as a way to increase profits. (0.81)

All items were adapted from Saraph et al. (1989).


Related Scales[edit]