Handbook of Management Scales/Employee relations
Employee relations (alpha = 0.91; composite reliability = 0.90)
Eight quality management practices were identiﬁed by the authors: customer focus, employee relations, management leadership, process management, product/service design, quality data and reporting, supplier quality management, and training.
- Amount of feedback provided to employees on their quality performance. (0.84)
- Degree of participation in quality decisions by hourly/nonsupervisory employees. (0.88)
- Extent to which building quality awareness among employees is ongoing. (0.87)
- Extent to which employees are recognized for superior quality performance. (0.75)
All items were adapted from Saraph et al. (1989).