Handbook of Management Scales/Management leadership
Management leadership (alpha = 0.94; composite reliability = 0.93)
Eight quality management practices were identiﬁed by the authors: customer focus, employee relations, management leadership, process management, product/service design, quality data and reporting, supplier quality management, and training.
- Degree to which organization top management (top organization executive and major department heads) is evaluated for quality performance. (0.81)
- Degree of participation by major department heads in the quality improvement process. (0.79)
- Extent to which the organizational top management has objectives for quality performance. (0.88)
- Comprehensiveness of the goal-setting process for quality within the organization. (0.88)
- Amount of review of quality issues in organizational top management meetings. (0.81)
- Degree to which the organizational top management considers quality improvement as a way to increase proﬁts. (0.81)
All items were adapted from Saraph et al. (1989).
- Kaynak/Hartley (2008): A replication and extension of quality management into the supply chain. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 468–489.