C# Programming

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C sharp musical note

C# (pronounced "See Sharp") is a multi-purpose computer programming language suitable for a wide variety of development needs. This Wikibook introduces C# language fundamentals and covers a variety of the base class libraries (BCL) provided by the Microsoft .NET Framework.


Main introduction: C Sharp Programming/Foreword

Although C# is derived from the C programming language, it introduces some unique and powerful features, such as delegates (which can be viewed as type-safe function pointers) and lambda expressions which introduce elements of functional programming languages, as well as a simpler single class inheritance model (than C++) and, for those of you with experience in "C-like" languages, a very familiar syntax that may help beginners become proficient faster than its predecessors. Similar to Java, it is object-oriented, comes with an extensive class library, and supports exception handling, multiple types of polymorphism, and separation of interfaces from implementations. Those features, combined with its powerful development tools, multi-platform support, and generics, make C# a good choice for many types of software development projects: rapid application development projects, projects implemented by individuals or large or small teams, Internet applications, and projects with strict reliability requirements. Testing frameworks such as NUnit make C# amenable to test-driven development and thus a good language for use with Extreme Programming (XP). Its strong typing helps to prevent many programming errors that are common in weakly typed languages.

A description of the C# language and introduction to this Wikibook.
Getting started with C# 
A simple C# program and where to get tools to compile it.


Basic syntax 
Describes the basics in how the applications you write will be interpreted.
Naming conventions 
Quickly describes the generally accepted naming conventions for C#.
The entities used to store data of various shapes.
Summarizes the operators, such as the '+' in addition, available in C#.
Data structures 
Enumerations, structs, and more.
Control statements 
Loops, conditions, and more. How the program flow is controlled.
Responding to errors that can occur.


Giving your code its own space to live in.
The blueprints of objects that describes how they should work.
Cornerstones of any object-oriented programming language, objects are the tools you use to perform work.
Encapsulation and accessor levels 
Explains protection of object states by encapsulation, or the bundling of an object's data and functionality.

Advanced Topics[edit]

Re-using existing code to improve or specialize the functionality of an object.
Define a template, on which to base sub-classes.
Delegates and Events
Learn about delegates, anonymous delegates, lambda expressions, and events.
Abstract classes
Build partially implemented classes.
Partial classes
Split a class over several files to allow multiple users to develop, but also to stop code generators interfering with source code.
Allow commonly used collections and classes to appear to have specialization for your custom class.
Extension methods
Extend the functionality of existing types.
Object Lifetime
Learn about the lifetime of objects, where they are allocated and learn about garbage collection.
Design Patterns
Learn commonly used design methodologies to simplify and/or improve your development framework.

The .NET Framework[edit]

.NET Framework Overview 
An overview of the .NET class library used in C#.
Console Programming 
Input and Output using the console.
Windows Forms 
GUI Programming with Windows Forms.
Effectively manage (add, remove, find, iterate, etc.) large sets of data.
Learn how to run code concurrently and how to synchronize code.
Communicating with unmanaged code




C# Keywords
abstract as base bool break
byte case catch char checked
class const continue decimal default
delegate do double else enum
event explicit extern false finally
fixed float for foreach goto
if implicit in int interface
internal is lock long namespace
new null object operator out
override params private protected public
readonly ref return sbyte sealed
short sizeof stackalloc static string
struct switch this throw true
try typeof uint ulong unchecked
unsafe ushort using var virtual
void volatile while
Special C# Identifiers (Contextual Keywords)
add alias async await dynamic
get global nameof partial remove
set value when where yield
Contextual Keywords (Used in Queries)
ascending by descending equals from
group in into join let
on orderby select where

External links[edit]