French/Grammar/Verbs/Past participle

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Usage[edit]

This is added after an auxiliary verb for many past tenses, including passé composé.

Formation[edit]

  • For a regular -er verb, the past participle is determined by replacing the -er with é.
  • For a regular -ir verb, the past participle is determined by removing the final r.
  • For a regular -re verb, the past participle is determined by replacing the -re with u.
  • Irregular verbs have irregular past participles, as shown by the table.
  • For verbs with the auxiliary verb être, the past participle must agree with the subject. For verbs with the auxiliary avoir, the participle never agree with the subject, but with a possible direct complement, if it is written before the verb. For example, in the sentence il les a eus, the participle eus agree with the direct complement les, because it's written before the verb, but in the sentence il a eu les facture, the participle eu does not agree with les factures.

The table below shows additions to the normal past participle that must be made based on the gender and number of the subject.

Irregular past participles

Verb

Past participle

atteindre

atteint

avoir

eu

boire

bu

conduire

conduit

connaître

connu

construire

construit

courir

couru

couvrir

couvert

craindre

craint

croire

cru

devoir

dire

dit

écrire

écrit

être

été

faire

fait

falloir

fallu

instruire

instruit

joindre

joint

lire

lu

mettre

mis

mourir

mort

offrir

offert

ouvrir

ouvert

naître

paraître

paru

peindre

peint

pleuvoir

plu

pouvoir

pu

prendre

pris

produire

produit

recevoir

reçu

savoir

su

souffrir

souffert

suivre

suivi

tenir

tenu

venir

venu

vivre

vécu

voir

vu

vouloir

voulu

Past participle agreement
Gender Number Add

masculine

singular

-

masculine

plural

-s

feminine

singular

-e

feminine

plural

-es