Flora of New York/Acorales & Alismatales

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Nymphaeales & magnoliids
Flora of New York — Acorales & Alismatales
Dioscoreales & Liliales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The Acorales and Alismatales form the basal grade of the monocots (Lilianae), informally grouped as the "alismatid monocots."[1]
monocots
Acorales : Acoraceae

Acorus americanus (American sweetflag)

Acorus calamus (old world sweetflag)

Alismatales

TofieldiaceaeTriantha glutinosa (sticky false asphodel)

Araceae
Orontioideeae

Orontium aquaticum (golden club)

Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)

Lemnoideae

Spirodela polyrrhiza (common duckmeal)

Lemna spp. (5 duckweeds)

Wolffia spp. (3 watermeals)

Aroideae

Calla palustris (wild calla, water arum)

Peltandra virginica (green arrow arum, tuckahoe)

Arisaema dracontium (green dragon)

Arisaema triphyllum (4 Jack-in-the-pulpit subspp.)

Alismataceae

Sagittaria spp. (9 arrowheads)

Alisma spp. (3 water plantains)

ButomaceaeButomus umbellatus (flowering rush)

Hydrocharitaceae
Hydrocharitoideae

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog’s bit)

Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed)

Limnobium spongia (American frog’s bit)

Stratiotoideae

AnacharidoideaeElodea spp. (3 waterweeds)

Hydrilloideae

Najas spp. (8 water nymphs, naiads)

Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla, water thyme)

Vallisneria americana (water celery, tape grass)

ScheuchzeriaceaeScheuchzeria palustris (pod grass)

Aponogetonaceae (none in NY)

JuncaginaceaeTriglochin spp. (2 arrowgrasses)

Maundiaceae (none in NY)

Posidoniaceae (none in NY)

RuppiaceaeRuppia maritima (widgeon grass, ditch grass)

Cymodoceaceae (none in NY)

ZosteraceaeZostera marina (eel grass}

Potamogetonaceae

Dioscoreales

Liliales

Asparagales

Poales

Zingiberales

Commelinales

alismatid
monocots
lilioid
monocots
commelinid
monocots

Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
alismatid
monocots
Acorales Acoraceae Acorus sweetflag 2
Alismatales Araceae Orontioideae Orontieae Orontium goldenclub 1
Symplocarpeae Symplocarpus skunk cabbage 1
Lemnoideae Spirodela duckmeat 1
Lemna duckweed 5
Wolffia watermeal 3
Aroideae Calleae Calla callalily 1
Peltandreae Peltandra arrow-arum 1
Arisaemateae Arisaema Jack-in-the-pulpit 5
Pinellia pinellia 1
Pistieae Pistia water-lettuce 1
Tofieldiaceae Triantha tofieldia, false asphodel 1
Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharitoideae Egeria waterweed 1
Hydrocharis frogbit 1
Limnobium spongeplant 1
Anacharidoideae Elodea waterweed 3
Hydrilloideae Najas waternymph, naiad 8
Hydrilla water-thyme 1
Vallisneria eelgrass 1
Butomaceae Butomus flowering rush 1
Alismataceae Sagittaria arrowhead 9
Alisma water-plantiain 12
Helanthium burhead 1
Scheuchzeriaceae Scheuchzeria rannoch-rush 1
Juncaginaceae Juncaginoideae Triglochin arrowgrass 2
Ruppiaceae Ruppia ditch-grass 1
Zosteraceae Zostera eelgrass 1
Potamogetonaceae Potamogetoneae Potamogeton pondweed 36
Stuckenia fineleaf pondweed 2
Zannichellieae Zannichellia horned pondweed 1

Order Acorales[edit | edit source]

The order Acorales consists of only the Acoraceae (sweetflag family), with Acorus as its only genus.[1]

Family Acoraceae[edit | edit source]

Acorus[edit | edit source]

Acorus calamus

Acorales — Acoraceae — Acorus
Genus Acorus Sweetflag N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Raf.) Raf.

1828.  Acorus calamus  var. americanus  Raf.  in…
1836.  Acorus americanus  (Raf.) Raf. in…
1954.  Acorus calamus  var. americanus  H.Wulff
American sweet-flag,
American sweetflag,
Several-veined sweetflag,
Sweetflag
Acore d'Amérique,
Acorus d'Amérique,
Belle-angélique
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure,
Fertile diploid
 (2n = 2x = 24)

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun

NYFA: 5
NYFA: 14 counties
iNat
5 counties

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 L.

1753.  Acorus calamus  L. in…
1764.  Calamus aromaticus  Garsault in…
1840.  Acorus angustatus  Raf. in…
Old World sweet-flag,
European sweetflag,
Single-veined sweetflag,
Flag-root,
Myrtle flag
Acore roseau,
Acorus roseau,
Acore aromatique,
Belle-angélique
Introduced from
 Asia,
Sterile triploid
 (2n = 3x = 36)

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun

NYFA: X
iNat

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Order Alismatales[edit | edit source]

The order Alismatales as defined in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.[1]

Family Araceae[edit | edit source]

The plants of the Araceae (arum family) have numerous small flowers that are part of a spadix, a spike inflorescence on which the flowers are borne on a fleshy stem. The spadix is usually surrounded by a bract called a spathe.

Subfamily Orontioideae[edit | edit source]

The Orontioideae contains just two New York species, both native: Orontium aquaticum (golden club) and Symplocarpus foetidus (eastern skunk cabbage). This subfamily also includes the genus Lysichiton which comprises the western and Asian skunk cabbages, neither of which are know to have naturalized in New York.

Orontium[edit | edit source]

Orontium aquaticum
golden club
Orontium aquaticum (golden club), the only living species of its grenus, probably reaches the northern extent of its range in New York and adjacent New England. It is considered to be threatened in New York, where it is mostly found in Hudson River tidal marshes but has been reported in acidic bogs and ponds farther inland.
Alismatales — Araceae — Orontioideae — Orontieae
Genus Orontium Goldenclub N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Orontium aquaticum  L.
1895. Aronia aquatica  (L.) Baill.
Golden club Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade

NYFA: 2

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Symplocarpus[edit | edit source]

Symplocarpus foetidus
skunk cabbage
Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) is the only North American native of the genus. The western skunk cabbage is in the genus Lysichiton and has not been reported to have naturalized in New York.
Alismatales — Araceae — Orontioideae — Symplocarpeae
Genus Symplocarpus Skunk-cabbage N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton

1753. Dracontium foetidum  L.
1808. Spathyema foetida  (L.) Raf. nom. inval.
1812. Symplocarpus foetidus  (L.) W.Salisb.
1817. Symplocarpus foetidus  (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton
1818. Symplocarpus foetidus  Nutt.
Skunk cabbage,
Polecatweed
Chou puant,
Tabac-du-diable
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Shade

NYFA: 5

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Subfamily Lemnoideae[edit | edit source]

Duckweeds:
Spirodela polyrhiza (large),
Lemna minor (medium),
Wolffia arrhiza (small).
The Lemnoideae contains the small aquatic plants known as duckweeds, or water lentils. This subfamily contains plants previously placed in the Lemnaceae.

Spirodela[edit | edit source]

Spirodela polyrrhiza - common duck-meat
Common duck-meat (Spirodela polyrrhiza)
Alismatales — Araceae — Lemnoideae — Spirodela
Genus Spirodela Duckmeat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Schleid.

1753. Lemna polyrhiza  L.
1839. Spirodela polyrhiza  Schleid.
1839. Spirodela polyrrhiza  Schleid.[1]
Common water-flaxseed,
Common duck-meal,
Common duck-meat,
Greater duckweed,
Giant duckweed
Spirodèle polyrhize
Native,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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  1. "The initial ρ of a Greek word transliterated as rh, e.g. rhiza (ριζα, root, rhizome), should have an additional r added to it when preceded by a vowel, e.g. Glycyrrhiza (γλυκυρριζα, liquorice, from γλυκος, sweet, ριζα, root), leptorrhiza (λεπτορριζα, with a thin root, from λεπτος, small, slender), but as many reputable authors, Linnaeus among them, have omitted this additional r, it is best regarded as optional and an author's original spelling, as in Lemna polyrhiza, should be accepted." - W. T. Stearn (1992), Botanical Latin ed. 4: 261.

Lemna[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Araceae — Lemnoideae — Lemna
Genus Lemna Duckweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Lemna minor  L.
1771. Lenticula minor  (L.) Scop.
1816. Lemna minima  Thuill. ex P.Beauv.
1901. Hydrophace minor  (L.) Bubani
Lesser duckweed Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Lemna trisulca  L.
Star duckweed Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Torr.

1843. Lemna perpusilla  Torr.
Minute duckweed Native, CoC: 4,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

NYFA: 1

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 Phil.

1864. Lemna valdiviana  Phil.
Pale duckweed,
Valdivia duckweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

NYFA: 1

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 Landolt

1975. Lemna turionifera  Landolt
Turion duckweed,
Lenticulare turionifère
Native, CoC: 4,
Unranked

OBL

NYFA: U

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Genus Lemna (excluded species) Duckweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Lemna gibba L.
Swollen duckweed N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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 (Austin) Daubs

1965. Lemna obscura  (Austin) Daubs
1867. Lemna minor  var. obscura  Austin
Little duckweed N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Wolffia[edit | edit source]

Wolffia columbiana - Columbian watermeal
The genus Wolffia (watermeal) contains the world's smallest flowering plants, each an undifferentiated, rootless floating body. These species are often found in mixed populations in still ponds, lakes, and marshes in various parts of the state.
Alismatales — Araceae — Lemnoideae — Wolffia
Genus WolffiaHorkel ex Schleiden Watermeal N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 H.Karst.

1865. Wolffia columbiana  H.Karst
1892. Grantia columbiana  (H.Karst.) MacMill.
1912. Bruniera columbiana  (H.Karst.) Nieuwl.
Columbian watermeal,
Columbia watermeal,
Columbian duckmeal
Wolffie de Colombie
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Engelm. ex Hegelm.) Landolt

1868. Wolffia brasiliensis  var. borealis  Engelm. ex Hegelm.
1986. Wolffia borealis  (Engelm. ex Hegelm.) Landolt
Dotted watermeal,
Northern watermeal,
Northern duckmeal
Wolffie borèle
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 Wedd.

1849. Wolffia brasiliensis  Wedd.
????. Bruniera punctata
1864. Wolffia punctata Griseb.
????. Wolffia papulifera
Brazilian watermeal Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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Subfamily Aroideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Calleae[edit | edit source]

Calla[edit | edit source]
Calla palustris - water arum
Calla palustris is the sole species of the genus and is native to cool wetlands of the Northern Hemisphere, including those in New York State.
Alismatales — Araceae — Aroideae — Calleae
Genus Calla Callalily N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Calla palustris  L.
Wild calla,
Water arum
Calla des marais
Native,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Tribe Peltandreae[edit | edit source]

Peltandra[edit | edit source]
Peltandra virginica
The genus Peltandra in New York contains the green arrow arum or tuckahoe (Peltandra virginica)
Alismatales — Araceae — Aroideae — Peltandreae
Genus Peltandra Arrow-arum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Raf. ex Schott

1832. Peltandra virginica  (L.) Raf. ex Schott
Green arrow arum,
Green arrow-arum,
Arrow arum,
Poison arum,
Tuckahoe
Native,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Tribe Arisaemateae[edit | edit source]

The Arisaemateae includes two genera that can be found in New York: Arisaema and Pinellia. These include the plants known as Jack-in-the-pulpit and green dragon.
Arisaema[edit | edit source]
Arisaema triphyllum.
Jack-in-the-pulpit
Two species of Arisaema are native to New York: A. triphyllum (Jack-in-the-Pulpit) and A. dracontium (Green dragon).

Three subspecies of Jack-in-the-Pulpit have been reported in New York. A. triphyllum ssp. triphyllum, a tetraploid with 2n:56 chromosomes, likely originated as a hybrid of subspecies stewardsonii and pusillum, each of which is a diploid with 2n:28 chromosomes.[1]


Alismatales — Araceae — Aroideae — Arisaemateae — Arisaema
Genus ArisaemaMart.sect. Pedatisecta[1] Jack-in-the-pulpit N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Schott
 ssp. triphyllum

1753. Arum triphyllum L.
1832. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott
1835. Arisaema atrorubens (Aiton) Blume
Common Jack-in-the-pulpit
Indian Jack-in-the-pulpit
Indian-turnip

Arisème petit-prêcheur
Native,
Secure

FAC

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) Schott
 ssp. stewardsonii (Britton) Huttl.

1901. Arisaema stewardsonii Britton
1910. Arisaema triphyllum  var. stewardsonii  Stevens
1920. Arisaema triphyllum  f. stewardsonii  Engl.
1949. Arisaema triphyllum  ssp. stewardsonii  Huttl.
Stewardson's Jack-in-the-pulpit
Swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit

Arisème de Stewardson
Arisèma de Stewardson
Native,
Secure

FAC

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) Schott
 ssp. pusillum (Peck) Huttl.

1898. Arisaema triphyllum  var. pusillum  Peck
1901. Arisaema pusillum  (Peck) Nash
1903. Arisaema acuminatum  Small
1921. Arisaema triphyllum  var. acuminatum  Engl.
1940. Arisaema triphyllum  f. pusillum  Fernald
1949. Arisaema triphyllum  ssp. pusillum  Huttl.
Small jack-in-the-pulpit,
Peck's jack-in-the-pulpit
Arisème nain
Native,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3

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Arisaema triphyllum ssp. stewardsonii ×
Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum

Hybrid of
 Swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit &
 Common Jack-in-the-pulpit

Native,
Unknown

FAC

NYFA: U

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Genus ArisaemaMart.sect. Tortuosa[1] Green-dragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Schott

1753. Arum dracontium L.
1832. Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott
1903. Muricauda dracontium (L.) Small
Green dragon,
Dragon root,
Dragon arum
Arisème dragon,
Arisèma dragon
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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Pinellia[edit | edit source]
Pinellia ternata
Pinellia ternata (crowdipper) is being tracked as a potentially invasive plant in New York and New Jersey.[1]
Alismatales — Araceae — Aroideae — Arisaemateae — Pinellia
Genus Pinellia Pinellia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Thunb.) Makino

1784. Arum ternatum  Thunb.
1837. Alocasia ternata  (Thunb.) Raf.
1837. Atherurus ternatus  (Thunb.) Blume
1901. Pinellia ternata  (Thunb.) Makino
Crowdipper,
Asian green dragon
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS Tier: Untiered,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [1],
 USGS: L48 not listed,
Unknown naturalization,
SNA

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
NYFA: Kings County
iNat
3 counties

GBIF
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Tribe Pistieae[edit | edit source]

Pistia[edit | edit source]
Pistia stratiotes
Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) is now listed with an Ecological Invasiveness rank of Very High and placed in New York State Tier 2.[1]
Alismatales — Araceae — Aroideae — Pistieae
Genus Pistia Water-lettuce N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Pistia stratiotes  L.
1803. Pistia spathulata  Michx.
1878. Pistia stratiotes  var. spathulata  Engl.
Water-lettuce,
Tropical duckweed,
Nile cabbage
Laitue d'eau
Introduced from
 US South,
 South America,
 Africa,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 62%[1],
Impersistent
NYFA: 2 counties
iMap: 3 counties
iNat: 5 counties
NYFA: X

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Tribe Colocasieae[edit | edit source]

Colocasia[edit | edit source]
Colocasia esculenta

Alismatales — Araceae — Aroideae — Colocasieae — Colocasia
Genus Colocasia Taro N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Schott

1753. Arum esculentum  L.
1801. Caladium esculentum  (L.) Vent.
1832. Colocasia esculenta  (L.) Schott
1832. Colocasia esculenta  var. esculenta
1832. Colocasia antiquorum  Schott
1856. Colocasia antiquorum  var. esculenta  (L.) Schott
Coco yam ...

Introduced,
Highly invasive

NYFA-Excluded
NYFA: Not listed
xx counties

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Family Tofieldiaceae[edit | edit source]

Triantha[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Tofieldiaceae
Genus Triantha Tofieldia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Baker

1803. Narthecium glutinosum  Michx.
1879. Triantha glutinosa  (Michx.) Baker
Sticky false-asphodel Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Family Alismataceae[edit | edit source]

The Alismataceae (water-plantain family) has about a dozen documented taxa in three genera growing outside of cultivation in New York.

Sagittaria[edit | edit source]

Sagittaria latifolia
broad-leaved arrowhead

Alismatales — Alismataceae — Sagittaria
Genus Sagittaria Arrowhead N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Broad-leaved arrowhead,
Wapato,
Common arrowhead,
Duck-potato
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Sessile-fruited arrowhead Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 ssp. graminea

Grass-leaved arrowhead Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Northern arrowhead,
Wapato,
Wapatum arrowhead
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Acid-water arrowhead,
Engelmann arrowhead
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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Strap-leaved arrowhead Native, CoC: 7,
Rare

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3

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 ssp. spongiosa

    Lophotocarpus spathulatus
    Lophotocarpus spongiosus
    Sagittaria spathulata
    Sagittaria calycina  var. spongiosa
Spongy-leaved arrowhead,
Tidal arrowhead,
Spongy arrowhead,
Hooded arrowhead
Native, CoC: 7,
Threatened

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 2

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Slender arrowhead,
Quill-leaved sagittaria
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1

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Genus Sagittaria (excluded species) Arrowhead N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (J.G.Sm.) Small

1897. Sagittaria longirostra  var. australis  J.G.Sm.
1903. Sagittaria australis  (J.G.Sm.) Small
 auct. Sagittaria engelmanniana  ssp. longirostra  non Micheli 1955
 auct. Sagittaria longirostra  non J.G.Sm.
Longbeak arrowhead,
Appalachian arrowhead
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Alisma[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Alismataceae — Alisma
Genus Alisma Water-plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    
    
    
Southern water-plantain,
Broad-leaved water-plantain
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Pursh

    Alisma triviale Pursh
    A. plantago-aquatica L. misappl.
Northern water-plantain Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Lej.

    
    
    
Narrow-leaved water-plantain,
Grass-leaved water-plantain,
Ribbonleaf water-plantain
Native, CoC: 7,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 2-3

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Helanthium[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Alismataceae — Helanthium
Genus Helanthium Burhead N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Mart. ex Schult.f.) Britton

1830. Alisma tenellum Mart. ex Schult.f.
1856. Echinodorus parvulus Engelm.
1868. Echinodorus tenellus Buchenau
1905. Helanthium tenellum Britton
North American
  dwarf burhead,
Mud-babies,
Pygmy chain sword
Native,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: Z

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Family Butomaceae[edit | edit source]

Butomus[edit | edit source]

Butomus umbellatus
flowering rush
The sole species of Butomaceae (the flowering rush family) is the aquatic Eurasian plant Butomus umbellatus, which is listed as moderately invasive in New York. Its first appearance in North America was in the St. Laurence River in 1897, and it is now a problem weed in the Great Lakes.[1]

Studies by L. C. Anderson in 1974 found that the naturalized North American Butomus populations had separate sources. Those east of Niagara Falls, introduced near the St. Lawernce River, originated in eastern Asia. Those west of the Falls were introduced near Detroit, and were from western Euraasia. R. L. Stuckey, in 1994, recognized these two groups as separate species, with B. umbellatus, from western Eurasia, found west of the Falls, and B. junceus, from eastern Asia, found east of the falls.[2] B. junceus is not widely accepted as a separate species at this time, but if it were to be accepted, New York's populations would probably be considered to be B. junceus.[3][4]


Alismatales — Butomaceae — Butomus
Genus Butomus Flowering rush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Butomus umbellatus L.
1837. Butomus junceus Turcz.
Flowering rush,
Water gladiolus,
Grass rush
Butome à ombelle,
Jonc fleuri
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 64%[1],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
NE-1[2]

NYFA: X

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentButomus umbellatus: Moderate (64). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  2. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Family Hydrocharitaceae[edit | edit source]

The Hydrocharitaceae (tape-grass family) ...

Subfamily Hydrocharitoideae[edit | edit source]

Hydrocharis[edit | edit source]

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae
European frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) is a recent invader of northern New York State, often occurring with Phragmites australis.
Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Hydrocharitoideae — Hydrocharis

Genus Hydrocharis Frog-bit N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Hydrocharis Morsus ranae L.
1827. Pontederia dubia Blume
1925. H. dubia (Blume) Backer
Common frogbit,
European frog-bit,
Frog's bit
Hydrocharide grenouillette,
Grenouillette,
Morène,
Petit nénuphar
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 86%[1],
Prohibited[2]

NYFA: X

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentHydrocharis morsus-ranae: Very high (86). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species

Egeria[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Hydrocharitoideae — Egeria
Genus Egeria Waterweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Planch.

1849. Egeria densa Planch.
1857. Elodea densa Casp.
1931. Anacharis densa Vict.
1933. Philotria densa Small
Brazilian waterweed,
Brazilian elodea,
South American waterweed
Introduced from
 Brazil,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 75%[1],
Prohibited[2],
NE-2[3]

NYFA: X

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Limnobium[edit | edit source]

Limnobium spongia

Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Hydrocharitoideae — Limnobium
Genus LimnobiumRich. 1814 Spongeplant N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Bosc) Rich. ex Steud.

1807. Hydrocharis spongia Bosc
1814. Limnobium spongia Rich.
1818. Hydrocharis cordifolia Nutt.
1840. Limnobium spongia Steud.
American frogbit,
American spongeplant
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent

NYFA: X

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Subfamily Stratiotoideae[edit | edit source]

Stratiotes[edit | edit source]

Stratiotes aloides
Although not yet found in New York, Stratiotes aloides (water soldiers) have been discovered on the Trent River in Ontario and the Ottawa River in Quebec.[1][2]
Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Stratiotoideae — Stratiotes
Genus Stratiotes Water-aloe N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 L.

1753. Stratiotes aloides L.
Water-soldiers,
Water-aloe
Stratiote faux-aloès,
Faux-aloès,
Aloès d'eau
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: Not ranked[1],
NYS Tier 1a
no reports
iNat

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Subfamily Anacharidoideae[edit | edit source]

Elodea[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Anacharidoideae — Elodea
Genus Elodea Waterweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.Rich. ex Michx.

Canadian waterweed,
Common waterweed,
Broad waterweed
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(Planch.) St. John

Nuttall's waterweed Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 H.St.John

    E. longivaginata H.St.John
    E. nevadensis (Planch.) H,St.John
Twoleaf waterweed,
Two-leaved waterweed,
Long-sheath waterweed
Introduced,
Western native

NYFA: X

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Lagarosiphon[edit | edit source]

Lagarosiphon major flowers on Salagou Lake, France
African oxygen weed or African elodea (Lagarosiphon major) is listed on the Federal Noxious Weed list and on the Michigan prohibited aquatic plant list.[1] The New York State rank is High.[2]
Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Anacharidoideae — Lagarosiphon
Genus Lagarosiphon Oxygen weed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Ridl.) Moss

African oxygen weed,
African elodea
Introduced,
Highly invasive

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-X?
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Subfamily Hydrilloideae[edit | edit source]

Najas[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Najadoideae — Najadeae — Najas
Genus Najas Waternymph / Naiad N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Willd.) Rostk. & W.L.E.Schmidt

1798. Caulinia flexilis Willd.
1803. Najas canadensis Michx.
1824. N. flexilis Rostk. & W.L.E.Schmidt
1942. N. flexilisssp. caespitosus
1975. N. caespitosus (Maguire) Reveal
Slender naiad,
Slender naias,
Slender water-nymph,
Nodding water-nymph,
Bushy naiad,
Northern water-nymph,
Wavy waternymph
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(A.Braun ex Engelm.) Magnus

1867. Najas indica var. gracillima
1870. Najas gracillima Magnus
Thread-like naiad,
Thread-like water-nymph,
Slender waternymph
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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(Spreng.) Magnus
ssp. guadalupensis

1825. Caulinia guadalupensis Spreng.
1870. Najas guadalupensis Magnus
Southern water-nymph,
Southern naiad
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(Spreng.) Magnus
ssp. muenscheri
(R.T.Clausen) R.R.Haynes & Hellq.

1937. Najas muenscheri R.T.Clausen
1979. N.g.var. muenscheri
1996. N.g.ssp. muenscheri
Hudson River water-nymph,
Muenscher's water-nymph,
Mermaid weed
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1
Endemic[1]

NYFA: 1E

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(Spreng.) Magnus
ssp. olivacea
(Rosend. & Butters) R.R.Haynes & Hellq.

1935. N. olivacea Rosend.& Butters
1979. N. guadalupensisvar. olivacea
1996. N. guadalupensisssp. olivacea
Guadalupe water-nymph,
Southern naiad
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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 L.

1753. Najas marina L.
1893. Najas gracilis Morong
1903. Najas gracilis Small
Spiny water-nymph,
Spiny naiad,
Holly-leaved naiad,
Prickly waternymph
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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All.

1773. Najas minor All.
1807. Fluvialis minor Pers.
1808. Ittnera minor C.C.Gmel.
1845. Caulinia minor Coss. & Germ.
Brittle water-nymph Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 n. Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYS Tier 5[2],
[3]

NYFA: X

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Hydrilla[edit | edit source]

Hydrilla verticillata
The genus Hydrilla is usually considered to contain the single species Hydrilla verticillata, which is commonly known simply as hydrilla. It's a Eurasian aquatic plant commonly used in aquariums and was probably first released in North America in the 1950s but not found in New York State until 2008, when it was discovered in Orange and Suffolk Counties.[1][2]

More recently, hydrilla has been discovered in and around Cayuga Lake, Tonawanda Creek near Buffalo, Susquehanna River near Binghamton and elsewhere. By 2021, iMapInvasives showed hydrilla in at least 12 New York counties.[3]


Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Najadoideae — Najadeae — Hydrilla
Genus Hydrilla Water-thyme N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.f.) Royle

1782. Serpicula verticillata L.f.
1824. Udora verticillata Spreng.
1839. Hydrilla verticillata Royle
1888. Elodea verticillata F.Muell.
Hydrilla,
Florida elodea,
Waterthyme,
Water-thyme,
Esthwaite waterweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia, Africa,
 Australia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 91%[1],
NYS Tier 2[2],
Discovered 2008.[3]
NYFA: Orange, Westchester

iMap: ≥ 12 counties
NYFA: X1

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Vallisneria[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Hydrocharitaceae — Najadoideae — Vallisnerieae
Genus Vallisneria Eelgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Eel-grass,
Tape-grass,
Water-celery,
Wild-celery
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Family Scheuchzeriaceae[edit | edit source]

The monotypic Scheuchzeriaceae (scheuchzeria family)

Scheuchzeria[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Scheuchzeriaceae — Scheuchzeria
Genus Scheuchzeria Rannoch-rush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

    S. americana (Fernald) G.N.Jones
    S. palustrisvar. americana Fernald
American scheuchzeria,
Rannoch-rush
Native,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3

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Family Juncaginaceae[edit | edit source]

The Juncaginaceae (arrowgrass family)

Triglochin[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Juncaginaceae — Triglochin
Genus Triglochin Arrowgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Seaside arrowgrass Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 L.

Slender bog arrow-grass Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2

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Family Ruppiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Ruppiaceae (ditch-grass family)

Ruppia[edit | edit source]

Ruppia maritima
ditch-grass

Alismatales — Ruppiaceae — Ruppia
Genus Ruppia Widgeonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ruppia maritima L.
1915. Buccaferrea maritima Lunell
Ditch-grass,
Beaked ditchgrass,
Widgeongrass,
Sea ditchgrass,
Tassel pondweed
Ruppie maritime,
Persil d'eau
Native,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3-4

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Family Zosteraceae[edit | edit source]

The Zosteraceae (eelgrass family)

Zostera[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Zosteraceae — Zostera
Genus Zostera Eelgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

Zostera pacifica L.
Eelgrass,
Seawrack,
Zostére marine
Native,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3

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Family Potamogetonaceae[edit | edit source]

The Potamogetonaceae (pond-weed family)

Tribe Potamogetoneae[edit | edit source]

Potamogeton[edit | edit source]

The Potamogeton (pondweed) subdivisions used here are from Lindqvist et al. (2006).[1] Chromosome numbers are from Kaplan et al. (2013).[2]
Potamogeton clade 1A[edit | edit source]
Potamogeton crispus
curly-leaved pondweed

Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Potamogeton — clade 1A
Genus Potamogetonclade 1A Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Oakes

Robbins' pondweed,
Flat-leaved pondweed,
Fern pondweed
Potamot de Robbins
Native,
Secure,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Potamogeton crispus  L.
Curly pondweed,
Curled pondweed
Potamot crepu
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
 Australia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 80%[1],
NE-1[2] Note[3],
2n = 52

NYFA: X

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPotamogeton crispus: Very high (80).
  2. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  3. The exotic invasive Potamogeton crispus is easily recognized by being the only species in North America with serrate leaves (Flora of North America).
Potamogeton clade 1B[edit | edit source]
Potamogeton natans

Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Potamogeton — clade 1B
Genus Potamogetonclade 1B Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

    
    
    
Floating pondweed,
Floating-leaved pondweed
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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 Poir.

1816. Potamogeton nodosus Poir.
1848. P. lonchites Tuck.
1893. P. americanus  var. novaeboracensis  (Morong) A. Benn. ex Fassett
1893. P. lonchites  var. novaeboracensis  Morong
Long-leaved pondweed Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. P. perfoliatus L.
    
    
Claspingleaf pondweed,
Clasping-leaved pondweed,
Clasped pondweed,
Perfoliate pondweed
Potamot perfolié
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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(A.Benn.) Rydb.

1889. P. perfoliatus  var. richardsonii  A.Benn.
1905. P. richardsonii Rydb.
1941. P. perfoliatus  ssp. richardsonii  Hultén
Richardson's pondweed Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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Tuck. (1848)

    
    
    
Largeleaf pondweed,
Large-leaved pondweed,
Broad-leaved pondweed
Potamot à grandes feuilles
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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J.W.Robbins

    
    
    
Oakes' pondweed Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Chro. # unk.

NYFA: 5

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Wulfen

    
    
    
Whitestem pondweed,
White-stemmed pondweed
Potamot à longs pédoncules
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 5

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 L.

    
    
    
Grassy pondweed Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
n = 26

NYFA: 5

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Illinois pondweed Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 104

NYFA: 5

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(J.W. Robbins) Morong (pro sp.)

Potamogeton gramineus ×
Potamogeton illinoensis

    
    
    
Hybrid pondweed Native,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 78

NYFA: 3?

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Potamogeton gramineus ×
Potamogeton perfoliatus

    
    
    
Hybrid pondweed Native,
Vulnerable

OBL

?,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 3?

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Hagstr.

Potamogeton illinoensis ×
Potamogeton perfoliatus

    
    
    
Hybrid pondweed Native,
Unranked

OBL

?,
Herb-forb

NYFA: U

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 Balbis

    
    
    
Alpine pondweed,
Northern pondweed,
Red pondweed
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 52

NYFA: 2

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 Tuck.

    
    
    
Spotted pondweed Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
chr. # unk.

NYFA: 2

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Genus Potamogetonclade 1B (excluded species) Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    
    
    
Shining pondweed Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded

OBL,
2n = 52

NYFA-Excluded

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Potamogeton gramineus ×
Potamogeton lucens

    
    
    
Long-leaved pondweed Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded

OBL,
2n = 52

NYFA-Excluded

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Potamogeton clade 2A[edit | edit source]
Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Potamogeton — clade 2A
Genus Potamogetonclade 2A Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1808. Potamogeton epihydrus Raf.
1827. P. nuttallii Cham. & Schltdl.
1894. P. nuttallii  var. ramosus  Peck
1924. P. epihydrus  var. ramosus  (Peck) House
1932. P. epihydrus  var. typicus  (Raf.) Fernald (i)
1932. P. epihydrus  var. nuttallii  (Cham. & Schltdl.) Fernald
1965. P. epihydrus  ssp. nuttallii  (Cham. & Schltdl.) Calder & Roy L.Taylor
Ribbon-leaved pondweed,
Nuttall's pondweed
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 26

NYFA: 5

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Potamogeton clade 2B[edit | edit source]
Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Potamogeton — clade 2B
Genus Potamogetonclade 2B Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Tuck.

1817. P. dimorphus Raf.
1848. P. spirillus Tuck.
Spiral pondweed,
Northern snailseed pondweed
Potamot spirille
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 28

NYFA: 5

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Fernald

1893. P. diversifolius
var. trichophyllus Morong
1932. P. bicupulatus Fernald
Snailseed pondweed,
Snail-seeded pondweed
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Rchb.

1845. P. confervoides Rchb.
    P. tuckermanii
Algae-like pondweed,
Alga pondweed,
Tuckerman’s pondweed
Potamot confervoïde
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3

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Raf. (1808)

    P. capillaceus Poir.
    P. dimorphus Raf.
Water-thread pondweed Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 28

NYFA: 1

USDA-N0
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Potamogeton clade 2C[edit | edit source]
Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Potamogeton — clade 2C
Genus Potamogetonclade 2C Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.
 ssp. foliosus

Leafy pondweed Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

Small pondweed Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Fieber

    Potamogeton berchtoldii  Fieber
    Potamogeton pusillus  var. tenuissimus  Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
    Potamogeton pusillus  ssp. tenuissimus  (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Haynes & C.B.Hellquist
Berchtold’s pondweed Native, CoC: 2,
Secure,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 J.W.Robbins

1867. Potamogeton vaseyi J.W.Robbins
Vasey's pondweed Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Fernald

 auct. Potamogeton compressus non L.
Flat-stemmed pondweed,
Flatstem pondweed
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Fries' pondweed Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4?

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Mert. & W.D.J. Koch

Blunt-leaved pondweed Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 Morong

Hill's pondweed Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2

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Hellquist & Hilton

Ogden's pondweed Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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 Benn.

 auct. P. rutilusnon Wolfg.
Straight-leaved pondweed,
Narrowleaf pondweed
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Hellquist & Crow

Potamogeton strictifolius ×
Potamogeton zosteriformis

Hybrid pondweed Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

USDA-NN
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Genus Potamogetonclade 2C (excluded species) Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1753. P. compressus L.
Grass-wrack pondweed,
Flatstem pondweed,
Eelgrass pondweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Kew WCSP
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Wolfg.

1827. P. rutilus Wolfg.
Shetland pondweed Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Kew WCSP
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Stuckenia[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Stuckenia
Genus Stuckenia Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Börner

    Potamogeton pectinatus L.
    Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Börner
    Coleogeton pectinatum (L.) Les & R.R.Haynes
Sago pondweed Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
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 (Pers.) Börner

    
    
    
Thread-leaved pondweed,
Fineleaf pondweed
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

USDA-NN
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Genus Stuckenia (excluded species) Pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Turcz.) Holub

1854. Potamogeton vaginatus Turcz.
1984. Stuckenia vaginata (Turcz.) Holub
Sheathed pondweed,
Big sheathed pondweed,
Large sheathed pondweed
Potamot engainé
N. America native,
Endangered

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
FNA
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Tribe Zannichellieae[edit | edit source]

Zannichellia[edit | edit source]

Alismatales — Potamogetonaceae — Zannichellia
Genus Zannichellia Horned pondweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Zannichellia palustris L.
Horned pondweed Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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