Flora of New York/Fagales

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Cucurbitales
Flora of New York — Fagales
Geraniales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Fagales is part of the nitrogen-fixing clade:

[ Fabales [ Rosales [ Cucurbitales + Fagales ] ] ]

Fagales includes the families:

  • Fagaceae or beech (oak, chestnut, and beech),
  • Myricaceae or bayberry (sweet-fern and bayberry),
  • Juglandaceae or walnut (walnut and hickory), and
  • Betulaceae or birch (alder, birch, hornbeam, and hazlenut).

These plants primary take the form of trees. They have also been placed in the Juglandales.

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Fagales Fagaceae Quercoideae Querceae Quercus oak white oak 15
red oak 16
Castaneeae Castanea chestnut 4
Fagoideae Fagus beech 2
Myricaceae Myriceae Comptonia sweetfern 1
Myrica sweetgale 1
Morella bayberry 2
Juglandaceae Juglandoideae Juglandeae Juglans walnut, butternut 3
Caryeae Carya hickory 8
Betulaceae Betuloideae Alnus alder 5
Betula birch 15
Coryloideae Carpineae Carpinus hornbeam 3
Ostrya hop hornbean 1
Coryleae Corylus hazelnut 3

Family Fagaceae[edit]

The Fagaceae (beech family) ...[1][2]

  1. Fagaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Paul S. Manos, Zhe-Kun Zhou, and Charles H. Cannon (2001). "Systematics of Fagaceae: Phylogenic Test of Reproductive Trait Evolution". International Journal of Plant Sciences 162(6): 1361–1379. http://www.ecologicalevolution.org/content/pdf/manos01.pdf. 

Subfamily Quercoideae[edit]

The Quercoideae, as organized here, incldes the oaks and the chestnuts.

Tribe Querceae[edit]

Genus Quercus[edit]

The genus Quercus contains the oaks, which comprise about 30 taxa of trees and shrubs in New York. Two sections of oaks in the subgenus Quercus are found in the state: sect. Quercus (white oaks) and sect. Lobate (red oaks). They commonly hybridized only within their own section. [1]

Quercus sect. Quercus[edit]

The Quercus section Quercus contains the white-oak group, most members of which have leaves with rounded lobes. White oaks produce acorns that mature in a single season and are relatively sweet.

Fagales – fam. Fagaceae – subfam. Quercoideae – genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Quercus
Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 L.

1753. Quercus alba L.
White oak,
Eastern white oak,
Stave oak

Chêne blanc
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade
White oak foliage.JPG
Quercus alba NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
 Willd.

1783. Q, prinus var. platanoides Lam.
1801. Q, bicolor Willd.
1842. Q, prinus var. bicolor Spach
1864. Q, bicolor var. platanoides A.DC.
1886. Q, discolor var. bicolor Hampton
1892. Q, platanoides (Lam.) Sudw.
Swamp white oak

Chêne bicolore,
Chêne bleu
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus bicolor 002.jpg
Quercus bicolor NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Willd.

1753. Quercus prinus L. nom. utique. rej.
1805. Quercus montana Willd.
Chestnut oak,
Mountain chestnut oak,
Rock chestnut oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus montana Mount Logan.jpg
Quercus montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Willd.

1801. Quercus prinoides Willd.
    
    
Dwarf chinquapin oak,
Scrub chestnut oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Quercus prinoides leaves.jpg
Quercus prinoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Michx.

1801. Quercus macrocarpa Michx.
1812. Quercus olivaeformis F.Michx.
1876. Quercus macrocarpa
var. depressa (Nutt.) Engelm.
1931. Quercus mandanensis Rydb.
Bur oak,
Burr oak,
Mossy-cup oak,
Blue oak

Chêne à gros fruits
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

WL: FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak.jpg
Quercus macrocarpa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Engelm.

1803. Quercus prinus var. acuminata Michx.
1877. Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm.
1884. Quercus rubra
var. muehlenbergii (Engelm.) Wenz.
1895. Quercus acuminata Sarg. illeg.
1901. Quercus brayi Small
Chinkapin oak,
Chinquapin oak,
Yellow chestnut oak

Chêne jaune,
Chêne de Mühlenberg
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

WL: FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
2500-Quercus muehlenbergii-Arb.Brno-8.12.JPG
Quercus muehlenbergii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Wangenh.

1787. Quercus stellata Wangenh.
1803. Quercus obtusiloba Michx.
1918. Quercus minor (Marshall) Sarg.
1918. Quercus stellata var. attenuata
1918. Quercus stellata var. parviloba
Post oak

Chêne étoilé,
Chêne à étoilé
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

WL: FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus stellata tree.jpg
Quercus stellata nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Quercus robur L.
1790. Quercus pedunculata Ehrh.
English oak,
Pedunculate oak,
European oak

Chêne pédonculé
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Cultivated,
Rarely naturalizes

Perennial,
Tree
Acorns at Kiltonga - geograph.org.uk - 917933.jpg
Quercus robur nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 




Images, wsp
Quercus sect. Quercus hybrids[edit]

These are the naturally-occurring white oak hybrids found in New York State.

Fagales – fam. Fagaceae – subfam. Quercoideae – genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Quercus
Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus montana

Saul's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 chestnut oak
Native,
Vulnerable
Chess tile xx.svg
Quercus × saulii nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS




Images, wsp
 Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus bicolor

Jack's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 swamp-white oak

Chêne de Jack
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Quercus × jackiana nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
NEW Can





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus prinoides

Faxon's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 dwarf chinkapin oak
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Quercus × faxonii nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
NEW 





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus stellata

Fernow's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 post oak
Native,
Endangered,
Impersistent
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
NEW 





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus bicolor ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Quercus × hillii Trel.
Schuette's oak,
Hybrid of
 swamp white oak &
 burr oak

Chêne de Schuette
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can





Images, wsp
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Bebb's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 burr oak

Chêne de Bebb
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can





Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus macrocarpa ×
Quercus muehlenbergii[1]

1917. Quercus × deamii Trel.
1948. Quercus × fallax E.J.Palmer
Deam's oak,
Hybrid of
 burr oak &
 chinkapin oak

Chêne de Deam
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
  1. Trelease (1924) considered Q.× deamii to be Q.alba × Q.muehlenbergii. Bartlett (1951) showed that Q.macrocarpa × Q.muehlenbergii were more likely to have been the real parents of Q.× deamii. Meanwhile E.J.Palmer (1948) published the name Q.× fallax for oaks with that parentage. So now Q.× fallax is considered to be a synonym of Q.× deamii.
Quercus sect. Lobatae[edit]

The Quercus section Lobatae contains the red/black-oak group, most members of which have leaves with pointed or spiny lobes. Red oaks produce acorns that require two seasons to mature and are relatively bitter.

Fagales – fam. Fagaceae – subfam. Quercoideae – genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Lobatae
Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 L.

1753. Quercus rubra L.
Red oak,
Northern red oak

Chêne rouge
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - part shade
Quercus rubra 2008 07 06 (1).JPG
Quercus rubra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Wangenh.

1785. Quercus rubra var. nana Marshall
1787. Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh.
1895. Quercus nana (Marshall) Sarg. (i)
Scrub oak,
Bear oak

Chêne à feuilles de houx,
Chêne de Banister
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL:

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Quercusilicifolia.jpg
Quercus ilicifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Lam.

1785. Quercus velutina Lam.
1908. Q. velutina var. missouriensis
1917. Quercus missouriensis Ashe
Black oak Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL:

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus velutina 002.jpg
Quercus velutina NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Münchh.

1770. Quercus coccinea Münchh.
1789. Quercus rubra var. coccinea
1918. Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata
Scarlet oak Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: UPL

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun
Quercus coccinea2.jpg
Quercus coccinea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Münchh.

1770. Quercus palustris Münchh.
Pin oak Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

WL: FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus palustris Smithfield RI.jpg
Quercus palustris nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
 Münchh.
var. marilandica

1753. Quercus nigra var. marilandica
1770. Quercus marilandica Münchh.
Blackjack oak Native, CoC: 7,
Rare

WL:

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus marilandica Shawnee National Forest 3.jpg
Quercus marilandica var marilandica nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Quercus phellos L.
Willow oak Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

WL: FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus phellos 5424061.jpg
Quercus phellos nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
 Buckley

1860. Quercus shumardii Buckley
Shumard('s) oak,
Shumard red oak,
Southern red oak,
Swamp red oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

WL: FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Shumard oak leaves.JPG
Quercus shumardii nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS


LBJ

Images, wsp
 Michx.

1801. Quercus imbricaria Michx.
1842. Quercus phellos var. imbricaria
1936. Erythrobalanus imbricaria
(Michx.) O.Schwarz
Shingle oak,
Laurel oak
Introduced from
 midwestern US,
Midwest native,
Not naturalized

WL: FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Quercus imbricaria UGA1480398.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Quercus sect. Lobatae hybrids[edit]

These are the naturally-occurring red oak hybrids found in New York State.

Fagales – fam. Fagaceae – subfam. Quercoideae – genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Lobatae
Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak hybrids N.Y. Status Images Distribution 30
 Sarg.

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus velutina

Bush's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 black oak
Native,
Threatened,
Impersistent
Chess tile xx.svg
Quercus × bushii nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
W.T. Davis (pro sp.)

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus marilandica

Britton's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 blackjack oak
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?






Images, wsp
 Trel.

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus velutina

Rehder's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 black oak
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Sudw.

Quercus rubra ×
Quercus velutina

    Quercus × hawkinsi Sudw.
    Quercus × hawkinsii Sudw.
    Quercus × porteri Trelease illeg.
Hawkins' oak,
Hybrid of
 red oak &
 black oak

Chêne de Hawkins
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
 Britton (pro sp.)

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus phellos

Quercus × dubia Ashe
Rudkin's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 willow oak
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg


ITIS




Images, wsp
 Little

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus velutina

Varileaf oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 black oak
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Michx.f.

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus rubra

Quercus × hollickii Schneid.
Variable-leaved oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 red oak
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Tribe Castaneeae[edit]

Genus Castanea[edit]
Fagales – fam. Fagaceae – subfam. Castanoideae – genus Castanea
Castanea Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 (Marsh.) Borkh.

1785. Fagus dentata Marshall (i)
1800. C. dentata (Marshall) Borkh.
1803. C. vesca var. americana
1817. C. americana (Michx.) Raf.
American chestnut,
Chestnut

Châtaignier d'Amérique
Native,
Likely secure

WL: UPL
Castanea dentata 3152.jpg
Castanea dentata nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: [1]
 (L.) Mill.

1768. Fagus pumila L.
1768. Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.
1818. Castanea alnifolia Nutt
Chinquapin,
Chinkapin,
Dwarf chestnut,
Allegheny chinquapin
N. America native, CoC: 7,
Unranked

WL: UPL
NAS-105 Castanea pumila.png
Castanea pumila nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0


FNA 
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Blume

Chinese chestnut Introduced
Castanea mollissima 1.jpg
Castanea mollissima nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
 Mill.

    Castanea vesca
    Castanea vulgaris
European chestnut Introduced
Castanea sativa - Sweet chestnut, Giresun 2016 01-4.jpg
Castanea sativa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
  1. Castanea dentata status is misleading because although the species is not rare and will likely persist, chestnut blight prevents the trees from maturing. Most grow from root suckers.

Subfamily Fagoideae[edit]

Genus Fagus[edit]

The American beech, Fagus grandifolia, is a widespread hardwood tree in New York, and historically associated with Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in beech-maple climax forests. The American beech, however, is susceptible to beech bark disease, which is now common in New York. The disease is made possible by the non-native beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which pierces the bark to feed on the sap. The resulting holes allow Nectria fungus spores to enter. Eventually the exotic fungus kills portions of inner bark and induces cankers that often girdle and kill the tree.[1] Given these facts, the "secure" status for American beech may be counter-intuitive, but the loss of larger infected trees increases the number of root suckers and stump sprouts, causing dense beech thickets, which have little benefit for wildlife or timber harvesters. So, as with other disease-prone trees such as American elm and American chestnut, the threat of extirpation is low, even though the health of the existing population remains poor. In fact, foresters in New York often consider the American beech to be a native invasive or interfering species and treat beech tree stumps with glyphosate immediately after cutting to prevent such resprouts.[2]

Fagales – fam. Fagaceae – subfam. Fagoideae – genus Fagus
Fagus Beech N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Ehrh.

Fagus americana
American beech Native,
Secure
Fagus grandifolia beech leaves close.jpg
Fagus grandifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

European beech Introduced
Fagus Sylvatica, flowering.jpg
Fagus sylvatica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Family Myricaceae[edit]

The Myricaceae Blume 1829 (bayberry family) contains the bayberry, sweetgale, and sweet-fern species.[1]

  1. Myricaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe Myriceae[edit]

Robert L. Wilbur (1994) recommended splitting Myrica (bayberry and sweetgale), moving most of the bayberry species to Morella and leaving sweetgale in Myrica. He also expressed doubt about whether the two eastern North American bayberry species, M. pensylvanica and M. caroliniensis, were distinct enough to be considered separate species.[1]. In 2002, Wilbur made the recommendation that the two eastern North American bayberry species should be treated as a single species, Morella caroliniensis.[2]

Genus Comptonia[edit]

Fagales – fam. Myricaceae – tribe Myriceae – genus Comptonia
ComptoniaL’Hér. 1789 Sweet-fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) J.M.Coult.

1753. Liquidambar peregrina L.
1753. Myrica aspleniifolia L.
1763. Liquidambar aspleniifolia (L.) L.
1789. Comptonia aspleniifolia (L.) L’Hér.
1891. Myrica peregrina (L.) Kuntze
1894. Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M.Coult.
Sweet fern,
Fern gale

Comptonie voyageuse,
Comptonie à
  feuilles d'asplénie
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub
Comptonia peregrina 5487709.jpg
Comptonia peregrina nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

Genus Myrica[edit]

Fagales – fam. Myricaceae – tribe Myriceae – genus Myrica
MyricaL. 1754 Sweetgale N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Myrica gale L.
1889. Gale palustris Chev.
Sweet bayberry,
Bog-myrtle,
Sweet gale,
Meadow-fern

Myrique baumier,
Bois-sent-bon
Native,
Secure,
Circumoreal

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Shrub
Gagelstrauch(Myrica gale)female.JPG
Myrica gale nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp

Genus Morella[edit]

Fagales – fam. Myricaceae – tribe Myriceae – genus Morella
MorellaLour. 1790 Bayberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Mirb.) Kartesz

1804. Myrica pensylvanica Mirb.
1919. Myrica macfarlanei Youngken
1937. Cerothamnus pensylvanicus Moldenke
1999. Morella pensylvanica Kartesz
[1]
Northern bayberry,
Candleberry, Waxberry,
Tallow bayberry,
Tallowshrub,
Swamp candleberry,
Candlewood

Cirier de Pennsylvanie,
Myrique de Pennsylvanie
Native,
Likely secure
Morella pensylvanica 1480305.jpg
Morella pensylvanica nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Mill.) Small

1768. Myrica caroliniensis Mill.
1838. Myrica heterophylla Raf.
1903. Morella caroliniensis Small
1910. Cerothamnus caroliniensis Tidestr.
Southern bayberry,
Evergreen bayberry,
Wax-myrtle,
Small bayberry
Native,
Likely secure
Evergreen-Bayberry.gif
Morella pensylvanica nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
  1. NYFA lists Morella pensylvanica as Morella caroliniensis (Mill.) Small, with Myrica pensylvanica as a synonym. However, the other sources listed here (except for Flora Novae Angliae @Go Botany) do not treat northern and southern bayberry as the same species. Flora of North America lists southern bayberry as Myrica heterophylla, and after discussing differences between northern and southern bayberry, states "Whether these differences are sufficient to warrant the recognition of distinct species is yet to be satisfactorily resolved."

Family Juglandaceae[edit]

The New York members of the Juglandaceae (walnut family) include about ten reported native walnut and hickory species, and a single non-native walnut species. [1] These trees are valuable both for their timber and nut production.

  1. Juglandaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Juglandoideae[edit]

Both of the New York Juglandaceae tribes are placed in the Juglandoideae. Their fruits are similar in that they are composed of a nut surrounded by a fleshy outer covering so that they somewhat resemble a drupe such as a peach or plum.

Tribe Juglandeae[edit]

The Juglandeae in New York consist of the relatively common native black walnut and butternut (or white walnut) trees.

Genus Juglans[edit]

Black walnut (Juglans nigra) may not be native to all parts of New York. It was once a dominant tree in the midwest and southeast, and was probably cultivated by Native Americans in parts of the state where it didn't occur naturally.

Most butternut (Juglans cinerea) trees in the state appear to have been infected by the butternut canker (the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) . Some naturalized "English" and possibly "Japanese" walnut trees have also been found in the southeastern part of the state.

Fagales – fam. Juglandaceae – subfam. Juglandoideae – tribe Juglandeae – genus Juglans
Juglanssect. Rhysocaryon Black walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Juglans nigra L.
1861. Wallia nigra (L.) Alef.
Black walnut,
American walnut

Noyer noir,
Noyer noir d'Amérique
Native,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Black Walnut nut and leave detail.JPG
Juglans nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Juglanssect. Trachycaryon White walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1759. Juglans cinerea L.
1861. Wallia cinerea (L.) Alef.
Butternut,
White walnut

Noyer cendré,
Arbre à noix longues,
Noix tendre
Native,
Likely secure
Juglans cinerea 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Juglanssect. Cardiocaryon Asian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Carrière

1872. Juglans sieboldiana Maxim.
1878. Juglans ailantifolia Carrière
Japanese walnut,
Siebold walnut,
Onigurumi,
Heartnut

Noyer du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
No specimens
Juglans ailantifolia var. allantifolia ÖBG 09-07-16 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-X
NEW Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Juglans Hybrid walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Rehder

Juglans ailantifolia ×
Juglans cinerea

1921. Juglans × bixbyi Rehder
Bixby's walnut,
Buart,
Buartnut,
Hybrid of
 butternut &
 Japanese walnut
Introduced,
No specimens
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-X0
NEW 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Juglanssect. Juglans Eurasian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Juglans regia L.
1906. Juglans duclouxiana Dode
1906. Juglans falax Dode
1906. Juglans sinensis (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans kamaonica (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans orientis Dode
English walnut,
Persian walnut,
Common walnut,
Black sea walnut,
Madeira-nut

Noyer commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Excluded
Noyer (1).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-XX
Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Tribe Caryeae[edit]

Genus Carya[edit]

North American hickories (Carya) are often divided into two groups: the true hickories (sect. Carya) and the pecan hickories (sect. Apocarya).

Carya sect. Apocarya[edit]

Section Apocarya contains the pecan hickories, including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), water hickory (C. aquatica), and nutmeg hickory (C. myristiciformis). The wood of the trees in this section is generally considered to be a bit less dense and softer than that of the true hickories.[1] The only member of sect. Apocarya found in New York is bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis).

Fagales – fam. Juglandaceae – subfam. Juglandoideae – tribe Caryeae – genus Apocarya
Caryasect. Apocarya Pecan hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
(Wangenh.) K. Koch (1869)

1787. Juglans cordiformis
1869. Carya cordiformis
    Hicoria cordiformis
    Hicoria minima
Bitternut hickory,
Swamp hickory

Caryer cordiforme,
Caryer amer
Native,
Secure
Carya cordiformis.jpg
Carya cordiformis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Carya sect. Carya[edit]

Section Carya contains the true hickories.

Fagales – fam. Juglandaceae – subfam. Juglandoideae – tribe Caryeae – genus Carya
Caryasect. Carya True hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 (Mill.) K.Koch

1768. Juglans ovata Miller
1869. Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch
    Hicoria alba p.p.'
1888. Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britton
Shagbark hickory,
Shellbark hickory,
Upland hickory

Caryer ovale
Native,
Secure

WL: FACU
Carya ovata (8745432604).jpg
Carya ovata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 (Mill.) Sweet

Juglans glabraJuglans pyriformis
Pignut hickory,
Sweet pignut
Native,
Secure
Carya glabra seedling.jpg
Carya glabra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Wangenh.) Sarg.
= Carya glabra

1787. Juglans ovalis Wangenh.
1913. Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg.
1969. Carya glabra var. odorata
Red hickory,
False shagbark,
Small pignut
Native,
Secure
RedHickoryBark.jpg
Carya ovalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: [1]
 (Poir.) Nutt.

1753. Juglans alba L. p.p.
1798. Juglans tomentosa Poir. in Lam.
1818. Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt.
1818. Carya alba (L.) Nutt
1838. Hicoria tomentosa (Lam.) Raf.
1869. Carya alba (L.) K. Koch
1888. Hicorius alba Britton
Mockernut hickory,
Big-bud hickory,
White-heart hickory,
White hickory,
Square-nut hickory
Native,
Secure
Carya tomentosa (8745432970) 4x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: [2]
 (Michx. f.) G. Don

Hicoria laciniosa
Shellbark hickory,
Kingnut,
Big shellbark hickory,
Shagbark hickory
Native,
Threatened
Carya laciniosa NRCS-001-4x3.jpg
Carya laciniosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Sarg.

Carya laciniosa ×
Carya ovata

1922. Carya × dunbarii Sarg.
Dunbar's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Shellbark hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
Native,
Unranked

Perennial,
Tree
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. ITIS and FNA list Carya ovalis as a synonym of Carya glabra. Other sources listed here treat them as separate accepted species names.
  2. NYFA and NRCS list Carya tomentosa as Carya alba. ARS, ITIS, and FNA all list the accepted species name as Carya tomentosa.
Carya sect. Apocaria × Carya[edit]
Fagales – fam. Juglandaceae – subfam. Juglandoideae – tribe Caryeae – genus Carya
Caryasect. Apocaria × Carya Hickory N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 Sarg.

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya ovata

1913. Carya × Laneyi Sarg.
Laney's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
Native,
Unranked
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya laciniosa

Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shellbark hickory
Native,
No reports
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D






Images, wsp

Family Betulaceae[edit]

The Betulaceae (birch family) contains the alder, birch, hornbeam, hop-hornbeam, and hazelnut trees.[1]

  1. Betulaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Betuloideae[edit]

Genus Alnus[edit]

The genus Alnus contains trees generally referred to as alders.

Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Betuloideae – genus Alnus
Alnus Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 (L.) Moench
ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T.Clausen

1771. Betula alnus var. rugosa Du Roi
1784. Betula rugosa (Du Roi) Ehrh.
1826. Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.
1861. Alnus incana var. americana
1945. Alnus rugosa var. americana
1949. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
1955. Alnus americana (Regel) Czerep.
Speckled alder,
Tag alder,
Swamp alder

Aulne blanchâtre
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus incana 1.jpg
Alnus incana ssp rugosa nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Aiton) Willd.

1789. Betula serrulata Aiton
1805. Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd.
1904. Alnus noveboracensis Britton
1945. Alnus serrulata var. subelliptica
1967. Alnus incana var. serrulata
 auct. Alnus rubra non (DuRoi) Spreng
Smooth alder,
Hazel alder,
Brookside alder,
Brook-side alder

Aulne tendre,
Aulne blanc,
Aulne serrulé
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus serrulata leaves.jpg
Alnus serrulata nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Chaix) DC.
ssp. crispa (Aiton) Turrill

1789. Betula crispa Aiton
1813. Alnus crispa (Aiton) Pursh
1904. Alnus alnobetula var. crispa
1962. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa
Green alder,
Mountain alder,
American green alder

Aulne vert crispé,
Aulne crispé,
Aulne tardif
Native, CoC: 9,
Vulnerable

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus viridis crispa leaves.jpg
Alnus viridis ssp crispa nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Callier
[ A. incana × A. serrulata ]

1911. Alnus × fallacina Callier
Hybrid alder Native,
Endangered
374 Alnus incana.jpg
Alnus × fallacina nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Betula alnus L.
1753. Betula alnus var. glutinosa L.
1757. Alnus vulgaris Hill
1790. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.
1913. Alnus alnus (L.) Britton nom. illeg.
European alder,
Black alder,
European black alder

Aulne glutineux,
Aulne noir
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n. Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 64%[1],
CP-3[2]
Alnus glutinosa (Schwarzerle).jpg
Alnus glutinosa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata

Hybrid European &
  smooth alder
Introduced,
No specimens
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata nymap.svg

NEW 





Images, wsp

Genus Betula[edit]

Betula in New York consists of about nine native species of birch trees, at least two native hybrids, and three non-native, naturalized species.

Native birches[edit]
Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Betuloideae – genus Betula
BetulaL. 1753 Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 Britton

1811. Betula lutea F.Michx. nom. illeg.
1904. Betula alleghaniensis Britton
1922. B. lutea var. macrolepis Fernald
1949. B. lutea var. alleghaniensis Rehder
1966. B. alleghaniensis var. fallax Brayshaw
1966. B. alleghaniensis var. macrolepis Brayshaw
Yellow birch

Bouleau jaune,
Bouleau des Alléghanys,
Merisier
Native,
Secure
Betula alleghaniensis a1.jpg
Betula alleghaniensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 Marshall

1785. Betula papyrifera Marshall
1789. Betula papyracea Aiton
1841. Betula alba var. papyrifera Spach
1919. Betula papyrifera var. elobata Sarg.
1945. Betula papyrifera var. commutata Fernald
1945. Betula papyrifera var. pensilis Fernald
Paper birch,
Canoe birch,
White birch
Native,
Secure
Ecorce de bouleau.JPG
Betula papyrifera nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN


Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Betula lenta L.
Sweet birch,
Black birch,
Cherry birch

Bouleau flexible,
Merisier rouge
Native,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
BetulaLentaBark.jpg
Betula lenta nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 Marshall

1785. Betula populifolia Marshall
Gray birch,
White birch,
Fire birch

Bouleau à
  feuilles de peuplier,
Bouleau gris
Native,
Secure
Betula populifolia leaves.jpg
Betula populifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN


FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Regel

1861. Betula cordifolia Regel
1901. Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia Fernald
[1]
1902. Betula alba var. cordifolia Fernald
1982. Betula papyrifera ssp. cordifolia A.E.Murray
Mountain paper birch,
Mountain white birch,
Heart-leaved birch,
Heart-leaved paper birch
Native,
Vulnerable
Betula cordifolia bark 4x3.jpg
Betula cordifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Can

FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Betula nigra L.
1812. Betula rubra F.Michaux
River birch,
Red birch
Native,
Rare
Betula nigra.jpg
Betula nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0


FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

Bog birch,
Dwarf birch,
Low birch,
Swamp birch
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]
Betula pumila NRCS-4x3.jpg
Betula pumila nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 Michx.

Tundra dwarf birch,
Dwarf birch,
Resin birch,
Bouleau glanduleux
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Betula glandulosa ÖBG 2012-05-28 01-4x3.jpg
Betula glandulosa nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN


FNA 



Images, wsp
 (Tuck.) Fernald

1843. Betula papyracea var. minor Tuck.
1890. Betula papyrifera var. minor S.Watson…
1902. Betula alba var. minor Fernald
1945. Betula minor Fernald
1966. Betula pubescens ssp. minor Á.&D.Löve
1976. Betula saxophila Lepage
Dwarf white birch,
Dwarf birch

Bouleau mineur
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[4]
Betula minor nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN


FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Native birch hybrids[edit]
Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Betuloideae – genus Betula
BetulaL. 1753 Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15
 Blanch. (pro sp.)

Betula cordifolia ×
Betula populifolia

1904-1. Betula caerulea-grandis Blanch.
1904-2. Betula caerulea Blanch.
Blue birch,
Hybrid of
 Mountain paper birch &
 Gray birch

Bouleau bleu
Native,
Endangered
Chess tile xx.svg
Betula × caerulea nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Note: [1]
 Britton (pro sp.)

Betula papyrifera ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula sandbergii Britton
1957. Betula × neoborealis Lepage
Sandberg's birch,
Northern birch,
Hybrid of
 Paper birch &
 Bog birch

Bouleau de Sandberg
Native,
Unranked
Betula × sandbergii BB-1913.png
Betula × sandbergii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 C.K.Schneid.

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula purpusii C.K.Schneid.
1904. Betula purpusii var. typica nom. inval.
Purpus' birch,
Hybrid of
 Yellow birch &
 Bog birch

Bouleau de Purpus
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Betula × purpusii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
 Lepage

Betula glandulosa ×
Betula minor

1952. Betula × dutillyi Lepage
Dutilly's birch,
Hybrid of
 Tundra dwarf birch &
 Dwarf white birch

Bouleau de Dutilly
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-0N
Can





Images, wsp
 Lepage

Betula populifolia ×
Betula pumila

1957. Betula × raymundii Lepage
Raymund's birch,
Hybrid of
 Gray birch &
 Bog birch

Bouleau de Raymund
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-0N
Can

Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Betula alleghaniensis × papyrifera

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula papyrifera

Un-named,
Hybrid of
 Yellow brirch &
 Paper birch
Native,
Unranked
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D






Images, wsp
  1. Betula × caerulea (blue birch) is listed by NRCS as a cross between papyrifera & populifolia, but FNA agrees with NYFA in stating that it as more likey [cordifolia × populifolia]
Non-native birches[edit]
Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Betuloideae – genus Betula
BetulaL. 1753 Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 15

Silver Birch,
European white birch,
European weeping birch
Introduced
Silver birch leaves.jpg
Betula pendula nymap.svg
NYFA-X






Images, wsp
 Ehrh.
ssp. pubescens

Betula alba
Downy birch Introduced
Betual pubescens Blatt.jpg
Betula pubescens ssp pubescens nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Sukaczev

Betula latifolia
Asian white birch Introduced
Changbai Betula leafage.JPG
Betula platyphylla nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Subfamily Coryloideae[edit]

The Coryloideae subfamily of the birch family generally includes the hornbeam (Carpineae) and hazel (Coryleae) tribes.

Tribe Carpineae[edit]

The Carpineae comprise the hornbeams (Carpinus) and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya). A single species of each is native to New York.

Genus Ostrya[edit]

The genus Ostyra is generally known as hop-hornbeam, or ironwood. Of the approximately nine Ostyra species worldwide, only the Eastern hop-hornbeam species is known to grow outside of cultivation in New York. Because of its small size, shade tolerance, low timber value, and high reproductive rate, hop-hornbeam is often considered to be an undesirable understory species in forests being used for commercial timber production.[1][2]

Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Coryloideae – tribe Carpineae – genus Ostrya
Ostrya Hop-hornbean N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Mill.) K.Koch

1768. Carpinus virginiana Mill.
1873. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch
Eastern hop-hornbeam,
Ironwood

Ostryer de Virginie,
Bois de fer
Native,
Secure
Eastern Hop Hornbeam catkins (2985499734).jpg
Ostrya virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
Genus Carpinus[edit]

The only species of hornbeam native in New York goes by the name American hornbeam, blue beech, or muscle-wood. It also goes by the name ironwood, but as that name is also commonly used for the related hop-hornbeam tree, perhaps it should be used for neither.

Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Coryloideae – tribe Carpineae – genus Carpinus
Carpinus Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Walter
ssp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow

1785. C. betulus var. virginiana Marshall
1893. C. virginiana Sudw.non Miller 1768
1935. C. caroliniana var. virginiana Fernald
1987. C. caroliniana ssp. virginiana Furlow
American hornbeam,
Blue beech,
Musclewood,
Muscle tree,
Ironwood

Charme de Virginie,
Bois de fer
Native,
Secure
Carpinus caroliniana.jpg
Carpinus caroliniana ssp virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Walter
ssp. caroliniana

1788. Carpinus caroliniana Walter
1803. Carpinus americana Michx.
American hornbeam,
Blue beech,
Musclewood,
Ironwood

Charme de Caroline
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native,
No NY reports
Carpinus caroliniana autumn leaf.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0


FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp

European hornbeam Introduced
Hainbuche.jpg
Carpinus betulus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Tribe Coryleae[edit]

Genus Corylus[edit]
Fagales – fam. Betulaceae – subfam. Coryloideae – tribe Coryleae
Corylus Hazelnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Marshall
ssp. cornuta

1785. Corylus cornuta Marshall
1789. Corylus rostrata Aiton
1940. C. cornuta var. megaphylla
Beaked hazelnut,
Beaked hazel,
Beaked filbert

Noisetier à long bec,
Coudrier à long bec
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade
Beaked hazelnut (Whitefish Island).JPG
Corylus cornuta ssp cornuta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 

IPN 

Images, wsp
 Walter

1788. Corylus americana Walter
1864. C. americana var. missouriensis
1916. C. americana var. altior
1935. C. americana var. indehiscens
American hazelnut,
American hazel

Noisetier d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
Corylus americana 5474403.jpg
Corylus americana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Corylus avellana L.
European hazelnut,
European hazel,
Common filbert

Noisetier commun,
Coudrier,
Avelline
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Excluded

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
Corylus avellana - Botanischer Garten, Frankfurt am Main - DSC02598.JPG
Corylus avellana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp