Flora of New York/Fagales

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Cucurbitales
Flora of New York — Fagales
Geraniales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Fagales is part of the nitrogen-fixing clade:

[ Fabales [ Rosales [ Cucurbitales + Fagales ] ] ]

Fagales includes the families:

  • Fagaceae or beech (oak, chestnut, and beech),
  • Myricaceae or bayberry (sweet-fern and bayberry),
  • Juglandaceae or walnut (walnut and hickory), and
  • Betulaceae or birch (alder, birch, hornbeam, and hazlenut).

These plants primary take the form of trees. They have also been placed in the Juglandales.

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Fagales Fagaceae Quercoideae Querceae Quercus oak white oak 15
red oak 16
Castaneeae Castanea chestnut 4
Fagoideae Fagus beech 2
Myricaceae Myriceae Comptonia sweetfern 1
Myrica sweetgale 1
Morella bayberry 2
Juglandaceae Juglandoideae Juglandeae Juglans walnut, butternut 3
Caryeae Carya hickory 8
Betulaceae Betuloideae Alnus alder 5
Betula birch 15
Coryloideae Carpineae Carpinus hornbeam 3
Ostrya hop hornbean 1
Coryleae Corylus hazelnut 3

Family Fagaceae[edit]

The Fagaceae (beech family) ...[1][2]

  1. Fagaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Paul S. Manos, Zhe-Kun Zhou, and Charles H. Cannon (2001). "Systematics of Fagaceae: Phylogenic Test of Reproductive Trait Evolution". International Journal of Plant Sciences 162(6): 1361–1379. http://www.ecologicalevolution.org/content/pdf/manos01.pdf. 

Subfamily Quercoideae[edit]

The Quercoideae, as organized here, incldes the oaks and the chestnuts.

Tribe Querceae[edit]

Genus Quercus[edit]

The genus Quercus contains the oaks, which comprise about 30 taxa of trees and shrubs in New York. Two sections of oaks in the subgenus Quercus are found in the state: sect. Quercus (white oaks) and sect. Lobate (red oaks). They commonly hybridized only within their own section. [1]

Quercus sect. Quercus[edit]

The Quercus section Quercus contains the white-oak group, most members of which have leaves with rounded lobes. White oaks produce acorns that mature in a single season and are relatively sweet.

Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus — subg. Quercus — sect. Quercus
Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 L.

1753. Quercus alba L.
White oak,
Eastern white oak,
Stave oak
Chêne blanc
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade
White oak foliage.JPG
Quercus alba NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
 Willd.

1783. Q. prinus var. platanoides
1801. Q. bicolor Willd.
1842. Q. prinus var. bicolor
1864. Q. bicolor var. platanoides
1886. Q. discolor var. bicolor
1892. Q. platanoides (Lam.) Sudw.
Swamp white oak
Chêne bicolore,
Chêne bleu
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus bicolor 002.jpg
Quercus bicolor NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Willd.

1753. Q. prinus L. (i)
1805. Q. montana Willd.
Chestnut oak,
Mountain chestnut oak,
Rock chestnut oak
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus montana Mount Logan.jpg
Quercus montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Willd.

1801. Q. prinoides Willd.
Dwarf chinquapin oak,
Scrub chestnut oak
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Quercus prinoides leaves.jpg
Quercus prinoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Michx.

1801. Q. macrocarpa Michx.
1812. Q. olivaeformis F.Michx.
1876. Q. macrocarpa var. depressa
1931. Q. mandanensis Rydb.
Bur oak,
Burr oak,
Mossy-cup oak,
Blue oak
Chêne à gros fruits
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak.jpg
Quercus macrocarpa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Engelm.

1803. Q. prinus var. acuminata
1877. Q. muehlenbergii Engelm.
1884. Q. rubra var. muehlenbergii
1895. Q. acuminata Sarg. (i)
1901. Q. brayi Small
Chinkapin oak,
Chinquapin oak,
Yellow chestnut oak
Chêne jaune,
Chêne de Mühlenberg
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
2500-Quercus muehlenbergii-Arb.Brno-8.12.JPG
Quercus muehlenbergii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Wangenh.

1787. Q. stellata Wangenh.
1803. Q. obtusiloba Michx.
1918. Q. minor (Marshall) Sarg.
1918. Q. stellata var. attenuata
1918. Q. stellata var. parviloba
Post oak
Chêne étoilé,
Chêne à étoilé
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 9,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus stellata tree.jpg
Quercus stellata nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Q. robur L.
1790. Q. pedunculata Ehrh.
English oak,
Pedunculate oak,
European oak
Chêne pédonculé
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Cultivated,
Rarely naturalizes

Perennial,
Tree
Acorns at Kiltonga - geograph.org.uk - 917933.jpg
Quercus robur nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 




Images, wsp
Quercussect. Quercus (excluded taxa) White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
Nutt.

1818. Q. michauxii Nutt.
Swamp chestnut oak,
Basket oak,
Cow oak
N. America native
 southeastern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
QuercusMichauxiiLeaf.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
(Ashe) Small

1894. Q. minor var. margarettae
1903. Q. margaretta (Ashe) Small
1913. Q. stellata var. margarettae
1983. Q. stellata ssp. margarettae
Sand post oak,
Runner oak,
Dwarf post oak
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Quercus sect. Quercus hybrids[edit]

These are the naturally-occurring white oak hybrids found in New York State.

Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus — subg. Quercus — sect. Quercus
Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus montana

Saul's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 chestnut oak
N.Y. native,
Vulnerable
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × saulii nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS




Images, wsp
 Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus bicolor

Jack's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 swamp-white oak
Chêne de Jack
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × jackiana nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
NEW Can





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus prinoides

Faxon's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 dwarf chinkapin oak
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × faxonii nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
NEW 





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus stellata

Fernow's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 post oak
N.Y. native,
Endangered,
Impersistent
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
NEW 





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus bicolor ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Quercus × hillii Trel.
Schuette's oak,
Hybrid of
 swamp white oak &
 burr oak
Chêne de Schuette
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can





Images, wsp
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Bebb's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 burr oak
Chêne de Bebb
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus macrocarpa ×
Quercus muehlenbergii[1]

1917. Quercus × deamii Trel.
1948. Quercus × fallax E.J.Palmer
Deam's oak,
Hybrid of
 burr oak &
 chinkapin oak
Chêne de Deam
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
  1. Trelease (1924) considered Q.× deamii to be Q.alba × Q.muehlenbergii. Bartlett (1951) showed that Q.macrocarpa × Q.muehlenbergii were more likely to have been the real parents of Q.× deamii. Meanwhile E.J.Palmer (1948) published the name Q.× fallax for oaks with that parentage. So now Q.× fallax is considered to be a synonym of Q.× deamii.
Quercus sect. Lobatae[edit]

The Quercus section Lobatae contains the red/black-oak group, most members of which have leaves with pointed or spiny lobes. Red oaks produce acorns that require two seasons to mature and are relatively bitter.

Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus — subg. Quercus — sect. Lobatae
Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 L.

1753. Quercus rubra L.
Red oak,
Northern red oak
Chêne rouge
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - part shade
Quercus rubra 2008 07 06 (1).JPG
Quercus rubra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Wangenh.

1785. Quercus rubra var. nana Marshall
1787. Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh.
1895. Quercus nana (Marshall) Sarg. (i)
Scrub oak,
Bear oak
Chêne à feuilles de houx,
Chêne de Banister
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure



Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Quercusilicifolia.jpg
Quercus ilicifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Lam.

1785. Quercus velutina Lam.
1908. Q. velutina var. missouriensis
1917. Quercus missouriensis Ashe
Black oak N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure



Perennial,
Tree
Quercus velutina 002.jpg
Quercus velutina NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Münchh.

1770. Quercus coccinea Münchh.
1789. Quercus rubra var. coccinea
1918. Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata
Scarlet oak N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun
Quercus coccinea2.jpg
Quercus coccinea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Münchh.

1770. Quercus palustris Münchh.
Pin oak N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus palustris Smithfield RI.jpg
Quercus palustris nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
 Münchh.
var. marilandica

1753. Quercus nigra var. marilandica
1770. Quercus marilandica Münchh.
Blackjack oak N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Rare



Perennial,
Tree
Quercus marilandica Shawnee National Forest 3.jpg
Quercus marilandica var marilandica nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Quercus phellos L.
Willow oak N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Endangered

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus phellos 5424061.jpg
Quercus phellos nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
 Buckley

1860. Quercus shumardii Buckley
Shumard('s) oak,
Shumard red oak,
Southern red oak,
Swamp red oak
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Endangered

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Shumard oak leaves.JPG
Quercus shumardii nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS


LBJ

Images, wsp
 Michx.

1801. Quercus imbricaria Michx.
1842. Quercus phellos var. imbricaria
1936. Erythrobalanus imbricaria
(Michx.) O.Schwarz
Shingle oak,
Laurel oak
Introduced from
 midwestern US,
Midwest native,
Not naturalized

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus imbricaria UGA1480398.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Quercussect. Lobatae (excluded taxa) Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
Michx.

1801. Quercus falcata Michx.
Southern red oak,
Spanish oak
N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
Quercus falcata leaf bark.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0


FNA Trop.


BBG 
Images, wsp
Note: [1]
Raf.

1824. Q. falcata var. pagodifolia
1838. Q. pagoda Raf.
1896. Q. pagodifolia (Elliott) Ashe
1917. Q. rubra var. leucophylla
1918. Q. rubra var. pagodifolia
1935. Q. falcata var. leucophylla
Cherrybark oak,
Cherry-bark oak
N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
Handbook of the trees of the northern states and Canada east of the Rocky mountains. Photo-descriptive (1907) (14781861421).jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Quercus sect. Lobatae hybrids[edit]

These are the naturally-occurring red oak hybrids found in New York State.

Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus — subg. Quercus — sect. Lobatae
Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak hybrids N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 Sarg.

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus velutina

Bush's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 black oak
N.Y. native,
Threatened,
Impersistent
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × bushii nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
W.T. Davis (pro sp.)

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus marilandica

Britton's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 blackjack oak
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?






Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus velutina

Rehder's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 black oak
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Sudw.

Quercus rubra ×
Quercus velutina

    Quercus × hawkinsi Sudw.
    Quercus × hawkinsii Sudw.
    Quercus × porteri Trelease illeg.
Hawkins' oak,
Hybrid of
 red oak &
 black oak
Chêne de Hawkins
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
 Britton (pro sp.)

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus phellos

Quercus × dubia Ashe
Rudkin's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 willow oak
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg


ITIS




Images, wsp
 Little

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus velutina

Varileaf oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 black oak
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Michx.f.

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus rubra

Quercus × hollickii Schneid.
Variable-leaved oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 red oak
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
Quercus sect. Cerris[edit]

The potentially invasive Asian sawtooth oak has not been listed as naturalized in New York, but it is distributed as a "conservation" tree in the state, and has been listed as naturalized in Pennsylvania.

Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus — subg. Quercus — sect. Cerris
Quercussect. Cerris Turkish oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
Carruth.

    
    
    
Sawtooth oak
Sawhorn oak

Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized,
NPS IPA
Quercus acutissima BW-1237024.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-X0

ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp

Tribe Castaneeae[edit]

Genus Castanea[edit]

Native American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata) were a major component of many New York forests until the introduction of the exotic chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) in the late 19th century. Mature American chestnuts are now rare, but stump sprouts are keeping the chestnut genome alive.

Fagales — Fagaceae — Castanoideae — Castanea
Castanea Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
(Marsh.) Borkh.

1785. Fagus dentata Marshall (i)
1800. C. dentata (Marshall) Borkh.
1803. C. vesca var. americana
1817. C. americana (Michx.) Raf.
American chestnut,
Chestnut
Châtaignier d'Amérique
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 6,
Likely secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Castanea dentata 3152.jpg
Castanea dentata nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: [1]
 (L.) Mill.

1768. Fagus pumila L.
1768. Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.
1818. Castanea alnifolia Nutt
Chinquapin
Chinkapin
Dwarf chestnut
Allegheny chinquapin
N. America native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Unranked

UPL
NAS-105 Castanea pumila.png
Castanea pumila nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 

FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Siebold & Zucc.

    
    
    
Japanese chestnut
Korean chestnut

Introduced,
Unk. naturalization
Castanea crenata3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0





BBG 
Images, wsp
 Mill.

    Castanea vesca
    Castanea vulgaris
European chestnut Introduced from
 Europe,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Castanea sativa - Sweet chestnut, Giresun 2016 01-4.jpg
Castanea sativa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 





Images, wsp
Castanea (excluded taxa) Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
Blume

    
    
    
Chinese chestnut

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Castanea mollissima 1.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0
NEW 





Images, wsp
  1. Castanea dentata status is misleading because although the species is not rare and will likely persist, chestnut blight prevents the trees from maturing. Most grow from root suckers.

Subfamily Fagoideae[edit]

Genus Fagus[edit]

The American beech, Fagus grandifolia, is a widespread hardwood tree in New York, and historically associated with Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in beech-maple climax forests. The American beech, however, is susceptible to beech bark disease, which is now common in New York. The disease is made possible by the non-native beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which pierces the bark to feed on the sap. The resulting holes allow Nectria fungus spores to enter. Eventually the exotic fungus kills portions of inner bark and induces cankers that often girdle and kill the tree.[1] Given these facts, the "secure" status for American beech may be counter-intuitive, but the loss of larger infected trees increases the number of root suckers and stump sprouts, causing dense beech thickets, which have little benefit for wildlife or timber harvesters. So, as with other disease-prone trees such as American elm and American chestnut, the threat of extirpation is low, even though the health of the existing population remains poor. In fact, foresters in New York often consider the American beech to be a native invasive or interfering species and treat beech tree stumps with glyphosate immediately after cutting to prevent such resprouts.[2]

Fagales — Fagaceae — Fagoideae — Fagus
Fagus Beech N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Ehrh.

Fagus americana
American beech N.Y. native,
Secure
Fagus grandifolia beech leaves close.jpg
Fagus grandifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

European beech Introduced
Fagus Sylvatica, flowering.jpg
Fagus sylvatica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Family Myricaceae[edit]

The Myricaceae Blume 1829 (bayberry family) contains the bayberry, sweetgale, and sweet-fern species.[1]

  1. Myricaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe Myriceae[edit]

Robert L. Wilbur (1994) recommended splitting Myrica (bayberry and sweetgale), moving most of the bayberry species to Morella and leaving sweetgale in Myrica. He also expressed doubt about whether the two eastern North American bayberry species, M. pensylvanica and M. caroliniensis, were distinct enough to be considered separate species.[1]. In 2002, Wilbur made the recommendation that the two eastern North American bayberry species should be treated as a single species, Morella caroliniensis.[2]

Genus Comptonia[edit]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Comptonia
ComptoniaL’Hér. 1789 Sweet-fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) J.M.Coult.

1753. Liquidambar peregrina L.
1753. Myrica aspleniifolia L.
1763. Liquidambar aspleniifolia (L.) L.
1789. Comptonia aspleniifolia (L.) L’Hér.
1891. Myrica peregrina (L.) Kuntze
1894. Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M.Coult.
Sweet fern,
Fern gale
Comptonie voyageuse,
Comptonie à
  feuilles d'asplénie
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub
Comptonia peregrina 5487709.jpg
Comptonia peregrina nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

Genus Myrica[edit]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Myrica
MyricaL. 1754 Sweetgale N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Myrica gale L.
1889. Gale palustris Chev.
Sweet bayberry,
Bog-myrtle,
Sweet gale,
Meadow-fern
Myrique baumier,
Bois-sent-bon
N.Y. native,
Secure,
Circumoreal

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub
Gagelstrauch(Myrica gale)female.JPG
Myrica gale nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp

Genus Morella[edit]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Morella
MorellaLour. 1790 Bayberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Mirb.) Kartesz

1804. Myrica pensylvanica Mirb.
1919. Myrica macfarlanei Youngken
1937. Cerothamnus pensylvanicus Moldenke
1999. Morella pensylvanica Kartesz
[1]
Northern bayberry,
Candleberry, Waxberry,
Tallow bayberry,
Tallowshrub,
Swamp candleberry,
Candlewood
Cirier de Pennsylvanie,
Myrique de Pennsylvanie
N.Y. native,
Likely secure
Morella pensylvanica 1480305.jpg
Morella pensylvanica nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
 (Mill.) Small

1768. Myrica caroliniensis Mill.
1838. Myrica heterophylla Raf.
1903. Morella caroliniensis Small
1910. Cerothamnus caroliniensis Tidestr.
Southern bayberry,
Evergreen bayberry,
Wax-myrtle,
Small bayberry
N.Y. native,
Likely secure
Evergreen-Bayberry.gif
Morella pensylvanica nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
  1. NYFA lists Morella pensylvanica as Morella caroliniensis (Mill.) Small, with Myrica pensylvanica as a synonym. However, the other sources listed here (except for Flora Novae Angliae @Go Botany) do not treat northern and southern bayberry as the same species. Flora of North America lists southern bayberry as Myrica heterophylla, and after discussing differences between northern and southern bayberry, states "Whether these differences are sufficient to warrant the recognition of distinct species is yet to be satisfactorily resolved."

Family Juglandaceae[edit]

The New York members of the Juglandaceae (walnut family) include about ten reported native walnut and hickory species, and a single non-native walnut species. [1] These trees are valuable both for their timber and nut production.

  1. Juglandaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Juglandoideae[edit]

Both of the New York Juglandaceae tribes are placed in the Juglandoideae. Their fruits are similar in that they are composed of a nut surrounded by a fleshy outer covering so that they somewhat resemble a drupe such as a peach or plum.

Tribe Juglandeae[edit]

The Juglandeae in New York consist of the relatively common native black walnut and butternut (or white walnut) trees.

Genus Juglans[edit]

Black walnut (Juglans nigra) may not be native to all parts of New York. It was once a dominant tree in the midwest and southeast, and was probably cultivated by Native Americans in parts of the state where it didn't occur naturally.

Most butternut (Juglans cinerea) trees in the state appear to have been infected by the butternut canker (the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) . Some naturalized "English" and possibly "Japanese" walnut trees have also been found in the southeastern part of the state.

Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Juglandeae — Juglans
Juglanssect. Rhysocaryon Black walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Juglans nigra L.
1861. Wallia nigra (L.) Alef.
Black walnut,
American walnut
Noyer noir,
Noyer noir d'Amérique
N.Y. native,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Black Walnut nut and leave detail.JPG
Juglans nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Juglanssect. Trachycaryon White walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1759. Juglans cinerea L.
1861. Wallia cinerea (L.) Alef.
Butternut,
White walnut
Noyer cendré,
Arbre à noix longues,
Noix tendre
N.Y. native,
Likely secure

FACU
Juglans cinerea 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Juglanssect. Cardiocaryon Asian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Carrière

1872. Juglans sieboldiana Maxim.
1878. Juglans ailantifolia Carrière
Japanese walnut,
Siebold walnut,
Onigurumi,
Heartnut
Noyer du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
No specimens
Juglans ailantifolia var. allantifolia ÖBG 09-07-16 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-X
NEW Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Juglans Hybrid walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Rehder

Juglans ailantifolia ×
Juglans cinerea

1921. Juglans × bixbyi Rehder
Bixby's walnut,
Buart,
Buartnut,
Hybrid of
 butternut &
 Japanese walnut
Introduced,
No specimens
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-X0
NEW 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Juglanssect. Juglans Eurasian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Juglans regia L.
1906. Juglans duclouxiana Dode
1906. Juglans falax Dode
1906. Juglans sinensis (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans kamaonica (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans orientis Dode
English walnut,
Persian walnut,
Common walnut,
Black sea walnut,
Madeira-nut
Noyer commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
Noyer (1).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Tribe Caryeae[edit]

Genus Carya[edit]

North American hickories (Carya) are often divided into two groups: the true hickories (sect. Carya) and the pecan hickories (sect. Apocarya).

Carya sect. Apocarya[edit]

Section Apocarya contains the pecan hickories, including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), water hickory (C. aquatica), and nutmeg hickory (C. myristiciformis). The wood of the trees in this section is generally considered to be a bit less dense and softer than that of the true hickories.[1] The only member of sect. Apocarya found in New York is bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis).

Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Caryeae — Apocarya
Caryasect. Apocarya Pecan hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
(Wangenh.) K. Koch (1869)

1787. Juglans cordiformis
1869. Carya cordiformis
    Hicoria cordiformis
    Hicoria minima
Bitternut hickory,
Swamp hickory
Caryer cordiforme,
Caryer amer
N.Y. native,
Secure
Carya cordiformis.jpg
Carya cordiformis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Carya sect. Carya[edit]

Section Carya contains the true hickories.

Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Caryeae — Carya
Caryasect. Carya True hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 (Mill.) K.Koch

1768. Juglans ovata Miller
1869. Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch
    Hicoria alba p.p.'
1888. Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britton
Shagbark hickory,
Shellbark hickory,
Upland hickory
Caryer ovale
N.Y. native,
Secure

FACU
Carya ovata (8745432604).jpg
Carya ovata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 (Mill.) Sweet

Juglans glabraJuglans pyriformis
Pignut hickory,
Sweet pignut
N.Y. native,
Secure
Carya glabra seedling.jpg
Carya glabra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Wangenh.) Sarg.
= Carya glabra

1787. Juglans ovalis Wangenh.
1913. Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg.
1969. Carya glabra var. odorata
Red hickory,
False shagbark,
Small pignut
N.Y. native,
Secure
RedHickoryBark.jpg
Carya ovalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: [1]
 (Poir.) Nutt.

1753. Juglans alba L. p.p.
1798. Juglans tomentosa Poir. in Lam.
1818. Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt.
1818. Carya alba (L.) Nutt
1838. Hicoria tomentosa (Lam.) Raf.
1869. Carya alba (L.) K. Koch
1888. Hicorius alba Britton
Mockernut hickory,
Big-bud hickory,
White-heart hickory,
White hickory,
Square-nut hickory
N.Y. native,
Secure
Carya tomentosa (8745432970) 4x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: [2]
 (Michx. f.) G. Don

Hicoria laciniosa
Shellbark hickory,
Kingnut,
Big shellbark hickory,
Shagbark hickory
N.Y. native,
Threatened
Carya laciniosa NRCS-001-4x3.jpg
Carya laciniosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Sarg.

Carya laciniosa ×
Carya ovata

1922. Carya × dunbarii Sarg.
Dunbar's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Shellbark hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
N.Y. native,
Unranked

Perennial,
Tree
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. ITIS and FNA list Carya ovalis as a synonym of Carya glabra. Other sources listed here treat them as separate accepted species names.
  2. NYFA and NRCS list Carya tomentosa as Carya alba. ARS, ITIS, and FNA all list the accepted species name as Carya tomentosa.
Carya sect. Apocaria × Carya[edit]
Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Caryeae — Carya
Caryasect. Apocaria × Carya Hickory N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 Sarg.

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya ovata

1913. Carya × Laneyi Sarg.
Laney's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya laciniosa

Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shellbark hickory
N.Y. native,
No reports
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D






Images, wsp

Family Betulaceae[edit]

The Betulaceae (birch family) contains the alder, birch, hornbeam, hop-hornbeam, and hazelnut trees.[1]

  1. Betulaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Betuloideae[edit]

Genus Alnus[edit]

The genus Alnus contains trees generally referred to as alders.

Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Alnus
Alnus Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 (L.) Moench
ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T.Clausen

1771. Betula alnus var. rugosa Du Roi
1784. Betula rugosa (Du Roi) Ehrh.
1826. Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.
1861. Alnus incana var. americana
1945. Alnus rugosa var. americana
1949. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
1955. Alnus americana (Regel) Czerep.
Speckled alder,
Tag alder,
Swamp alder
Aulne blanchâtre
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 5,
Secure

FACW-FACU

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus incana subsp rugosa kz2.jpg
Alnus incana ssp rugosa nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Aiton) Willd.

1789. Betula serrulata Aiton
1805. Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd.
1904. Alnus noveboracensis Britton
1945. Alnus serrulata var. subelliptica
1967. Alnus incana var. serrulata
 auct. Alnus rubra non (DuRoi) Spreng
Smooth alder,
Hazel alder,
Brookside alder,
Brook-side alder
Aulne tendre,
Aulne blanc,
Aulne serrulé
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus serrulata leaves.jpg
Alnus serrulata nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Chaix) DC.
ssp. crispa (Aiton) Turrill

1789. Betula crispa Aiton
1813. Alnus crispa (Aiton) Pursh
1904. Alnus alnobetula var. crispa
1962. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa
Green alder,
Mountain alder,
American green alder
Aulne vert crispé,
Aulne crispé,
Aulne tardif
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 9,
Vulnerable

FAC

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus viridis crispa leaves.jpg
Alnus viridis ssp crispa nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Callier

Alnus incana ssp. rungosa ×
Alnus serrulata

1911. Alnus × fallacina Callier
Deceptive alder,
Hybrid of
 speckled alder &
 smooth alder
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Alnus × fallacina nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Betula alnus L.
1753. Betula alnus var. glutinosa L.
1757. Alnus vulgaris Hill
1790. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.
1913. Alnus alnus (L.) Britton nom. illeg.
European alder,
Black alder,
European black alder
Aulne glutineux,
Aulne noir
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n. Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 64%[1],
CP-3[2]
Alnus glutinosa (Schwarzerle).jpg
Alnus glutinosa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Alnus (potential hybrids) Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata

Hybrid of
 European alder &
 smooth alder
Introduced,
No specimens
Ny hybrid.svg
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata nymap.svg

NEW 





Images, wsp
Alnus (excluded taxa) Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
(L.) Moench
ssp. incana

    
1794. Alnus incana (L.) Moench p.p.
Gray alder Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
Alnus incana Leaf.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-EXCLD

ARS 




Images, wsp

Genus Betula[edit]

Betula in New York consists of about nine native species of birch trees, at least two native hybrids, and a single non-native, naturalized species.

Betula subg. Betulenta[edit]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula — subg. Betulenta
BetulaL. 1753subg. Betulenta Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 Britton

1811. Betula lutea F.Michx. nom. illeg.
1904. Betula alleghaniensis Britton
1922. B. lutea var. macrolepis
1949. B. lutea var. alleghaniensis
1966. B. alleghaniensis var. fallax
1966. B. alleghaniensis var. macrolepis
Yellow birch
Bouleau jaune,
Bouleau des Alléghanys,
Merisier
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Betula alleghaniensis a1.jpg
Betula alleghaniensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Betula lenta L.
Sweet birch,
Black birch,
Cherry birch
Bouleau flexible,
Merisier rouge
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
BetulaLentaBark.jpg
Betula lenta nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Betula subg. Betula[edit]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula — subg. Betulenta
BetulaL. 1753subg. Betula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 Marshall

1785. Betula populifolia Marshall
Gray birch,
White birch,
Fire birch
Bouleau à
  feuilles de peuplier,
Bouleau gris
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 4,
Secure

Perennial,
Tree
Betula populifolia leaves.jpg
Betula populifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN


FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Marshall

1785. Betula papyrifera Marshall
1789. B. papyracea Aiton
1841. B. alba var. papyrifera
1919. B. papyrifera var. elobata
1945. B. papyrifera var. commutata
1945. B. papyrifera var. pensilis
Paper birch,
Canoe birch,
White birch
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 5,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Ecorce de bouleau.JPG
Betula papyrifera nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN


Trop.



Images, wsp
 Regel

1861. Betula cordifolia Regel
1901. B. papyrifera var. cordifolia
[1]
1902. B. alba var. cordifolia
1982. B. papyrifera ssp. cordifolia
Mountain paper birch,
Mountain white birch,
Heart-leaved birch,
Heart-leaved paper birch
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Betula cordifolia bark 4x3.jpg
Betula cordifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Can

FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Blanch. (pro sp.)

Betula cordifolia ×
Betula populifolia

1904. Betula caerulea-grandis
Blanch.
1904. Betula caerulea Blanch.
Blue birch,
Hybrid of
 Mountain paper birch &
 Gray birch
Bouleau bleu
N.Y. native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Betula × caerulea nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Note: [2]
 Roth

1788. Betula pendula Roth
1789. Betula alba var. pendula
1790. Betula verrucosa Ehrh.
    
Weeping birch,
Silver birch,
European white birch,
European weeping birch
Bouleau verruqueux,
Bouleau pendant,
Bouleau pleureur,
Bouleau blanc d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
 Canada & Alaska??,
Naturalized

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-070a Betula pendula.png
Betula pendula nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Betulasubg. Betula (excluded taxa) Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
L.

1753. Betula nana L.
Alpine birch,
Dwarf birch,
Arctic dwarf birch
N. America native
 Canada & Alaska,
N.Y. excluded
Betula nana upernavik kujalleq 2007-07-25 1.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD

ARS 




Images, wsp
 Ehrh.
ssp. pubescens

Betula alba
Downy birch Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Betual pubescens Blatt.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Sukaczev

Betula latifolia
Asian white birch Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Changbai Betula leafage.JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X






Images, wsp
  1. Betula cordifolia is often treated as a variety of Betula papyrifera. According to Flora of North America, "…perhaps it should be considered an ecological race of that species."
  2. Betula × caerulea (blue birch) is listed by NRCS as a cross between papyrifera & populifolia, but FNA agrees with NYFA in stating that it as more likey [cordifolia × populifolia]
Betula subg. Neurobetula[edit]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula — subg. Neurobetula
BetulaL. 1753subg. Neurobetula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 L.

1753. Betula nigra L.
1812. Betula rubra F.Michx.
River birch,
Red birch,
Black birch
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 8,
Rare

FACW

Perennial,
Tree
Betula nigra kz1.jpg
Betula nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0


FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Betula subg. Chamaebetula[edit]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula — subg. Chamaebetula
BetulaL. 1753subg. Chamaebetula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 L.

1767. Betula pumila L.
1902. B. hallii Howell
1909. B. glandulifera
(Regel) E. J. Butler
Bog birch,
Dwarf birch,
Low birch,
Swamp birch
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 9,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Betula pumila NRCS-4x3.jpg
Betula pumila nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
 Michx.

1803. Betula glandulosa Michx.
1911. B. exilis Sukaczev
    
Tundra dwarf birch,
Dwarf birch,
Resin birch
Bouleau glanduleux
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Betula glandulosa ÖBG 2012-05-28 01-4x3.jpg
Betula glandulosa nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Tuck.) Fernald

1843. Betula papyracea var. minor
1890. B. papyrifera var. minor
1902. B. alba var. minor
1945. B. minor Fernald
1966. B. pubescens ssp. minor
1976. B. saxophila Lepage
Dwarf white birch,
Dwarf birch
Bouleau mineur
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

Perennial,
Tree
Betula minor nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN


FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Betula inter-subgeneric hybrids[edit]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula
BetulaL. 1753 Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 Britton (pro sp.)

Betula papyrifera ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula sandbergii Britton
1957. Betula × neoborealis Lepage
Sandberg's birch,
Northern birch,
Hybrid of
 Paper birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Sandberg
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Betula × sandbergii BB-1913.png
Betula × sandbergii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
BetulaL. 1753 (excluded taxa) Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
 C.K.Schneid.

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula purpusii C.K.Schneid.
1904. Betula purpusii var. typica nom. inval.
Purpus' birch,
Hybrid of
 Yellow birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Purpus
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Betula × purpusii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 Lepage

Betula glandulosa ×
Betula minor

1952. Betula × dutillyi Lepage
Dutilly's birch,
Hybrid of
 Tundra dwarf birch &
 Dwarf white birch
Bouleau de Dutilly
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-0N
Can





Images, wsp
 Lepage

Betula populifolia ×
Betula pumila

1957. Betula × raymundii Lepage
Raymund's birch,
Hybrid of
 Gray birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Raymund
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-0N
Can

Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Betula alleghaniensis × papyrifera

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula papyrifera

Un-named,
Hybrid of
 Yellow brirch &
 Paper birch
N.Y. native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D






Images, wsp

Subfamily Coryloideae[edit]

The Coryloideae subfamily of the birch family generally includes the hornbeam (Carpineae) and hazel (Coryleae) tribes.

Tribe Carpineae[edit]

The Carpineae comprise the hornbeams (Carpinus) and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya). A single species of each is native to New York.

Genus Ostrya[edit]

The genus Ostyra is generally known as hop-hornbeam, or ironwood. Of the approximately nine Ostyra species worldwide, only the Eastern hop-hornbeam species is known to grow outside of cultivation in New York. Because of its small size, shade tolerance, low timber value, and high reproductive rate, hop-hornbeam is often considered to be an undesirable understory species in forests being used for commercial timber production.[1][2]

Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Carpineae — Ostrya
Ostrya Hop-hornbean N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Mill.) K.Koch

1768. Carpinus virginiana Mill.
1873. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch
Eastern hop-hornbeam,
Ironwood
Ostryer de Virginie,
Bois de fer
N.Y. native,
Secure
Eastern Hop Hornbeam catkins (2985499734).jpg
Ostrya virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
Genus Carpinus[edit]

The only species of hornbeam native in New York goes by the name American hornbeam, blue beech, or muscle-wood. It also goes by the name ironwood, but as that name is also commonly used for the related hop-hornbeam tree, perhaps it should be used for neither.

Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Carpineae — Carpinus
Carpinus Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Walter
ssp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow

1785. C. betulus var. virginiana
1893. C. virginiana Sudw.non Miller 1768
1935. C. caroliniana var. virginiana
1987. C. caroliniana ssp. virginiana
American hornbeam,
Blue beech,
Musclewood,
Muscle tree,
Ironwood
Charme de Virginie,
Bois de fer
N.Y. native,
Secure
Carpinus caroliniana.jpg
Carpinus caroliniana ssp virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
L.

1753. C. betulus L.
1940. C. caucasica Grossh.
European hornbeam Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unk. naturalization
Hainbuche.jpg
Carpinus betulus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
Carpinus (excluded taxa) Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
 Walter
ssp. caroliniana

1788. C. caroliniana Walter
1803. C. americana Michx.
American hornbeam,
Blue beech,
Musclewood,
Ironwood
Charme de Caroline
N. America native
 southern US,
N.Y. excluded
Carpinus caroliniana autumn leaf.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0


FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp

Tribe Coryleae[edit]

Genus Corylus[edit]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Coryleae
Corylus Hazelnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Marshall
ssp. cornuta

1785. Corylus cornuta Marshall
1789. Corylus rostrata Aiton
1940. C. cornuta var. megaphylla
Beaked hazelnut,
Beaked hazel,
Beaked filbert
Noisetier à long bec,
Coudrier à long bec
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade
Beaked hazelnut (Whitefish Island).JPG
Corylus cornuta ssp cornuta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 

IPN 

Images, wsp
 Walter

1788. Corylus americana Walter
1864. C. americana var. missouriensis
1916. C. americana var. altior
1935. C. americana var. indehiscens
American hazelnut,
American hazel,
American filbert
Noisetier d'Amérique
N.Y. native,
NYS CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - shade
Corylus americana 5474403.jpg
Corylus americana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Corylus avellana L.
European hazelnut,
European hazel,
Common filbert
Noisetier commun,
Coudrier,
Avelline
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
Corylus avellana - Botanischer Garten, Frankfurt am Main - DSC02598.JPG
Corylus avellana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp