Flora of New York/Fagales

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Cucurbitales
Flora of New York — Fagales
Geraniales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Fagales is part of the nitrogen-fixing clade:

nitrogen‑fixing clade 

Fabales




Rosales




Cucurbitales


 Fagales 

Fagaceae (beech family: oak, chestnut, and beech)





Myricaceae (bayberry family: sweet-fern and bayberry)



Juglandaceae (walnut family: walnut and hickory)




Betulaceae (birch family: alder, birch, hornbeam, and hazelnut)







However, the vast majority of species able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules are in the Fabaceae (legume family). In the Fagales, only the Myricaceae (bayberry family) and Alnus (alder) species are able to fix nitrogen.

Fagales species primarily take the form of trees. They have also been placed in the Juglandales.


Clades Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
angiosperms:
  eudicots:
    rosids:
     fabids
Fagales Fagaceae Quercoideae Querceae Quercus oak white oak 15
red oak 16
Castaneeae Castanea chestnut 4
Fagoideae Fagus beech 2
Myricaceae Comptonia sweetfern 1
Myrica sweetgale 1
Morella bayberry 2
Juglandaceae Juglandoideae Juglandeae Juglans walnut, butternut 3
Caryeae Carya hickory 8
Betulaceae Betuloideae Alnus alder 5
Betula birch 15
Coryloideae Carpineae Carpinus hornbeam 3
Ostrya hop hornbean 1
Coryleae Corylus hazelnut 3

Family Fagaceae[edit | edit source]

The Fagaceae (beech family) contains the oaks (Quercus), chestnuts (Castanea), and beeches (Fagus).[1][2]
  1. Fagaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Paul S. Manos, Zhe-Kun Zhou, and Charles H. Cannon (2001). "Systematics of Fagaceae: Phylogenic Test of Reproductive Trait Evolution" (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 162(6): 1361–1379.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Subfamily Quercoideae[edit | edit source]

The Quercoideae, as organized here, includes the oaks and the chestnuts.

Tribe Querceae[edit | edit source]

Querceae currently comprises only genus Quercus. In previous schemes, the tribe also included upgraded Quercus subgenera, including Macrobalanus (large-fruited white oaks) and Erythrobalanus (red and black oaks).[1][2]
Quercus[edit | edit source]
The genus Quercus contains the oaks, which comprise about 30 taxa of trees and shrubs in New York. Two sections of oaks in the subgenus Quercus are found in the state: sect. Quercus (white oaks) and sect. Lobate (red oaks). They commonly hybridized only within their own section.[1]
Quercus sect. Quercus[edit | edit source]
Quercus montana
chestnut oak
The Quercus section Quercus contains the white-oak group, most members of which have leaves with rounded lobes. White oaks produce acorns that mature in a single season and are relatively sweet.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Quercus
Genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753.  Quercus alba  L.
1803.  Quercus alba  var. pinnatifida  Michx.
1803.  Quercus alba  var. repanda  Michx.
1838.  Quercus repanda  (Michx.) Raf. (nom. illeg.)
1838.  Quercus nigrescens  Raf.
1838.  Quercus retusa  Raf.
1841.  Quercus candida  Steud.
1891.  Quercus ramosa  Dippel
1918.  Quercus alba  var. latiloba  Sarg.
1924.  Quercus alba  var. longigemma  Trel.
1924.  Quercus alba  var. ryderi  Trel.
1960.  Quercus alba  var. subcaerulea  Pickens & M.Pickens
1960.  Quercus alba  var. subflavea  Pickens & M.Pickens
White oak,
Eastern white oak,
Stave oak
Chêne blanc
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade

NYFA: 5

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 Willd.

1783.  Quercus prinus  var. platanoides  Lam.
1785.  Quercus alba  var. palustris  Marshall
1790.  Quercus alba  var. palustris  Castigl. (nom. illeg.)
1801.  Quercus bicolor  Willd.
1818.  Quercus bicolor  var. mollis  Nutt.
1842.  Quercus prinus  var. bicolor  Spach
1864.  Quercus velutina  L'Hér. ex A.DC. (nom. illeg.)
1864.  Quercus filiformis  Muhl. ex A.DC (pro syn.)
1864.  Quercus bicolor  var. platanoides  A.DC.
1886.  Quercus discolor  var. bicolor  Hampton
1891.  Quercus bicolor  var. angustifolia  Dippel
1891.  Quercus bicolor  var. cuneiformis  Dippel
1892.  Quercus platanoides  (Lam.) Sudw.
Swamp white oak
Chêne bicolore,
Chêne bleu
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Tree,
Part shade

NYFA: 5

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Willd.

1789.  Quercus prinus  var. lata  Aiton
1789.  Quercus prinus  var. oblongata  Aiton
1789.  Quercus rubra  var. montana  Aiton (nom. illeg.)
1801.  Quercus prinus  var. monticola  Michx.
1801.  Quercus prinus  var. palustris  Michx.
1803.  Quercus pumila  Michx. (nom. illeg.)
1805.  Quercus montana  Willd.
1838.  Quercus carpinifolia  Raf.
1838.  Quercus granulata  Raf.
1838.  Quercus longifolia  Raf.
1838.  Quercus versicolor  Raf.
1864.  Quercus monticola  G.Kirchn.
1891.  Quercus carolineana  Dippel
Chestnut oak ...
Mountain chestnut oak ...
Rock chestnut oak ...

Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5
GBIF

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Willd.

1785.  Quercus prinus  var. humilis  Marshall
1801.  Quercus prinus  var. pumila  Michx.
1801.  Quercus prinoides  Willd.
1811.  Quercus prinus  var. chincapin  F.Michx.
1814.  Quercus chinquapin  Pursh
1838.  Quercus prinoides  Raf. (nom. illeg.)
1838.  Quercus chincapin  (F.Michx.) Raf.
1877.  Quercus castanea  var. prinoides  (Willd.) Muhl. ex Engelm.
1886.  Quercus muehlenbergii  var. humilis  (Marshall) Britton
1907.  Quercus prinoides  var. rufescens  Rehder
1918.  Quercus rufescens  (Rehder) E.P.Bicknell
Dwarf chinquapin oak,
Scrub chestnut oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree-shrub

NYFA: 5

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 Michx.

1801. Quercus macrocarpa Michx.
1812. Quercus olivaeformis F.Michx.
1838. Cerris macrocarpa (Michx.) Raf.
1838. Cerris oliviformis (F.Michx.) Raf.
1856. Quercus macrocarpa  var. oliviformis  (F.Michx.) A.Gray
1876. Quercus macrocarpa  var. depressa  (Nutt.) Engelm.
1924. Quercus macrocarpa  f. oliviformis  (F.Michx.) Trel
1931. Quercus mandanensis Rydb.
1935. Quercus macrocarpa  ssp. oliviformis  (F.Michx.) A.Camus
Bur oak,
Burr oak,
Mossy-cup oak,
Blue oak
Chêne à gros fruits
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree-shrub

NYFA: 4

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 Engelm.

1803. Quercus prinus  var. acuminata  Michx.
1877. Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm.
1884. Quercus rubra  var. muehlenbergii  (Engelm.) Wenz.
1895. Quercus acuminata Sarg. (i)
1901. Quercus brayi Small
Chinkapin oak,
Chinquapin oak,
Yellow chestnut oak
Chêne jaune,
Chêne de Mühlenberg
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 4

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 Wangenh.

1787. Quercus stellata Wangenh.
1803. Quercus obtusiloba Michx.
1918. Quercus minor (Marshall) Sarg.
1918. Quercus stellata  var. attenuata
1918. Quercus stellata  var. parviloba
Post oak
Chêne étoilé,
Chêne à étoilé
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 4

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 L.

1753. Quercus robur L.
1790. Quercus pedunculata Ehrh.
English oak,
Pedunculate oak,
European oak
Chêne pédonculé
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Cultivated,
Rarely naturalizes

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: X

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Genus Quercussect. Quercus (excluded taxa) White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.

1818. Quercus michauxii Nutt.
Swamp chestnut oak,
Basket oak,
Cow oak
N. America native
 southeastern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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(Ashe) Small

1894. Quercus minor  var. margarettae  Ashe
1903. Quercus margaretta (Ashe) Small
1913. Quercus stellata  var. margarettae  (Ashe) Sarg.
1983. Quercus stellata  ssp. margarettae  (Ashe) A.E.Murray
Sand post oak,
Runner oak,
Dwarf post oak
N. America native
 southeastern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Quercus sect. Quercus hybrids[edit | edit source]
These are the naturally-occurring white oak hybrids found in New York State.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Quercus
Genus Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus montana

Saul's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 chestnut oak
Native,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3?

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 Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus bicolor

Jack's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 swamp-white oak
Chêne de Jack
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

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 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus prinoides

Faxon's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 dwarf chinkapin oak
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

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 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus stellata

Fernow's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 post oak
Native,
Endangered,
Impersistent

NYFA: 1?

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 Trel.

Quercus bicolor ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Quercus × hillii Trel.
Schuette's oak,
Hybrid of
 swamp white oak &
 burr oak
Chêne de Schuette
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Bebb's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 burr oak
Chêne de Bebb
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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 Trel.

Quercus macrocarpa ×
Quercus muehlenbergii[1]

1917. Quercus × deamii Trel.
1948. Quercus × fallax E.J.Palmer
Deam's oak,
Hybrid of
 burr oak &
 chinkapin oak
Chêne de Deam
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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  1. Trelease (1924) considered Q.× deamii to be Q.alba × Q.muehlenbergii. Bartlett (1951) showed that Q.macrocarpa × Q.muehlenbergii were more likely to have been the real parents of Q.× deamii. Meanwhile E.J.Palmer (1948) published the name Q.× fallax for oaks with that parentage. So now Q.× fallax is considered to be a synonym of Q.× deamii.
Quercus sect. Lobatae[edit | edit source]
Red oak

The Quercus section Lobatae (similar to sect. Erythrobalanus) contains the red oak group, most members of which have leaves with pointed or spiny lobes. Red oaks produce acorns that require two seasons (18 months) to mature and are relatively bitter.

Note that Quercus lobata (a California native) is a member of sect. Querca, not sect. Lobatae, as might be inferred from its name.

The oaks of this group are especially susceptible to the oak wilt fungus (Bretziella fagacearum. formerly Ceratocystis fagacearum).[1]


Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Lobatae
Genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Quercus rubra L.
1817. Quercus borealis Michx.
1916. Quercus maxima (Marshall) Ashe
1916. Quercus borealis  var. maxima  (Marshall) Ashe (i)
1916. Quercus borealis  var. maxima  (Marshall) Sarg.
Red oak,
Northern red oak
Chêne rouge
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: 5

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 Lam.

1785. Quercus velutina Lam.
1908. Quercus velutinavar. missouriensis
1917. Quercus missouriensis Ashe
Black oak,
Eastern black oak
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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 Wangenh.

1785. Quercus rubravar. nana Marshall
1787. Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh.
1895. Quercus nana (Marshall) Sarg. (i)
Scrub oak,
Bear oak
Chêne à feuilles de houx,
Chêne de Banister
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub

NYFA: 5

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 Münchh.

1770. Quercus coccinea Münchh.
1789. Quercus rubravar. coccinea
1918. Quercus coccineavar. tuberculata
Scarlet oak Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun

NYFA: 5

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Münchh.

1770. Quercus palustris Münchh.
Pin oak Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade

NYFA: 4

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 Münchh.
var. marilandica

1753. Quercus nigravar. marilandica
1770. Quercus marilandica Münchh.
Blackjack oak Native, CoC: 7,
Rare

UPL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 3

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 L.

1753. Quercus phellos L.
Willow oak Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 1

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 Buckley

1860. Quercus shumardii Buckley
Shumard('s) oak,
Shumard red oak,
Southern red oak,
Swamp red oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub

NYFA: 1

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 Michx.

1801. Quercus imbricaria Michx.
1842. Quercus phellosvar. imbricaria
1936. Erythrobalanus imbricaria
(Michx.) O.Schwarz
Shingle oak,
Laurel oak
Introduced from
 midwestern US,
Midwest native,
Not naturalized

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: X

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Genus Quercussect. Lobatae (excluded taxa) Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Michx.

1801. Quercus falcata Michx.
Southern red oak,
Spanish oak
N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Note: [1]
Raf.

1824. Quercus falcata  var. pagodifolia  Elliott
1838. Quercus pagoda Raf.
1896. Quercus pagodifolia (Elliott) Ashe
1917. Quercus rubra  var. leucophylla  Ashe
1918. Quercus rubra  var. pagodifolia  (Elliott) Ashe ex Sarg.
1935. Quercus falcata  var. leucophylla  (Ashe) Palmer & Steyerm.
Cherrybark oak,
Cherry-bark oak
N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Quercus sect. Lobatae hybrids[edit | edit source]
These are the naturally-occurring red oak hybrids found in New York State.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Lobatae
Genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak hybrids N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Sarg.

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus velutina

Bush's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 black oak
Native,
Threatened,
Impersistent

NYFA: 2

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W.T. Davis (pro sp.)

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus marilandica

Britton's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 blackjack oak
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

Images
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 Trel.

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus velutina

Rehder's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 black oak
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

USDA-N0
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 Sudw.

Quercus rubra ×
Quercus velutina

    Quercus × hawkinsi Sudw.
    Quercus × hawkinsii Sudw.
    Quercus × porteri Trelease illeg.
Hawkins' oak,
Hybrid of
 red oak &
 black oak
Chêne de Hawkins
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

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 Britton (pro sp.)

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus phellos

Quercus × dubia Ashe
Rudkin's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 willow oak
Native,
Endangered

ITIS
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 Little

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus velutina

Varileaf oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 black oak
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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 Michx.f.

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus rubra

Quercus × hollickii Schneid.
Variable-leaved oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 red oak
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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Quercus sect. Cerris[edit | edit source]
Quercus acutissima
The potentially invasive Asian sawtooth oak has not been listed as naturalized in New York, but it has been until recently distributed as a "conservation" tree in the state, and has been listed as naturalized in Pennsylvania. It is reported as invasive in Wisconsin, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Cerris
Genus Quercussubg. Quercussect. Cerris Turkish oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

    Quercus cerris L.
European turkey oak ...
Turkey oak ...
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [1],
 GRIIS-US: Present,
SNA

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: New York (2013)
GBIF
5 SE counties

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Carruth.

    
    
    
Sawtooth oak ...
Sawhorn oak ...

Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized,
NPS

NYFA: 0
NYFA: Not listed
iNat
11 counties

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Tribe Castaneeae[edit | edit source]

Castanea[edit | edit source]
Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.
American chestnut
Native American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata) were a major component of many New York forests until the introduction of the exotic chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) in the late 19th century. Mature American chestnuts are now rare, but stump sprouts are keeping the chestnut genome alive.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Castanoideae — Castanea
Genus Castanea Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Marsh.) Borkh.

1785. Fagus dentata Marshall (i)
1800. C. dentata (Marshall) Borkh.
1803. C. vescavar. americana
1817. C. americana (Michx.) Raf.
American chestnut,
Chestnut
Châtaignier d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 4

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Note: [1]
 (L.) Mill.

1768. Fagus pumila L.
1768. Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.
1818. Castanea alnifolia Nutt
Chinquapin
Chinkapin
Dwarf chestnut ...
Allegheny chinquapin
N. America native,
Unranked

UPL

NYFA: X

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Siebold & Zucc.

    
    
    
Japanese chestnut ...
Korean chestnut ...

Introduced,
Unk. naturalization

NYFA: Xu

USDA-X0
BBG Images
Wikispecies
 Mill.

    Castanea vesca
    Castanea vulgaris
European chestnut Introduced from
 Europe,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Genus Castanea (excluded taxa) Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Blume

    
    
    
Chinese chestnut ...

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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  1. Castanea dentata status is misleading because although the species is not rare and will likely persist, chestnut blight prevents the trees from maturing. Most grow from root suckers.

Subfamily Fagoideae[edit | edit source]

Fagus[edit | edit source]

American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
The American beech, Fagus grandifolia, is a widespread hardwood tree in New York, and historically associated with Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in beech-maple climax forests. The American beech, however, is susceptible to beech bark disease, which is now common in New York. The disease is made possible by the non-native beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which pierces the bark to feed on the sap. The resulting holes allow Nectria fungus spores to enter. Eventually the exotic fungus kills portions of inner bark and induces cankers that often girdle and kill the tree.[1] Given these facts, the "secure" status for American beech may be counter-intuitive, but the loss of larger infected trees increases the number of root suckers and stump sprouts, causing dense beech thickets, which have little benefit for wildlife or timber harvesters. So, as with other disease-prone trees such as American elm and American chestnut, the threat of extirpation is low, even though the health of the existing population remains poor. In fact, foresters in New York often consider the American beech to be a native invasive or interfering species and treat beech tree stumps with glyphosate immediately after cutting to prevent such resprouts.[2]
Fagales — Fagaceae — Fagoideae — Fagus
Fagus Beech N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Ehrh.

1788. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.
1789. Fagus ferruginea Aiton
1826. Fagus americana Sweet
1907. Fagus grandifolia  var. caroliniana  (Loudon) Fernald & Rehder
1940. Fagus grandifolia  ssp. heterophylla  Camp
American beech
Hêtre américain
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Fagus sylvatica L.
European beech Introduced from
 Eurasia

NYFA: X

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Family Myricaceae[edit | edit source]

The Myricaceae Blume 1829 (bayberry family) contains the bayberry, sweetgale, and sweet-fern species.[1]

Robert L. Wilbur (1994) recommended splitting Myrica (bayberry and sweetgale), moving most of the bayberry species to Morella and leaving sweetgale in Myrica. He also expressed doubt about whether the two eastern North American bayberry species, M. pensylvanica and M. caroliniensis, were distinct enough to be considered separate species.[2] In 2002, Wilbur made the recommendation that the two eastern North American bayberry species should be treated as a single species, Morella caroliniensis.[3]


Comptonia[edit | edit source]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Comptonia
Genus ComptoniaL’Hér. 1789 Sweet-fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) J.M.Coult.

1753. Liquidambar peregrina L.
1753. Myrica aspleniifolia L.
1763. Liquidambar aspleniifolia (L.) L.
1789. Comptonia aspleniifolia (L.) L’Hér.
1891. Myrica peregrina (L.) Kuntze
1894. Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M.Coult.
Sweet fern,
Fern gale
Comptonie voyageuse,
Comptonie à
  feuilles d'asplénie
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub

NYFA: 5

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Myrica[edit | edit source]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Myrica
Genus MyricaL. 1754 Sweetgale N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Myrica gale L.
1889. Gale palustris Chev.
Sweet bayberry,
Bog-myrtle,
Sweet gale,
Meadow-fern
Myrique baumier,
Bois-sent-bon
Native,
Secure,
Circumoreal

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA: 5

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Morella[edit | edit source]

Some sources, including the New York Flora Atlas, treat northern and southern bayberry as a single species. Other sources treat them separately. If treated as two distinct species, only northern bayberry (Morella pensylvanica) is thought to be native or naturalized in New York. But, if treated as as single species, Morella caroliniensis would have priority as the species name.
Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Morella
Genus MorellaLour. 1790 Bayberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Mirb.) Kartesz

1804. Myrica pensylvanica Mirb.
1919. Myrica macfarlanei Youngken
1937. Cerothamnus pensylvanicus Moldenke
1999. Morella pensylvanica (Mirb.) Kartesz[1]
Northern bayberry,
Candleberry, Waxberry,
Tallow bayberry,
Tallowshrub,
Swamp candleberry,
Candlewood
Cirier de Pennsylvanie,
Myrique de Pennsylvanie
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure,
S4, G5

FAC

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA: 4

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 (Mill.) Small

1768. Myrica caroliniensis Mill.
1838. Myrica heterophylla Raf.
1903. Morella caroliniensis Small
1910. Cerothamnus caroliniensis Tidestr.
Southern bayberry,
Evergreen bayberry,
Wax-myrtle,
Small bayberry
N. America native

NYFA: 4

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  1. NYFA lists Morella pensylvanica as Morella caroliniensis (Mill.) Small, with Myrica pensylvanica as a synonym. However, the other sources listed here (except for Flora Novae Angliae @Go Botany) do not treat northern and southern bayberry as the same species. Flora of North America lists southern bayberry as Myrica heterophylla, and after discussing the minor differences between northern and southern bayberry, states "Whether these differences are sufficient to warrant the recognition of distinct species is yet to be satisfactorily resolved."

Family Juglandaceae[edit | edit source]

The New York members of the Juglandaceae (walnut family) include about ten reported native walnut and hickory species, and a single non-native walnut species.[1] These trees are valuable both for their timber and nut production.
  1. Juglandaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Juglandoideae[edit | edit source]

Both of the New York Juglandaceae tribes are placed in the Juglandoideae. Their fruits are similar in that they are composed of a nut surrounded by a fleshy outer covering so that they somewhat resemble a drupe such as a peach or plum.

Tribe Juglandeae[edit | edit source]

The Juglandeae in New York consist of the relatively common native black walnut and butternut (or white walnut) trees.
Juglans[edit | edit source]
Black walnut (Juglans nigra) may not be native to all parts of New York. It was once a dominant tree in the midwest and southeast, and was probably cultivated by Native Americans in parts of the state where it didn't occur naturally.

Most butternut (Juglans cinerea) trees in the state appear to have been infected by the butternut canker (the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) . Some naturalized "English" and possibly "Japanese" walnut trees have also been found in the southeastern part of the state.


Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Juglandeae — Juglans
Genus Juglanssect. Rhysocaryon Black walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Juglans nigra L.
1861. Wallia nigra (L.) Alef.
Black walnut,
American walnut
Noyer noir,
Noyer noir d'Amérique
Native,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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Genus Juglanssect. Trachycaryon White walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1759. Juglans cinerea L.
1861. Wallia cinerea (L.) Alef.
Butternut,
White walnut
Noyer cendré,
Arbre à noix longues,
Noix tendre
Native,
Likely secure

FACU

NYFA: 4

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Genus Juglanssect. Cardiocaryon Asian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Carrière

1872. Juglans sieboldiana Maxim.
1878. Juglans ailantifolia Carrière
Japanese walnut,
Siebold walnut,
Onigurumi,
Heartnut
Noyer du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized

NYFA: X0
NYFA: Suffolk (2012)
cultivated only

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Genus Juglans Hybrid walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Rehder

Juglans ailantifolia ×
Juglans cinerea

1921. Juglans × bixbyi Rehder
Bixby's walnut,
Buart,
Buartnut,
Hybrid of
 butternut &
 Japanese walnut
Introduced,
No specimens

NYFA: X0

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Genus Juglanssect. Juglans (excluded taxa) Eurasian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Juglans regia L.
1906. Juglans duclouxiana Dode
1906. Juglans falax Dode
1906. Juglans sinensis (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans kamaonica (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans orientis Dode
English walnut,
Persian walnut,
Common walnut,
Black sea walnut,
Madeira-nut
Noyer commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Tribe Caryeae[edit | edit source]

Carya[edit | edit source]
North American hickories (Carya) are often divided into two groups: the true hickories (sect. Carya) and the pecan hickories (sect. Apocarya). Section Apocarya contains the pecan hickories, including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), water hickory (C. aquatica), and nutmeg hickory (C. myristiciformis). The wood of the trees in this section is generally considered to be a bit less dense and softer than that of the true hickories.[1] The only member of sect. Apocarya found in New York is bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis). Section Carya contains the true hickories.

Recent molecular data does not strictly support using those two groupss[2]


Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Caryeae — Apocarya
Genus Caryasect. Apocarya Pecan hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Wangenh.) K. Koch (1869)

1787. Juglans cordiformis
1869. Carya cordiformis
    Hicoria cordiformis
    Hicoria minima
Bitternut hickory,
Swamp hickory
Caryer cordiforme,
Caryer amer
Native,
Secure

FAC-FACU

NYFA: 5

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Genus Caryasect. Carya True hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Mill.) K.Koch
var. ovata

1768. Juglans ovata Miller
1869. Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch
    Hicoria alba p.p.
1888. Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britton
Shagbark hickory,
Shellbark hickory,
Upland hickory
Caryer ovale
Native,
Secure

FACU-FACU

NYFA: 5

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 (Mill.) Sweet

1768. Juglans glabra Mill.
1787. Juglans ovalis Wangenh.
1813. Juglans pyriformis Muhl., nom. nud.
1826. Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet
1913. Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg.
1969. Carya glabra  var. odorata  (Marshall) Little
Pignut hickory
Sweet pignut
Red hickory
False shagbark
Small pignut
Native,
Secure

FACU-FACU

NYFA: 5

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 (Poir.) Nutt.

1753. Juglans alba L. p.p.
1798. Juglans tomentosa Poir. in Lam.
1818. Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt.
1818. Carya alba (L.) Nutt
1838. Hicoria tomentosa (Lam.) Raf.
1869. Carya alba (L.) K. Koch
1888. Hicorius alba Britton
Mockernut hickory,
Big-bud hickory,
White-heart hickory,
White hickory,
Square-nut hickory
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Note: [1]
 (Michx. f.) G. Don

Hicoria laciniosa
Shellbark hickory,
Kingnut,
Big shellbark hickory,
Shagbark hickory
Native,
Threatened

FACW-FAC

NYFA: 2

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 Sarg.

Carya laciniosa ×
Carya ovata

1922. Carya × dunbarii Sarg.
Dunbar's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Shellbark hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
Native,
Unranked

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: U

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 Sarg.

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya ovata

1913. Carya × Laneyi Sarg.
Laney's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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Carya cordiformis × laciniosa

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya laciniosa

Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shellbark hickory
N. America native,
No reports

Images
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  1. NYFA and NRCS list Carya tomentosa as Carya alba. ARS, ITIS, and FNA all list the accepted species name as Carya tomentosa.

Family Betulaceae[edit | edit source]

The Betulaceae (birch family) contains the alder (Alnus), birch (Betula), hornbeam (Carpinus), hop-hornbeam (Ostrya), and hazel (Corylus) trees and shrubs.[1]
  1. Betulaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Betuloideae[edit | edit source]

The Betuloideae contains the alders and birches.

Alnus[edit | edit source]

Alnus incana
speckled alder
The genus Alnus contains trees generally referred to as alders.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Alnus
Genus Alnus Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Moench
ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T.Clausen

1771. Betula alnusvar. rugosa Du Roi
1784. Betula rugosa (Du Roi) Ehrh.
1826. Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.
1861. Alnus incanavar. americana
1945. Alnus rugosavar. americana
1949. Alnus incanassp. rugosa
1955. Alnus americana (Regel) Czerep.
Speckled alder,
Tag alder,
Swamp alder
Aulne blanchâtre
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FACW-FACU

Perennial,
Shrub-tree

NYFA: 5

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 (Aiton) Willd.

1789. Betula serrulata Aiton
1805. Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd.
1904. Alnus noveboracensis Britton
1945. Alnus serrulatavar. subelliptica
1967. Alnus incanavar. serrulata
 auct. Alnus rubra non (DuRoi) Spreng
Smooth alder,
Hazel alder,
Brookside alder,
Brook-side alder
Aulne tendre,
Aulne blanc,
Aulne serrulé
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub-tree

NYFA: 5

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 (Ehrh.) K. Koch
ssp. crispa (Aiton) Raus

1789. Betula crispa Aiton
1813. Alnus crispa (Aiton) Pursh
1904. Alnus alnobetula  var. crispa  H.J.P.Winkl.
1962. Alnus viridis  ssp. crispa  (Aiton) Turrill
1964. Duschekia crispa (Aiton) Pouzar
2011. Alnus alnobetula  ssp. crispa  (Aiton) Raus
Green alder,
Mountain alder,
American green alder
Aulne vert crispé,
Aulne crispé,
Aulne tardif
Native, CoC: 9,
Vulnerable

FAC

Perennial,
Shrub-tree

NYFA: 3

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 Callier

Alnus incana ssp. rungosa ×
Alnus serrulata

1911. Alnus × fallacina Callier
Deceptive alder,
Hybrid of
 speckled alder &
 smooth alder
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

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 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Betula alnus L.
1753. Betula alnusvar. glutinosa L.
1757. Alnus vulgaris Hill
1790. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.
1913. Alnus alnus (L.) Britton nom. illeg.
European alder,
Black alder,
European black alder
Aulne glutineux,
Aulne noir
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n. Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 64%[1],
CP-3[2]

NYFA: X

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Genus Alnus (potential hybrids) Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata

Hybrid of
 European alder &
 smooth alder
Introduced,
No specimens

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Genus Alnus (excluded taxa) Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Moench
ssp. incana

    
1794. Alnus incana (L.) Moench p.p.
Gray alder Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Betula[edit | edit source]

Betula papyrifera
Betula (ˈbech-ə-lə) in New York consists of about nine native species of birch trees, at least two native hybrids, and a single naturalized non-native species (though others have likely been planted). Here they are segregated into four subgenera:
  • Subg. Betulenta: B. alleghaniensis & B. lenta
  • Subg. Betula: B. populifolia, B. papyrifera, B. cordifolia, & B. pendula
  • Subg. Neurobetula: B. nigra
  • Subg. Chamaebetula: B. pumila, B. glandulosa, & B. minor

Betula subg. Betulenta[edit | edit source]
Palustrine forest of hemlocks, sweet birches (Betula lenta), and yellow birches (Betula alleghaniensis) along Fall Creek, Monroe County, Pennsylvania.
Subgenus Betulenta contains the wintergreen-oil birches, which in New York consist of yellow and black birch. These contain a noticeable amount of methyl salicylate in their twig bark, giving the twigs a minty odor when broken.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Betulenta
Genus BetulaL. 1753subg. Betulenta Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Britton

1811. Betula lutea F.Michx. nom. illeg.
1904. Betula alleghaniensis Britton
1922. B. luteavar. macrolepis
1949. B. luteavar. alleghaniensis
1966. B. alleghaniensisvar. fallax
1966. B. alleghaniensisvar. macrolepis
Yellow birch
Bouleau jaune,
Bouleau des Alléghanys,
Merisier
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Betula lenta L.
Black birch,
Sweet birch,
Cherry birch
Bouleau flexible,
Merisier rouge
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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Betula subg. Betula[edit | edit source]
Betula populifolia
gray birch
Subgenus Betula contains the typical birches, which do not have methyl salicylate in their bark.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Betulenta
Genus BetulaL. 1753subg. Betula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Betula populifolia Marshall
Gray birch,
White birch,
Fire birch
Bouleau à
  feuilles de peuplier,
Bouleau gris
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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 Marshall

1785. Betula papyrifera Marshall
1789. B. papyracea Aiton
1841. B. albavar. papyrifera
1919. B. papyriferavar. elobata
1945. B. papyriferavar. commutata
1945. B. papyriferavar. pensilis
Paper birch,
Canoe birch,
White birch
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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 Regel

1861. Betula cordifolia Regel
1901. B. papyriferavar. cordifolia
[1]
1902. B. albavar. cordifolia
1982. B. papyriferassp. cordifolia
Mountain paper birch,
Mountain white birch,
Heart-leaved birch,
Heart-leaved paper birch
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 3

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Blanch. (pro sp.)

Betula cordifolia ×
Betula populifolia

1904. Betula caerulea-grandis
Blanch.
1904. Betula caerulea Blanch.
Blue birch,
Hybrid of
 Mountain paper birch &
 Gray birch
Bouleau bleu
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1?

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Note: [2]
 Roth

1788. Betula pendula Roth
1789. Betula albavar. pendula
1790. Betula verrucosa Ehrh.
    
Weeping birch,
Silver birch,
European white birch,
European weeping birch
Bouleau verruqueux,
Bouleau pendant,
Bouleau pleureur,
Bouleau blanc d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
 Canada & Alaska??,
Naturalized

FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: X

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Genus Betulasubg. Betula (excluded taxa) Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Betula nana L.
Alpine birch,
Dwarf birch,
Arctic dwarf birch
N. America native
 Canada & Alaska,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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 Ehrh.
ssp. pubescens

Betula alba
Downy birch Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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 Sukaczev

Betula latifolia
Asian white birch Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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  1. Betula cordifolia is often treated as a variety of Betula papyrifera. According to Flora of North America, "…perhaps it should be considered an ecological race of that species."
  2. Betula × caerulea (blue birch) is listed by NRCS as a cross between papyrifera & populifolia, but FNA agrees with NYFA in stating that it as more likey [cordifolia × populifolia]
Betula subg. Neurobetula[edit | edit source]
Betula nigra
Although somewhat rare in New York and native to bottomlands, especially in the Hudson Valley, river birch is also planted as a popular landscape tree in other parts of the state.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Neurobetula
Genus BetulaL. 1753subg. Neurobetula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Betula nigra L.
1812. Betula rubra F.Michx.
River birch,
Red birch,
Black birch
Native, CoC: 8,
Rare,
S4, G5

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Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 3

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Betula subg. Chamaebetula[edit | edit source]
Betula pumila
bog birch
Subgenus Chamaebetula contains the dwarf birches.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Chamaebetula
Genus BetulaL. 1753subg. Chamaebetula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1767. Betula pumila L.
1902. B. hallii Howell
1909. B. glandulifera
(Regel) E. J. Butler
Bog birch,
Dwarf birch,
Low birch,
Swamp birch
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 2

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 Michx.

1803. Betula glandulosa Michx.
1911. B. exilis Sukaczev
    
Alpine birch,
Tundra dwarf birch,
Dwarf birch,
Resin birch
Bouleau glanduleux
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 1

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 (Tuck.) Fernald

1843. Betula papyraceavar. minor
1890. B. papyriferavar. minor
1902. B. albavar. minor
1945. B. minor Fernald
1966. B. pubescensssp. minor
1976. B. saxophila Lepage
Dwarf white birch,
Dwarf birch
Bouleau mineur
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 1

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Betula inter-subgeneric hybrids[edit | edit source]
Betula × sandbergii
The only known hybrid of birches from separate subgenera collected in New York is Sandberg's birch (Betula × sandbergii, of parents B. papyrifera × B. pumila).
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula
Genus BetulaL. 1753 Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Britton (pro sp.)

Betula papyrifera ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula sandbergii Britton
1957. Betula × neoborealis Lepage
Sandberg's birch,
Northern birch,
Hybrid of
 Paper birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Sandberg
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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Genus BetulaL. 1753 (excluded taxa) Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 C.K.Schneid.

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula purpusii C.K.Schneid.
1904. Betula purpusiivar. typica nom. inval.
Purpus' birch,
Hybrid of
 Yellow birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Purpus
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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 Lepage

Betula glandulosa ×
Betula minor

1952. Betula × dutillyi Lepage
Dutilly's birch,
Hybrid of
 Tundra dwarf birch &
 Dwarf white birch
Bouleau de Dutilly
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: D

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 Lepage

Betula populifolia ×
Betula pumila

1957. Betula × raymundii Lepage
Raymund's birch,
Hybrid of
 Gray birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Raymund
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: D

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Betula alleghaniensis × papyrifera

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula papyrifera

Un-named,
Hybrid of
 Yellow brirch &
 Paper birch
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: D

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Subfamily Coryloideae[edit | edit source]

The Coryloideae subfamily of the birch family generally includes the hornbeam (Carpineae) and hazel (Coryleae) tribes.

Tribe Carpineae[edit | edit source]

The Carpineae comprise the hornbeams (Carpinus) and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya). A single species of each is native to New York.
Ostrya[edit | edit source]
Ostrya virginiana
American hophornbeam
The genus Ostyra is generally known as hop-hornbeam, or ironwood. Of the approximately nine Ostyra species worldwide, only the Eastern hop-hornbeam species is known to grow outside of cultivation in New York. Because of its small size, shade tolerance, low timber value, and high reproductive rate, hop-hornbeam is often considered to be an undesirable understory species in forests being used for commercial timber production.[1][2]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Carpineae — Ostrya
Genus Ostrya Hop-hornbean N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Mill.) K.Koch

1768. Carpinus virginiana Mill.
1873. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch
Eastern hop-hornbeam,
American hophornbeam,
Ironwood
Ostryer de Virginie,
Bois de fer
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Carpinus[edit | edit source]
Carpinus caroliniana
American Hornbeam
The only species of hornbeam native in New York goes by the name American hornbeam, blue beech, or muscle-wood. It also goes by the name ironwood, but as that name is also commonly used for the related hop-hornbeam tree, perhaps it should be used for neither.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Carpineae — Carpinus
Genus Carpinus Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter
ssp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow

1785. C. betulus  var. virginiana  Marshall
1893. C. virginiana Sudw. non Miller 1768
1935. C. caroliniana  var. virginiana  Fernald
1987. C. caroliniana  ssp. virginiana  Furlow
American hornbeam,
Musclewood,
Blue beech,
Muscle tree,
Ironwood
Charme de Virginie,
Bois de fer
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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L.

1753. C. betulus L.
1940. C. caucasica Grossh.
European hornbeam Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unk. naturalization

NYFA: X

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Genus Carpinus (excluded taxa) Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter
ssp. caroliniana

1788. C. caroliniana Walter
1803. C. americana Michx.
American hornbeam,
Blue beech,
Musclewood,
Ironwood
Charme de Caroline
N. America native
 southern US,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Tribe Coryleae[edit | edit source]

Corylus[edit | edit source]
Corylus contains the hazelnut shrubs and trees, which are not closely related to witchhazel.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Coryleae — Corylus
Genus Corylus Hazelnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall
 ssp. cornuta

1785. Corylus cornuta Marshall
1789. Corylus rostrata Aiton
1940. C. cornutavar. megaphylla
Beaked hazelnut,
Beaked hazel,
Beaked filbert
Noisetier à long bec,
Coudrier à long bec
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

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Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: 5

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 Walter

1788. Corylus americana Walter
1864. C. americanavar. missouriensis
1916. C. americanavar. altior
1935. C. americanavar. indehiscens
American hazelnut,
American hazel,
American filbert
Noisetier d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - shade

NYFA: 5

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Genus Corylus (excluded taxa) Hazelnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Corylus avellana L.
European hazelnut,
European hazel,
Common filbert
Noisetier commun,
Coudrier,
Avelline
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA-Excluded

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