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فارسی (‹fârsi›, “Persian”)
Learn the Persian language
Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting


To continue, your computer must display Persian. The box below should show these Persian letters on the far right:
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی

If they are different or in the wrong order, see Persian Computing.

This page is for people who might help improve this Persian course on English Wikibooks.

To take the Persian language course, click here.

Book definition[edit | edit source]

  • Scope: This Wikibook aims to teach the Persian language from scratch, including grammar, core vocabulary, common phrases, formal/literary language, and conversational language. By the end, the student should be able to read and write Persian, but may need a human teacher to help with listening and speaking.
  • Audience: Anyone who can read English and wishes to learn Persian. Students may not know much about grammar or linguistics, so the text should describe grammar ideas in simple English.
  • Organization: This Wikibook requires no prior knowledge of Persian, and all relevant terms are explained as they are encountered. The book is meant to be read from lesson 1 forward to the end.
  • Narrative: The course will move slowly. The conversations are meant to be engaging and thorough. Each lesson should include many examples and exercises. Key grammar and vocabulary items are repeated several times to reinforce the foundation being built. After describing each grammar topic, provide several examples and exercises, then a summary.
  • Style: The formatting is consistent throughout, with UniPers transcription in angle brackets (e.g., ‹alef›) the same formatting throughout. Each lesson begins with a conversation, including the key grammar and vocabulary in the lesson. At the end, a summary reviews what was learned.

To-Do List[edit | edit source]

  • Add any missing language topics to the list below.
  • Move the language topics into the appropriate lesson, building from common or easier topics to uncommon or more difficult ones.
  • Create audio files of entire spoken sentences or short conversations (rather than several individual files) for convenient downloading.
  • Add more examples to the handwriting section. More explanation of Persian handwriting.
  • Possibly: An introductory section for Arabic speakers. (Shouldn't such a section be in an Arabic Wikibook?)
  • A section on Arabic grammar. (Only in the limited sense that such grammar is used in Persian, right?)
  • A definitive policy on what level of language should be used.

Transliteration[edit | edit source]

The transliteration system UniPers, consistent with w:Persian phonology and wikt:Wiktionary:Persian transliteration, is used in these lessons. That system gives a single transcription letter for each Persian phoneme, so when it is written within angle brackets (‹alef be pe te se›), it is consistent with the orthographic use of w:International Phonetic Alphabet.

Pronunciation[edit | edit source]

Both formal and colloquial pronunciation should be included, with a consistent register throughout any given dialogue. Differences between colloquial and formal (e.g. formal [ɒːn] becomes colloquial [uːn]) should be mentioned to the student. This course has a print version, wherever pronunciation of a single word is to be presented, show it visually using IPA and include a link to the audio file for convenient online access. template:listen is helpful here. (Supply IPA pronunciation as the last parameter, which replaces "listen".)

Practice[edit | edit source]

After explaining each grammar topic or lesson, show example phrases, then invite the student to participate actively with reading, listening, and speaking exercises. Exercises should be simple, show answers if relevant, and even repetitive to help instill an intuition for Persian.

Lesson Planning[edit | edit source]

This is a space for the development of an overall framework for the book, so that grammar and vocabulary can be introduced in a logical order and at a good pace. Previously covered grammar and vocabulary should be revisited regularly.

As you write, remember that people reading this book may be totally new to the language. Do not write as if you are writing for another Persian speaker, but explain things so learners can use this book easily.

Add any missing topics below. Keep the lesson contents manageable and their size regular.

Note: The first bullet point in each lesson below shows the main focus for the lesson.

Fundamentals[edit | edit source]

The first four lessons focus on the writing system with minimal grammar and vocabulary.

Persian/Lesson 1

  • Orthography: Introduce alphabet from ‹alef› to ‹xe›. Show stroke order with animate gif files.
  • Dialogue: ‹salâm!› Friends آرش ‹âraš› and شيرين ‹širin› greet each other informally.
  • Culture: Brief Arab-Persian history and the influence of the Arab language on Persian.
  • Orthography: separate and joined letter forms (‹alef› lacks a joined form)
  • Orthography: short vowels and how they are usually omitted in writing.

Persian/Lesson 2

  • Orthography: Continue alphabet: د ‹dâl›, ذ ‹zâl›, ر ‹re›, ز ‹ze›, ژ ‹že›, س ‹sin›, ش ‹šin›, ص ‹sâd›, ض ‹zâd›, ط ‹tâ›, ظ ‹zâ›. Show stroke order with animated images.
  • Dialogue: ‹hâl-e šomâ cetor ast?› آرش ‹âraš› and آقاى پیمان ‹âqâ-ye peymân› greet each other formally.
  • Phonology: syllable stress
  • Culture: titles like آقا and its feminine homophone آغا are used before or after the first name, last name, or both. پيمان is a first name. Family names are relatively new (1912?) in Iran.
  • Orthography: د ‹dâl›, ذ ‹zâl›, ر ‹re›, ز ‹ze›, ژ ‹že› lack a joined form

Persian/Lesson 3

  • Orthography: Continue alphabet: ع ‹'eyn›, غ ‹qeyn›, ف ‹fe›, ق ‹qaf›, ک ‹kaf›, گ ‹gaf›, ﻝ ‹lâm›, م ‹mim›, ن ‹nun›. Show stroke order with animated gif files.
  • Dialogue: صبح بخیر ‹sobh bexeyr› ("good morning") حسن ("Hassan", a.k.a. حسن ی /hasani/) talks with Mohamad (a.k.a. ممد /Mamad/).
  • Vocabulary : Introduce one form of the negative present tense copula, e.g. نیستم ‹nistam› and a few adjectives.

Persian/Lesson 4

  • Orthography: Finish alphabet: و ‹vâv›, ه ‹he›, ی ‹ye› (‹vâv› lacks a joined form). Show stroke order with animated gif files.
  • Dialogue: آقا رضا ‹âqâ rezâ› talks with خانم شيرين ‹xânom širin›.
  • Orthography: long vowels (with alef at beginning vs. without alef in the middle/end)
  • Orthography: Alphabet summary. Copyedit and move most of Persian/Alphabet into here.
  • Vocabulary: include pronouns that have not yet been introduced in preparation for the grammar lessons: ما, آنها, او
  • Grammar: تشديد tašdid

Basic grammar[edit | edit source]

The next several lessons establish a foundation of Persian grammar.

Persian/Lesson 5

  • Grammar: introduction to verb conjugation via the present tense forms of copula بودن (the most common verb in Persian) in short/clitic form (ام، است، ...) and emphatic/full-form (هستم، ...)
  • Dialogue: ___ talks with احمد جان /Ahmad jân/ ("dear Ahmad", term of endearment), include all standard personal pronouns in copular sentences
  • Grammar: simple copular sentence structure, verb last, optional subjects. (no definite object marker yet, no prepositions)
  • است (with singular and plural subjects) and هستند (animate plural subjects only) for "there is" and "there are". Some sources disagree with this and say است is only a copula, not used for existence.

Persian/Lesson 6

  • Grammar: Ezâfe
  • Dialogue:
  • Grammar: adjectives following nouns, unstressed ی (like ezafe and considered such by modern/western grammars, but functionally different and not considered ezafe by traditional Persian grammars because it does not join two substantives) as enclitic (not suffix), pronunciation and written/unwritten form after consonant (/e/) or vowel (/je/); colloquially, short forms are used even after vowels.
  • demonstrative adjectives: این /in/ ("this"), آن /un/ ("that"), before noun.
    • Demonstrative contractions: /injâ/ ("here"), آنجا /unjâ/ ("there"), /conin/ ("like this"), /conân/ ("like that"), /hamin/ ("this [very] same"), /hamân/ ("that [very] same")
    • Demonstrative pronouns آنها ‹unhâ› ("those there" or just "those", special case where ها is always joined) and اینها ‹inhâ› ("these here", second special case where ها ‹hâ› is always joined).

Persian/Lesson 7

  • Grammar: simple past tense conjugation (infinitive /-an/; past stem + /-am/ /-i/ /-/, /-im/, /-id/, /-and/)
  • Dialogue:
  • Culture: plurality and formality/deference
  • Grammar: plurality of verb with animate vs. inanimate subject
  • Plurality of subject reference, optional subject pronoun, and verb as it relates to formality and deference:
    • Semantically plural human subject requires plural verb.
    • 2nd person semantically singular addressee:
      • Friendly, informal reference: (optional pronoun) تو /tow/, singular verb (ی ending)
      • Semi-formal, respectful: (optional plural pronoun) شما /šomâ/, singular verb (ی ending)
      • Formal, more respectful: plural verb, optional plural pronoun (شما), plural verb written with ید ending, pronounced colloquially as ین.
      • Very formal conditions treating the addressee with deference: جناب عالی /jenâb âli/ ("your excellency")
    • 3rd person semantically singular human reference: او /u/ or ایشان /išân/. May use plural verb to show greater respect.

Persian/Lesson 8

  • Grammar: negation
    • negative particle ن ‹na-› takes the stress and prefixes conjugated verb, not the invariant part
  • Grammar: negative copula (بیستم، بیست، ...)

Persian/Lesson 9

  • Grammar: plural nouns, (joined or ZWNJ plus) ها suffix, works for all nouns in spoken Persian.
    • Bonus: Alternatively, plurals of certain Arabic nouns representing animates or paired body parts can take ان ‹-un›. Regular (un-"broken") Arabic plurals can take ات ‹-ât›. Arabic final ه becomes جان. Some Arabic nouns can take ین ‹-in›.
    • No suffix when numeral is used (before the noun). Written Persian: use ان suffix for human nouns, irregular plurals from Arabic (ات، ین، or vowel alternation, e.g. کتاب)
    • non-pronoun subject may be unspecified for number
    • plural non-human subject with plural suffix ها may take singular verb if it is thought of as a collective unit. Plural verb is always used with plural autonomous subjects, e.g. vehicles carrying people, governments of people, buildings with people, etc.

Persian/Lesson 10

  • Grammar: indefinite marker as unstressed clitic ی, translates as “a”, “an”, or “some” (after ها)
    • written as ئی after ا or و
    • singular noun with ی may express uncertainty about the quantity
    • colloquial use of یک as a singular indefinite determiner vs. indefinite clitic ی. Avoid confusion between ezâfe (کتابهای "books of") and indefinite (کتابهائی "some books")
  • homographs with different short vowels: کرم for ‹kerm› "worm", ‹karam› "generosity", ‹kerem› "cream", ‹krom› "chrome", ‹karm› "vine"; also, مردی as noun ‹mard› + indefinite suffix or + linking enclitic or + 2nd person singular copula enclitic or + abstract morpheme, or verb ‹mord› + 2nd person singular conjugation suffix

Persian/Lesson 11

  • Grammar: direct objects and prepositions
    • definite or human object enclitic را , colloquially pronounced or /o/ after consonant, /ro/ after vowel
  • Dialogue:
  • Grammar: no actual direct article, but in some situations را carries similar meaning, less used than "the".
  • Grammar: prepositions, semantic objects marked by prepositions (/az/, /be/)
  • Grammar: single-clause sentence structure: (subject) (definite object را) (prep phrases) (adverbs) (predicate nominative/adjective) verb

Persian/Lesson 12

  • Present tense conjugation (می + ZWNJ + imperative stem): imperative/present stem + /-am/, /-i/, /-ad/, /-im/, /-id/, /-and/
    • Old form of simple present was without می, which carries imperfective sense, but the می form has replaced the simple present in modern use for most verbs.
    • Verbs that don't take می in the present tense: بودن (ههستم، ...)، داشتن (درم، ...)
    • Negative present (نمی)

Persian/Lesson 13

  • Grammar: (bound) personal enclitics after (singular or plural) noun phrase:
    • After consonant: /am/, /at/, /aš/, /emân/, /etân/, /ešân/
    • After و or ا, /yam/, /yat/...
    • After ه or ی, singular suffixes are spelled with leading zwnj+ا.
    • after noun phrase, expresses possession /pedaram/ ("my father"), /dust-e xubam/ ("my good friend")
    • alternative pronomial direct objects as enclitics
  • Differences between spoken and written forms (e.g., written را is spoken و, ‹e› as the spoken form of است, colloquial verb endings: ه ‹eh›, written ان ‹ân› vs spoken ‹un›, but not in خانم ‹xânom›)

Persian/Lesson 14

  • Grammar: verbs with invariant separable prefixes (sometimes known as "light" verb constructions, similar to English "make an announcement", "catch a cold")
  • causative sense of کردن vs. شدن (e.g. تلفن کردن, تمیر کردن, گریه کردن, فراموش کردن, فکر کردن)

Persian/Lesson 15

  • formal questions with sentence-initial آیا
  • informal questions with voice tone only

Intermediate grammar[edit | edit source]

Persian/Lesson 16

  • Perfective aspect:
    • Present perfect ("... has/have [done]"): past participle + auxiliary present بودن in simple clitic or bound form: دیدهم /dideam/, دیدهی /didei/, دیدهست /dideast/, ...; رفتهم /rafteam/, رفتهی /raftei/, رفتهست /rafteast/, ...
    • negative perfect: negative ن /na-/ prefixes main verb, not the auxiliary (in case full/emphatic form is used).
    • Use of از ... ن with negative present perfect verb for "have not done ... for [some period of time]"
    • Use of است که ... ت with negative present perfect verb for "it's been ... since [someone did something]"
    • Past perfect ("... had [done]"): with ...ه past participle + auxiliary simple past بودن , e.g.: دیده بودم /dide budam/, دیده بودی /dide budi/, دیده بود /dide bud/, ...; رفته بودم /rafte budam/, رفته بودی /rafte budi/, ...
    • Negative past perfect: ن /na-/ prefixes main verb, not auxiliary: نرفنه بودم /narafte budam/
  • Invariant prefix before auxiliary verb.
  • Negative auxiliary with positive main verb.

Persian/Lesson 17

  • Comparative adjectives (ZWNJ + stressed تر suffix) follow noun with ezâfe like other adjectives.
  • Superlative adjectives (ZWNJ + stressed ترین suffix). Superlative comes before noun.
  • Comparing two nouns using از Look up از in Wiktionary ‹az› (“than”), prepositional phrase typically goes before predicate nominative
    Proverb: /došman-e dânâ behtar az dust-e nâdân ast/ ("a wise foe is better than a foolish friend")

Persian/Lessons 18-?

  • Imperative: stem changes, with and without ب prefix, informal imperative as ب + present stem with no personal ending, negative imperative as ن replacing ب
    Subjunctive: subordinate statement of desire, doubt, possibility, or indirect quote.
    Imperative/conditional/subjunctive: ب /be-/ + present stem + present personal clitic: بنویسم /benevisam/, بنویسی /benevisi/, بنویسد /benevisad/, ...; دیدن : present stem بین /bin/ (to see): ببینم /bebinam/, ببینی /bebini/, ...; رفتن raftan, ‘to go’, stem رو (rav), بروم /beravam/, بروی /beravi/, /biravad, biravim, biravid, biravand/; bibakhshid, 'pardon!', bibinid, 'see!'
    Negative imperative/subjunctive/conditional: ن /na/ + present stem + personal endings e.g. naravid 'don't go'; nakunid 'don't do!’
    Informal imperative: 'bi' + present stem + Ø, e.g. bibin 'see!', bikhuwr 'eat!’, bigu, ‘say!'.
    • Subjunctive ("[that] I write") and conditional: "I want to go" translates as می‌خواهم بروم /mixâham beravam/ ("I want [that] I go"). Similarly, /mitavânam bebinam/ ("I can [that] I see"). Past: xâstam biram, 'I wanted to go'; nazasht biram (naguzasht biravam)', ‘He didn't let me go.'
      verbs frequently followed by subjuctive: tavanistan, 'to be able to', xâstan, 'to want', fikr kardan, 'to think', umidvar budan, 'to hope', guzaŝtan, ‘to let’.
    • /be/ pronounced as /bu/ before syllable with /u/, pronounced as /bi/ before syllable with /â/
  • Explicit possession with the noun مال, e.g. مال من ‹mâl-e man› (“mine”): این کتاب مال من است، ن مال تو ‹in ketâb mâl-e man ast, na mâl-e to› (“"this book is mine, not yours")
  • Future:
    • Spoken Persian, future expressed with present imperfective and time adverb (/fardâ/ ("tomorrow"), /baødan/ ("later")), e.g. /fardâ sobh be muze miravim/ ("We'll go to the museum tomorrow morning").
    • With auxiliary خواستن, e.g. خواهم، خواهی، ... followed by simple past stem (otherwise unconjugated main verb)
    • Literary Persian future simple tense
  • Abstraction with stressed suffix ی. Works with nouns and adjectives. آب، مرد، خوب، بزرک، گل، صورت، نارنج، قهوه، خاکستر...
  • progressive/continuous tense:
    • No progressive tense in written Persian
    • Informal progressive/continuous with simple present auxiliary داشتن /dâštan/ conjugated for person + imperfective (present or past, depending on sense) tense main verb (both verbs conjugated for person). Sometimes also used as informal future tense. /dâram minevisam/ ("I am writing"), /dârad minevisad/ ("he/she is writing").
    • No negative progressive ( */dâram neminevisam/ ). Instead, the negative imperfective main verb is used with no auxiliary. /neminevisam/ ("I'm not writing")
    • Tendency not to negate present continuous, but to use negative simple present instead
  • Relative pronouns آنجه، هرجه، کدام
  • Reflexive pronoun خود Look up خود in Wiktionary ‹xod› (“oneself, myself, ...”) always replaces a standard personal pronoun if it has the same referent as the subject
  • Past imperfect:
    • Expresses continuous or habitual past action, e.g. ‹‹vaqtî bachchih bûdam tû yik furûshgâh kâr mîkardam›› 'I used to work in a department store when I was a child.'
    • می /mi/ + ZWNJ + simple past stem + personal suffix.
    • When negated نمی is pronounced /nemi-/ in standard dialect, but /nami-/ in Afghanistan and Tajik
  • Past continuous
  • past continuous + که (for "while" or "when") + simple past
  • اگر ("if"), مگر ("unless") with subjunctive verb prefix ب
  • باید می + simple past tense for "should have [done]": auxiliary verb is invariant
  • شاید +‌ present perfect for "may/might have [done]": auxiliary verb is invariant
  • توانستن conjugated for "can [do]"
  • خواستن conjugated + (dropped که +) subjunctive for "want to [do]"
  • Coordinating conjunctions:
    • [subject] هم [complement 1] هستم/است/.../هستند ("am/is/are both") هم ("and") [complement 2]
    • [subject] یا [complement 1] است/هستم/.../هستند ("am/is/are either") یا ("or") [complement 2]
    • [subject] نه [complement 1] هیت/هستم/.../هستند ("am/is/are neither") نه ("nor") [complement 2]
    • [subject] نه تنها [complement 1] هستم/است/.../هستند ("am/is/are not only") بلکه ("but") [complement 2] هم هستم/است/.../هستند ("also am/is/are")
  • Nouns used like prepositions but read with ezafe: کنار, رو ,پهلو ,پشت ,جلو, عفب, زیر
  • Impersonal verbs (آدم)
  • Addressing people:
    • Friend: آقا /âqâ/ (Mr.) or جان /jân/ (dear) before or after the names as آقا احمد /âqâ Ahmad/, احمد آقا /Ahmad âghâ/ (Mr. Ahmad) or رضا جان /Reza jân/ (dear Reza).
    • Father: بابا /bâbâ/ (dad), پدر /pedar/ (father), آقاجان /âgha jân/ (dear Mr.), بابایی /bâbâii/ (daddy), باباجان /bâbâ jân/ (dear dad)
    • Mother: مامان /mâmân/ (mom), مادر /mâdar/ (mother), مامانی /mâmâni/ (mommy), مامان جان /mâmân jân/ (dear mommy)
    • Brother: برادر /barâdar/, داداش /dâdâš/ or داداشی /dâdâši/ (brother), خان داداش /khân dâdâš/ (great brother), or by first name
    • Sister: خواهر /xâhar/, آبجی /âbji/ or همشیره /hamšireh/ (sister), and also by their FN.
    • Father's sister: عمه /ammeh/, عمه جان /ammeh jân/, عمه خانم /ammeh xânom/
    • Mother's sister: خاله /xâleh/, خاله جان /xâleh jân/ and خاله خانم /xâleh xânom/
    • Father's brother: عمو /amu/, عمو جان /amu jân/, خان عمو /xân amu/
    • Mother's brother: دایی /dâii/, دایی جان /dâii jân/ and خان دایی /khân dâii/
    • Mother's sister's daughter: دخترخاله /doxtar xâleh/
    • Father's sister's son: پسرعمه /pesar ammeh/
    • Mother's bother's son: پسر دایی
    • Grandfather: بابابزرگ /bâbâ bozorg/, پدربزرگ /pedar bozorg/, پدرجان /pedar jân/, آقا جان /âghâ jân/
    • Grandmother: مادربزرگ /mâdar bozorg/, مامان بزرگ /mâmân bozorg/, مادرجان /mâdar jân/, خانم جان /xânom jân/, ننه /naneh/, بی بی /bibi/
    • Daughter-in-law: عروس /arus/ (bride).
    • Addressing addressee with addresser's title: Father to his son: "بابایی ٬ در رو باز کن." ("Daddy, open the door."). Aunt to niece/nephew: "خاله, ..." (/xâleh/, "aunt"), or /ammeh/ ("aunt").
    • Use of family terms for non relatives: پدر /pedar/ ("father"), مادر /mâdar/ ("mother"), پسرم /pesaram/ ("my son"), دخترم /doxtaram/ ("my daughter"), ننه /naneh/ ("grand ma"), etc. Among these, terms عمو /amu/, دایی /dâii/ (uncle), داداش /dâdâš/ (brother), are mostly used by male speakers when calling their male addressees. The terms همشیره /hamšireh/, خواهر /xâhar/, آبجی /âbji/ (sister), are used when addressing a female recipient.
    • Religious: Addressing someone as /hâji/, /karbalâii/ or /mašhadi/. Specifically, a male who done the religious ceremony حج /haj/ may be addressed as حاجی /hâji/ or حاج آقا /hâj âqa/, or a female as حاجیه خانم ‹hâjieh xânom›. Similarly a pilgrim to Karbalâ is called کربلایی /karbalâii/ or کربلایی احمد /karbalâii Ahmad/, and a pilgrim to Mashhad is called مشهدی /mašhadi/ or مشهدی علی /mašhadi Ali/.
    • Pet names: e.g., عزیزم /azizam/ ("my dear"), گلم /golam/ ("my flower"), خانم خانما /xânom xânoma/ ("beauty Miss")
    • Very intimate pet names: کوچولو /kučulu/ ("the little"), جیگر /jigar/ ("the liver"), رفیق /rafiq/ ("mate"), عزیز /aziz/ ("dear"), پهلوان /pahlavân/ ("champion"), ارباب /arbâb/ ("lord"), etc.
    • Descriptive address: آقای عزیز /âqaye aziz/ ("dear sir"), خانم محترم /xânome mohtaram/ ("respected lady"), عزیز دلم /azize delam/ ("darling of my heart"), دختر نازم /doxtare nâzam/ ("my lovely girl"), خوشتیپ /xoštip/ ("handsom person") and گل پسر /gol pesar/ ("good boy")

Advanced grammar[edit | edit source]

  • Classifiers: optional, never used with یک, but often used by natives with other numbers
    • Books: جلد Look up جلد in Wiktionary ‹jeld› (“volumes”)
    • People: نفر Look up نفر in Wiktionary ‹nafar› (“individuals”)
    • Paper: ورق Look up ورق in Wiktionary ‹varaq› (“sheets”)
    • Soap: قالب Look up قالب in Wiktionary ‹qâleb› (“bars”)
    • General: تا Look up تا in Wiktionary ‹tâ› (“units”), e.g. works with میز، در، چراغ، ...
  • Relative clauses: nominal + که + RC. resumptive pronoun is required when the gap is anything other than the subject or DO. Optional RP in the object gap. No RP in subject gap. E.g.: subject که (omitted subject repetition) object را verb "subject that verbs object"; subject1 که subject2 (omitted object corresponding to subject1) PP verb-optionalObjectPronounEnclitic "subject1 that subject2 verbs (it) PP"; subject1 که subject2 preposition prep.object.pronoun.clitic.for.subject1 direct.object را verb "subject1 preposition which subject2 verb direct.object"
  • Exhortations, optative
  • Reported speech, perception verbs

Topics[edit | edit source]

This section is for building out topics. They can be augmented, organized, and formatted here while we're not yet sure which lesson to put them into.

Telling time[edit | edit source]

  • ساعت Look up ساعت in Wiktionary ‹sâ’at› (“hour, o'clock”)
    ساعت یک است ‹sâ’at yek e› (“it's one o'clock”)
  • نیم Look up نیم in Wiktionary ‹nim› (“half”)
    ساعت دو و نیم است ‹sâ’at do vo nim e› (“it's half past two”)
  • ربع Look up ربع in Wiktionary ‹rob’› (“quarter”)
    ساعت یک و ربع است ‹sâ’at yek o rob’ e› (“it's a quarter past one”)
  • کم Look up کم in Wiktionary ‹kam› (“to (the hour)”)
    ساعت سه ربع کم است ‹sâ’at se rob’ kam e› (“it's a quarter to three”)
  • دقیقه Look up دقیقه in Wiktionary ‹daqiqe› (“minutes”)
    ساعت هفت و پنج دقیقه کم است ‹sâ’at haft o panj daqiqe kam e› (“it's five minutes to seven”)

Calendar[edit | edit source]

Iranian newspapers publish three different calendars: Persian, Muslim, and Christian.

The Persian calendar dates back to Zoroastrian pre-Islamic times. It begins with the Persian New Year on the vernal equinox (March 20 or 21) and each month corresponds to a sign of the Zodiac:

Order Begins Days Name in Iran Name in Afghanistan
1 March 20 or 21 31 فروردین Look up فروردین in Wiktionary ‹farvardin› حمل Look up حمل in Wiktionary ‹hamal› (“Aries”) ♈
2 April 31 اردیبهشت Look up اردیبهشت in Wiktionary ‹ordibehešt› ثور Look up ثور in Wiktionary ‹sawr› (“Taurus”) ♉
3 May 31 خرداد Look up خرداد in Wiktionary ‹xordâd› جوزا Look up جوزا in Wiktionary ‹jawzâ› (“Gemini”) ♊
4 June 31 تیر Look up تیر in Wiktionary ‹tir› سرطان Look up سرطان in Wiktionary ‹saratân› (“Cancer”) ♋
5 July 31 مرداد Look up مرداد in Wiktionary ‹mordad› اسد Look up اسد in Wiktionary ‹asad› (“Leo”) ♌
6 August 31 شهریور Look up شهریور in Wiktionary ‹šahrivar› سنبله Look up سنبله in Wiktionary ‹sonbola› (“Virgo”) ♍
7 September 30 مهر Look up مهر in Wiktionary ‹mehr› میزان Look up میزان in Wiktionary ‹mizân› (“Libra”) ♎
8 October 30 آبان Look up آبان in Wiktionary ‹âbân› عقرب Look up عقرب in Wiktionary ‹’aqrab› (“Scorpio”) ♏
9 November 30 آذر Look up آذر in Wiktionary ‹âzar› قوس Look up قوس in Wiktionary ‹qaws› (“Sagittarius”) ♐
10 December 30 دی Look up دی in Wiktionary ‹dey› جدی Look up جدی in Wiktionary ‹jadi› (“Capricorn”) ♑
11 January 30 بهمن Look up بهمن in Wiktionary ‹bahman› دلو Look up دلو in Wiktionary ‹dalwa› (“Aquarius”) ♒
12 February 29/30 اسفند Look up اسفند in Wiktionary ‹esfand› حوت Look up حوت in Wiktionary ‹hut› (“Pisces”) ♓

The first day of the calendar year is نوروز Look up نوروز in Wiktionary ‹nowruz› (“New Day”), the most important festival of the year in Persian regions.

Seasons: بهار Look up بهار in Wiktionary ‹bahâr› (“spring”), تابستان Look up تابستان in Wiktionary ‹tâbestân› (“summer”), پاییز Look up پاییز in Wiktionary ‹pâyiz› (“autumn”), زمستان Look up زمستان in Wiktionary ‹zemestân› (“winter”)

In Iran, the weekend is on Thursday and Friday and the standard business office workweek is from Saturday through Wednesday. The weekend schedule accommodates the Muslim day of prayer—Friday. Other than جمعه Look up جمعه in Wiktionary ‹jom’e› (“Friday”), the days of the week are named based on شنبه Look up شنبه in Wiktionary ‹šambe› (“Saturday”):

  1. یک‌شنبه Look up یک‌شنبه in Wiktionary ‹yek-šambe› (“Sunday”) (one day after Saturday)
  2. دوشنبه Look up دوشنبه in Wiktionary ‹do-šambe› (“Monday”) (two days after Saturday)
  3. سه‌شنبه Look up سه‌شنبه in Wiktionary ‹se-šambe› (“Tuesday”) (three days after Saturday)
  4. چهارشنبه Look up چهارشنبه in Wiktionary ‹cahâr-šambe› (“Wednesday”) (four days after Saturday)
  5. پنج‌شنبه Look up پنج‌شنبه in Wiktionary ‹panj-šambe› (“Thursday”) (five days after Saturday)

Note that ‍نب‍ ‹-nb-› is pronounced as ‹-mb-›, not just in شنبه Look up شنبه in Wiktionary ‹šambe›, but in all Persian words where the consonant ن ‹n› is immediately followed by ب ‹b› .

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

Limit the core vocabulary to about 15 new words per lesson, but feel free to add any additional words that fit the lesson topic as bonus vocabulary. Doing so gives students the choice of how much to learn. If the topic for which you have new words hasn't been introduced yet, add them to Persian/Glossary.

All vocabulary Lessons 1 - 999   edit
English gloss Notes ‹fârsi› فارسی

Letter: [ɒː], [æ], [e], [o] Look up ا in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹alef ا
Noun: water Look up آب in Wiktionary ‹âb› آب
Adjective: blue Look up آبی in Wiktionary ‹âbi› آبی
Interjection: yep, yes (informal) Look up آره in Wiktionary âre› آره
Noun: gentleman, sir, Mr. Look up آقا in Wiktionary Lesson 2 âqâ› آقا
Noun: black cherry Look up آلبالو in Wiktionary ‹âlbâlu› آلبالو
Noun: prune Look up آلو in Wiktionary ‹âlu› آلو
Noun: damson Look up آلوچه in Wiktionary ‹âluce› آلوچه
Adjective: American Look up آمریکایی in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹âmriyi› آمریکایی
Determiner: that Look up آن in Wiktionary ‹ân, on› آن
Pronoun: they Look up آنها in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹ân, onâ› آنها
Noun: furniture Look up اثاث in Wiktionary ‹asâs› اثاث
Noun: Sociology Look up اجتماعی in Wiktionary ‹ejtemâ’i› اجتماعی
Verb: am, is, are Look up ام، ای، است، ایم، اید، اند in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹am, i, ast, im, in, an› ام، ای، است، ایم، اید، اند
Noun: name Look up اسم in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹esm› اسم
Adverb: today Look up امروز in Wiktionary ‹emruz› امروز
Noun: pomegranate Look up انار in Wiktionary ‹anâr› انار
Noun: mango Look up انبه in Wiktionary ‹anbe› انبه
Noun: English Look up انگلیسی in Wiktionary ‹engelisi› انگلیسی
Noun: grapes Look up انگور in Wiktionary ‹angur› انگور
Pronoun: he, she Look up او in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹u› او
Proper noun: Iran Look up ایران in Wiktionary ‹irân› ایران
Adjective: Iranian Look up ایرانی in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹ini› ایرانی
Determiner: this Look up این in Wiktionary ‹in› این
Letter: [b] Look up ب in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹be› ب
Preposition: with Look up با in Wiktionary ‹bâ› با
Adjective: smart Look up باهوش in Wiktionary ‹bâhuš› باهوش
Interjection: excuse me Look up ببخشید in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹bebaxšid› ببخشید
Noun: (person) child, infant Look up بچّه in Wiktionary ‹bacce› بچّه
Adjective: bad Look up بد in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹bad› بد
Noun: (person) brother Look up برادر in Wiktionary ‹barâdar› برادر
Preposition: for, in order to Look up برای in Wiktionary ‹barâye› برای
Interjection: goodbye (said to the person who is leaving) Look up بسلامت in Wiktionary ‹besalâmat› بسلامت
Phrase: What can I do for you? Look up بفرمایید in Wiktionary ‹befarmâin› بفرمایید
Phrase: in the afternoon Look up بعد از ظهر in Wiktionary ‹ba’d az zohr› بعد از ظهر
Interjection: yes (formal) Look up بله in Wiktionary ‹bale› بله
Adjective: purple Look up بنفش in Wiktionary ‹banafš› بنفش
Verb: to be Look up بودن in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹budan› بودن
in, at, to, for Look up به in Wiktionary ‹be› به
Number: twenty (20) Look up بیست (۲۰) in Wiktionary ‹bist› بیست (۲۰)
Letter: [p] Look up پ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹pe› پ
Noun: foot Look up پا in Wiktionary ‹pâ› پا
Number: five hundred (500) Look up پانصد (۵۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹pânsâd› پانصد (۵۰۰)
Noun: (person) father Look up پدر in Wiktionary ‹pedar› پدر
Noun: (person) grandfather Look up پدربزرگ in Wiktionary ‹pedarbozorg› پدربزرگ
Noun: orange Look up پرتغال in Wiktionary ‹porteqâl› پرتغال
Noun: bird Look up پرنده in Wiktionary ‹parande› پرنده
Adverb: the day before yesterday Look up پریروز in Wiktionary ‹pariruz› پریروز
Adverb: the day after tomorrow Look up پس فردا in Wiktionary ‹pas fardâ› پس فردا
Noun: (person) boy, son Look up پسر in Wiktionary ‹pesar› پسر
Number: five (5) Look up پنج‌ (۵) in Wiktionary ‹panj› پنج‌ (۵)
Number: fifty (50) Look up پنجاه (۵۰) in Wiktionary ‹panjâh› پنجاه (۵۰)
Number: fifteen (15) Look up پانزده (۱۵) in Wiktionary ‹panjdah› پانزده (۱۵)
Noun: Thursday Look up پنج‌شنبه in Wiktionary ‹panj-šambe› پنج‌شنبه
Letter: [t] Look up ت in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹te› ت
Pronoun: you (singular, informal) Look up تو in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹tow› تو
Noun: berry Look up توت in Wiktionary ‹tut› توت
Preposition: until Look up تا in Wiktionary ‹tâ› تا
Noun: (classifier) unit Look up تا in Wiktionary ‹tâ› تا
Noun: television Look up تلویزیون in Wiktionary ‹televizion› تلویزیون
Noun: strawberry Look up توت فرنگی in Wiktionary ‹tut farangi› توت فرنگی
Noun: raspberry Look up تمشک in Wiktionary ‹tamešk› تمشک
Noun: history Look up تاریخ in Wiktionary ‹târix› تاریخ
Letter: [s] Look up ث in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹se› ث
Letter: [dʒ] Look up ج in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹jim› ج
Noun: place Look up جا in Wiktionary ‹jâ› جا
Noun: soul, darling Look up جان in Wiktionary ‹jân› جان
Noun: geography Look up جغرافی in Wiktionary ‹joqrâfi› جغرافی
Noun: Friday Look up جمعه in Wiktionary ‹jom’e› جمعه
Letter: [tʃ] Look up چ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹ce› چ
Noun: tea Look up چای in Wiktionary ‹câi› چای
Noun: eye Look up چشم in Wiktionary ‹cešm› چشم
Adjective: how Look up چطور in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹cetor چطور
Phrase: How are you? (informal) Look up چطوری؟ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹cetori?› چطوری؟
Conjunction: because Look up چون in Wiktionary ‹con› چون
Number: four (4) Look up چهار (۴) in Wiktionary ‹cahâr, câr› چهار (۴)
Number: fourteen (14) Look up چهارده (۱۴) in Wiktionary ‹cahârdah› چهارده (۱۴)
Pronoun: what? Look up چی in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹ci› چی
Noun: Wednesday Look up چهارشنبه in Wiktionary ‹cahâr-šambe, câršambe› چهارشنبه
Number: four hundred (400) Look up چهارصد (۴۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹cahârsâd› چهارصد (۴۰۰)
Number: forty (40) Look up چهل (۴۰) in Wiktionary ‹cehel› چهل (۴۰)
Letter: [h] Look up ح in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹he› ح
Noun: health Look up حال in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹hâl› حال
Noun: your health (informal) Look up حالت in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹hâlet› حالت
Noun: bath (Turkish?) Look up حمّام in Wiktionary ‹hammâm› حمّام
Letter: [x] Look up خ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹xe› خ
Noun: (person) maternal aunt Look up خاله in Wiktionary ‹xâle› خاله
Phrase: May God keep you. (Goodbye.) Look up خداحافظ. in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹xofez.› خداحافظ.
Noun: (person) wife, lady, Miss Look up خانم in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹xânom› خانم
Noun: house Look up خانه in Wiktionary ‹xâne, xune› خانه
fatigue Look up خستگی in Wiktionary ‹xastegi› خستگی
Noun: (person) sister Look up خواهر in Wiktionary ‹xâhar› خواهر
Phrase: Please do [...]. Also used like “you’re welcome.” Look up خواهش می‌کنم in Wiktionary ‹xâhesh mikonam› خواهش می‌کنم
Adjective: fine, well, good Look up خوب in Wiktionary xub خوب
Phrase: I’m fine. Look up (من) خوبم. in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹(man) xubam.› (من) خوبم.
Adjective: pleasant, happy Look up خوش in Wiktionary ‹xoš› خوش
Phrase: Nice to meet you. Look up خوشبختم in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹xošbaxtam› خوشبختم
Interjection: no Look up خیر in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹xeyr› خیر
very Look up خیلی in Wiktionary Lesson 3 xeyli› خیلی
Letter: [d] Look up د in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹dâ› د
Noun: (person) maternal uncle Look up دایی in Wiktionary ‹dâyi› دایی
Noun: (person) girl, daughter Look up دختر in Wiktionary ‹doxtar› دختر
Preposition: to, for, at Look up در in Wiktionary ‹dar› در
Noun: door Look up در in Wiktionary ‹dar› در
Noun: lesson, lecture Look up درس in Wiktionary ‹dars› درس
Noun: hand Look up دست in Wiktionary ‹dast› دست
Noun: bathroom Look up دستشویی in Wiktionary ‹dastšuy› دستشویی
Noun: notebook Look up دفتر in Wiktionary ‹daftar› دفتر
Noun: heart, guts Look up دل in Wiktionary ‹del› دل
Noun: tail Look up دم in Wiktionary ‹dom› دم
Number: two (2) Look up دو (۲) in Wiktionary ‹do› دو (۲)
Number: twelve (12) Look up دوازده (۱۲) in Wiktionary ‹devâzdah› دوازده (۱۲)
Noun: (person) friend Look up دوست in Wiktionary ‹dust› دوست
Noun: Monday Look up دوشنبه in Wiktionary ‹do-šambe› دوشنبه
Number: two hundred (200) Look up دویست (۲۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹devist› دویست (۲۰۰)
Number: ten (10) Look up ده (۱۰) in Wiktionary ‹dah› ده (۱۰)
Adverb: yesterday Look up دیروز in Wiktionary ‹diruz› دیروز
Letter: [z] Look up ذ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ذ
Letter: [ɾ] Look up ر in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹re› ر
restaurant Look up رستوران in Wiktionary ‹resturân› رستوران
Noun: day Look up روز in Wiktionary ‹ruz› روز
Phrase: good day Look up روز بخیر in Wiktionary ‹ruz bexeyr› روز بخیر
Noun: newspaper Look up روزنامه in Wiktionary ‹ruznâme› روزنامه
Noun: mathematics Look up ریاضی in Wiktionary ‹riâzi› ریاضی
Letter: [z] Look up ز in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹ze› ز
Adjective: yellow Look up زرد in Wiktionary ‹zard› زرد
Noun: apricot Look up زردالو in Wiktionary ‹zardâlu› زردالو
Noun: (person) woman, wife Look up زن in Wiktionary ‹zan› زن
Letter: [ʒ] Look up ژ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹že› ژ
Letter: [s] Look up س in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sin› س
Adjective: green Look up سبز in Wiktionary ‹sabz› سبز
Adjective: difficult Look up سخت in Wiktionary ‹saxt› سخت
Noun: head, top Look up سر in Wiktionary ‹sar› سر
Noun: (animal) dog Look up سگ in Wiktionary ‹sag› سگ
Noun: watch Look up ساعت in Wiktionary ‹sâ’at› ساعت
Phrase: Peace (hello)! Look up سلام! in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹salâm!› سلام!
hello (in response) Look up سلام علیکم in Wiktionary ‹salâm ’aleykom› سلام علیکم
Number: three (3) Look up سه‌ (۳) in Wiktionary ‹se› سه‌ (۳)
Noun: Tuesday Look up سه‌شنبه in Wiktionary ‹se-šambe› سه‌شنبه
Number: thirty (30) Look up سی (۳۰) in Wiktionary ‹si› سی (۳۰)
Adjective: black Look up سیاه in Wiktionary ‹siâh› سیاه
Adjective: white Look up سفید in Wiktionary ‹sefid› سفید
Noun: apple Look up سیب in Wiktionary ‹sib› سیب
Number: thirteen (13) Look up سیزده (۱۳) in Wiktionary ‹sizdah› سیزده (۱۳)
Number: three hundred (300) Look up سیصد (۳۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹sisâd› سیصد (۳۰۰)
Noun: chest Look up سینه in Wiktionary ‹sine› سینه
Letter: [ʃ] Look up ش in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šin› ش
Number: sixteen (16) Look up شانزده (۱۶) in Wiktionary ‹šâzdah› شانزده (۱۶)
Noun: evening Look up شب in Wiktionary ‹šab› شب
Phrase: good night (used for departure or bedtime) Look up شب بخیر in Wiktionary ‹šab bexeyr› شب بخیر
Noun: company, firm Look up شرکت in Wiktionary ‹šerkat› شرکت
Number: six hundred (600) Look up ششصد (۶۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹šešsâd› ششصد (۶۰۰)
Number: sixty (60) Look up شصت (۶۰) in Wiktionary ‹šast› شصت (۶۰)
Number: six (6) Look up شش (۶) in Wiktionary ‹šeš› شش (۶)
Noun: sugar Look up شکر in Wiktionary ‹šekar› شکر
Pronoun: you (plural or polite singular) Look up شما in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šomâ› شما
Noun: Saturday Look up شنبه in Wiktionary ‹šambe› شنبه
Noun: (person) husband Look up شوهر in Wiktionary ‹šohar› شوهر
Proper noun: Shirin (female personal name) Look up شیرین in Wiktionary ‹širin› شیرین
Noun: chemistry Look up شیمی in Wiktionary ‹šimi› شیمی
Letter: [s] Look up ص in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sâd› ص
Interjection: Good morning Look up صبح بخیر in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹sobh bexeyr صبح بخیر
Number: hundred (100) Look up صد (۱۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹sad› صد (۱۰۰)
Number: zero (0) Look up صفر (۰) in Wiktionary ‹sefr› صفر (۰)
Noun: chair Look up صندلی in Wiktionary ‹sandali› صندلی
Adjective: pink Look up صورتی in Wiktionary ‹surati› صورتی
Letter: [z] Look up ض in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâd› ض
Letter: [t] Look up ط in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹tâ› ط
Letter: [z] Look up ظ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ظ
Letter: [ʔ] Look up ع in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹’eyn› ع
Noun: afternoon, evening Look up عصر in Wiktionary ‹’asr› عصر
Phrase: good afternoon, good evening Look up عصر بخیر in Wiktionary ‹’asr bexeyr› عصر بخیر
Noun: science Look up علوم in Wiktionary ‹’olum› علوم
Noun: (person) paternal uncle Look up عمو in Wiktionary ‹’amu› عمو
Noun: (person) paternal aunt Look up عمّه in Wiktionary ‹’amme› عمّه
Letter: [ɣ], [ɢ] Look up غ in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹qeyn› غ
Letter: [f] Look up ف in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹fe› ف
Noun: Persian; Adjective: Persian Look up فارسی in Wiktionary ‹fârsi› فارسی
Adverb: tomorrow Look up فردا in Wiktionary ‹fardâ› فردا
Verb: to command Look up فرمودن in Wiktionary ‹farmudan› فرمودن
Noun: physics Look up فیزیک in Wiktionary ‹fizik› فیزیک
Adverb: only Look up فقط in Wiktionary ‹faqat› فقط
Letter: [ɢ], [ɣ], [q] Look up ق in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹qaf› ق
Adjective: beautiful Look up قشنگ in Wiktionary ‹qašang› قشنگ
Adjective: old, ancient Look up قدیمی in Wiktionary ‹qadimi› قدیمی
Adjective: red Look up قرمز in Wiktionary ‹qermez› قرمز
Noun: food Look up غذا in Wiktionary ‹qazâ› غذا
Noun: hookah Look up قلیان in Wiktionary ‹qelyân› قلیان
Noun: sugar cube Look up قند in Wiktionary ‹qand› قند
Noun: coffee Look up قهوه in Wiktionary ‹qahve› قهوه
Noun: coffeehouse Look up قهوه‌خانه in Wiktionary ‹qahve-xâne› قهوه‌خانه
Adjective: brown Look up قهوه‌ای in Wiktionary ‹qahvei› قهوه‌ای
Letter: [k] Look up ک in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹kaf› ک
Noun: work, job Look up کار in Wiktionary ‹kâr› کار
Verb: to work Look up کار کردن in Wiktionary ‹kâr kardan› کار کردن
Noun: book Look up کتاب in Wiktionary ‹ketâb› کتاب
Adjective: from where? Look up کجایی in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹kojâi کجایی
Verb: to do, to make, (vulgar) to have sex with Look up کردن in Wiktionary (present stem: کن ‹kon› ) ‹kardan› کردن
Adjective: small Look up کوچک in Wiktionary ‹kucek, kucik› کوچک
Pronoun: who Look up کی in Wiktionary ‹ki› کی
Letter: [g] Look up گ in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹gaf› گ
Adjective: expensive Look up گران in Wiktionary ‹gerun› گران
Verb: to take Look up گرفتن in Wiktionary (present stem: گير ‹gir› ) ‹gereftan› گرفتن
Noun: ear Look up گوش in Wiktionary ‹guš› گوش
Verb: to listen Look up گوش کردن in Wiktionary ‹guš kardan› گوش کردن
Noun: conversation, dialogue Look up گفتگو in Wiktionary ‹goftgu› گفتگو
Verb: to converse Look up گفتگو کردن in Wiktionary ‹goftgu kardan› گفتگو کردن
Noun: hair (poetic) Look up گیسو in Wiktionary ‹gisu› گیسو
Noun: cherry Look up گیلاس in Wiktionary ‹gilâs› گیلاس
Letter: [l] Look up ل in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹lâm› ل
Noun: (body part) lip Look up لب in Wiktionary ‹lab› لب
Noun: lemon Look up ليمو in Wiktionary ‹limu› ليمو
Letter: [m] Look up م in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹mim› م
Pronoun: us Look up ما in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹mâ› ما
Noun: (person) mother Look up مادر in Wiktionary ‹mâdar› مادر
Noun: (person) grandmother Look up مادربزرگ in Wiktionary ‹mâdarbozorg› مادربزرگ
Noun: car Look up ماشین in Wiktionary ‹mâšin› ماشین
Noun: property Look up مال in Wiktionary ‹mâl› مال
Noun: mama (pet name for mother, like بابا) Look up مامان in Wiktionary ‹mâmân› مامان
Noun: (person) man Look up مرد in Wiktionary ‹mard› مرد
Interjection: thanks Look up مرسی in Wiktionary Lesson 1 mersi› مرسی
Noun: pencil Look up مداد in Wiktionary ‹medâd› مداد
Adverb: usually Look up معمولاً in Wiktionary ‹ma’mulan› معمولاً
Adjective: thankful, thank you Look up ممنون in Wiktionary ‹mamnun ممنون
Pronoun: I, me Look up من in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹man› من
Noun: hair Look up مو in Wiktionary ‹mu› مو
Noun: music Look up موسیقی in Wiktionary ‹musiqi› موسیقی
Noun: banana Look up موز in Wiktionary ‹moz› موز
Adjective: kind Look up مهربان in Wiktionary ‹mehrbun› مهربان
Noun: table Look up میز in Wiktionary ‹miz› میز
Number: million (1000000) Look up میلیون (۱۰۰۰۰۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹milyun› میلیون (۱۰۰۰۰۰۰)
Letter: [n] Look up ن in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹nun› ن
Adjective: orange Look up نارنجی in Wiktionary ‹nârenji› نارنجی
Noun: tangerine Look up نارنگی in Wiktionary ‹nârengi› نارنگی
Adjective: coconut Look up نارگیل in Wiktionary ‹nârgil› نارگیل
bread Look up نان in Wiktionary ‹nân, nun› نان
Noun: lunch Look up ناهار in Wiktionary ‹nâhâr› ناهار
Verb: to have lunch Look up ناهار کردن in Wiktionary ‹nâhâr kardan› ناهار کردن
Interjection: no (formal) Look up نخیر in Wiktionary ‹naxeyr› نخیر
Noun: look Look up نگاه in Wiktionary ‹negâh› نگاه
Verb: to look, to watch Look up نگاه کردن in Wiktionary ‹negâh kardan› نگاه کردن
Number: ninety (90) Look up نود (۹۰) in Wiktionary ‹navâd› نود (۹۰)
Number: nineteen (19) Look up نوزده (۱۹) in Wiktionary ‹nuzdah› نوزده (۱۹)
Noun: beverage Look up نوشابه in Wiktionary ‹nušâbe› نوشابه
Adverb: not Look up نه in Wiktionary ‹nah› نه
Adjective: new Look up نه in Wiktionary ‹noh› نه
Number: nine (9) Look up نه (۹) in Wiktionary ‹noh› نه (۹)
Number: nine hundred (900) Look up نهصد (۹۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹nohsâd› نهصد (۹۰۰)
Verb: (I) am not Look up نیستم in Wiktionary Lesson 3 nistam› نیستم
Letter: [v], [u], [ow] Look up و in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹vâv› و
Conjunction: and Look up و in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹va, vo, o› و
Letter: [h] Look up ه in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹he› ه
Number: eighteen (18) Look up هجده (۱۸) in Wiktionary ‹hejdah› هجده (۱۸)
Determiner: each Look up هر in Wiktionary ‹har› هر
Number: thousand (1000) Look up هزار (۱۰۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹hezâr› هزار (۱۰۰۰)
Verb: am, is, are Look up هستم، هستی، هست، هستیم، هستید، هستند in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹hastam, hasti, hast, hastim, hastin, hastan› هستم، هستی، هست، هستیم، هستید، هستند
Number: eight (8) Look up هشت (۸) in Wiktionary ‹hašt› هشت (۸)
Number: eighty (80) Look up هشتاد (۸۰) in Wiktionary ‹haštâd› هشتاد (۸۰)
Number: eight hundred (800) Look up هشتضد (۸۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹haštsâd› هشتضد (۸۰۰)
Number: seven (7) Look up هفت (۷) in Wiktionary ‹haft› هفت (۷)
Number: seventy (70) Look up هفتاد (۷۰) in Wiktionary ‹haftâd› هفتاد (۷۰)
Noun: Persian New Year’s tradition of “seven S’s” Look up هفت‌سین in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹haftsin› هفت‌سین
Number: seven hundred (700) Look up هفتصد (۷۰۰) in Wiktionary ‹haftsâd› هفتصد (۷۰۰)
Number: seventeen (17) Look up هفده (۱۷) in Wiktionary ‹hefdah› هفده (۱۷)
Noun: peach Look up هلو in Wiktionary ‹holu› هلو
also, each other Look up هم in Wiktionary as suffix colloquially pronounced ‹m›, e.g. ‹šomâm› (“you too”) ‹ham› هم
Noun: (person) spouse Look up همسر in Wiktionary ‹hamsar› همسر
Adverb: always Look up همیشه in Wiktionary ‹hamiše› همیشه
Noun: peach Look up هلو in Wiktionary ‹holu› هلو
Noun: watermelon Look up هندوانه in Wiktionary ‹hendevâne, hendevune› هندوانه
Letter: [j], [i], [ej] Look up ی in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹ye› ی
Particle: of Look up ی in Wiktionary Lesson 6 ‹ye, e› ی
memory Look up یاد in Wiktionary ‹yâd› یاد
Verb: to learn Look up یاد گرفتن in Wiktionary ‹yâd gereftan› یاد گرفتن
Number: eleven (11) Look up یازده (۱۱) in Wiktionary ‹yâzdah› یازده (۱۱)
Number: one (1) Look up یک (۱) in Wiktionary ‹yek› یک (۱)
Noun: Sunday Look up یک‌شنبه in Wiktionary ‹yek-šambe› یک‌شنبه
Symbol: (ligature) lam-alef Look up لا in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹lâ› لا
Symbol: (diacritic) tashdid (“strengthening”) Look up ّ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹tašdid› ّ
Symbol: (diacritic) hamze Look up ء in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹’› ء
Symbol: (diacritic) zabar (“above”) Look up َ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹a› َ
Symbol: (diacritic) zir (“below”) Look up ِ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹e› ِ
Symbol: (diacritic) pish (“before”) Look up ُ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹o› ُ
Symbol: (diacritic) sokun Look up ْ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹-› ْ

As each word below finds its way into a lesson, move it from below to Persian/Glossary (above) and indicate the lesson where it is introduced.

  • آموزگار Look up آموزگار in Wiktionary ‹âmuzgâr, âmuzegâr› (“teacher”)
  • معلّم Look up معلّم in Wiktionary ‹mo’allem› (“teacher”)
  • دکتر Look up دکتر in Wiktionary ‹doktar› (“doctor”) (used as noun or as title)
  • نرس Look up نرس in Wiktionary ‹ners› (“nurse”)
  • پرستار Look up پرستار in Wiktionary ‹parastâr› (“nurse”)
  • پستچی Look up پستچی in Wiktionary ‹postci› (“mail carrier”)
  • استاد Look up استاد in Wiktionary ‹ostâd› (“professor”)
  • رئیس Look up رئیس in Wiktionary ‹re’is› (“director, boss, manager”)
  • منشی Look up منشی in Wiktionary ‹monši› (“secretary”)
  • شوفر Look up شوفر in Wiktionary ‹šufer› (“chauffeur, driver”)
  • راننده Look up راننده in Wiktionary ‹rânande› (“driver”)
  • شاگرد Look up شاگرد in Wiktionary ‹šâgerd› (“student, apprentice, bus driver”)
  • مهندس Look up مهندس in Wiktionary ‹mohandes› (“engineer”)
Nations and nationalities:
  • انگلیسی Look up انگلیسی in Wiktionary ‹engelisi› (“English”), انگلستان Look up انگلستان in Wiktionary ‹engelestân›
  • ایتالیایی Look up ایتالیایی in Wiktionary ‹itâliyâyi› (“Italian”), ایتالیا Look up ایتالیا in Wiktionary ‹itâliyâ› (“Italy”)
  • آلمانی Look up آلمانی in Wiktionary ‹âlmâni› (“German”), آلمان Look up آلمان in Wiktionary ‹âlmân› (“Germany”)
  • مصری Look up مصری in Wiktionary ‹mesri› (“Egyptian”), مصر Look up مصر in Wiktionary ‹mesr› (“Egypt”)
  • چینی Look up چینی in Wiktionary ‹cini› (“Chinese”), چین Look up چین in Wiktionary ‹cin› (“China”)
  • ژاپنی Look up ژاپنی in Wiktionary ‹žâponi› (“Japanese”), ژاپن Look up ژاپن in Wiktionary ‹žâpon› (“Japan”)
other nouns:
  • گل Look up گل in Wiktionary ‹gol› (“flower”), mentioned in lesson 3
  • ماشین Look up ماشین in Wiktionary ‹mâšin› (“car”)
  • میز Look up میز in Wiktionary ‹miz› (“table, desk”)
  • درخت Look up درخت in Wiktionary ‹daraxt› (“tree”)
  • چراغ Look up چراغ in Wiktionary ‹cerâq› (“lamp”)
  • تلفن Look up تلفن in Wiktionary ‹telefon› (“telephone”)
  • تلویزیون Look up تلویزیون in Wiktionary ‹televizion› (“television”)
  • صندلی Look up صندلی in Wiktionary ‹sandali› (“chair”)
  • هتل Look up هتل in Wiktionary ‹hotel› (“hotel”)
  • بانک Look up بانک in Wiktionary ‹bânk› (“bank”)
  • سینما Look up سینما in Wiktionary ‹sinemâ› (“movie theater”)
  • صابون Look up صابون in Wiktionary ‹sâbun› (“soap”)
  • پتو Look up پتو in Wiktionary ‹patu› (“blanket”)
  • فارسی Look up فارسی in Wiktionary ‹farsi› (“Persian”)
  • قالی Look up قالی in Wiktionary ‹qâli› (“carpet”)
  • مال Look up مال in Wiktionary ‹mâl› (“property”)
  • بها Look up بها in Wiktionary ‹bahâ› (“price, value, worth”)
  • پرچم Look up پرچم in Wiktionary ‹parcam› (“flag”)
  • گفتگو Look up گفتگو in Wiktionary ‹goftogu› (“dialogue, conversation”)
  • درد Look up درد in Wiktionary ‹dard› (“pain”)
  • سرما Look up سرما in Wiktionary ‹sarmâ› (“cold”)
  • فکر Look up فکر in Wiktionary ‹fekr› (“thought”)
  • استراحت Look up استراحت in Wiktionary ‹esterâhat› (“rest, relaxation”)
  • صحبت Look up صحبت in Wiktionary ‹sohbat› (“conversation”)
  • شوخی Look up شوخی in Wiktionary ‹šuxi› (“joke”)
  • باور Look up باور in Wiktionary ‹bâvar› (“belief”)
  • لطف Look up لطف in Wiktionary ‹favor›
  • مثل Look up مثل in Wiktionary ‹mesl› (“likeness”), plural امثال Look up امثال in Wiktionary ‹amsâl›
  • باران Look up باران in Wiktionary ‹bârun› (“rain”)
  • نامه Look up نامه in Wiktionary ‹nâme› (“letter”)
  • نوروز Look up نوروز in Wiktionary ‹nowruz› (“New Year's Day”)
  • عید Look up عید in Wiktionary ‹’eyd› (“feast, festival”)
  • عیدی Look up عیدی in Wiktionary ‹’eydi› (“New Year's gift”)
  • سال Look up سال in Wiktionary ‹sâl› (“year”)
  • جشن Look up جشن in Wiktionary ‹jašn› (“celebration”)
  • قوم Look up قوم in Wiktionary ‹qowm› (“nation, people”)
  • لباس Look up لباس in Wiktionary ‹lebâs› (“clothing”)
  • امید Look up امید in Wiktionary ‹omid› (“hope”)


  • لطفا || "please"
  • خواهش می‌کنم || "you're welcome"
  • خان Look up خان in Wiktionary ‹xân› (“Khan”) (title used after first name)
  • متشکّر Look up متشکّر in Wiktionary ‹motašakker› (“thankful”)
  • دس خوش || interjection
  • خیلی مخلصیم || interjection
  • دست مريزاد || interjection
  • معذرت می خوام /mazerat mixâm/ || interjection to get listener's attention when name is unknown
  • خواهش میکنم Look up خواهش میکنم in Wiktionary ‹xâheš mikonam› (“I request [that you not...]”) (used like "don't mention it.")


  • بزرگ Look up بزرگ in Wiktionary ‹bozorg› (“big, large”)
  • بلند Look up بلند in Wiktionary ‹boland› (“tall, long, loud”)
  • کوتاه Look up کوتاه in Wiktionary ‹kutâh› (“short”)
  • کوچک Look up کوچک in Wiktionary ‹kucek› (“small”)
  • نو Look up نو in Wiktionary ‹now› (“new”)
  • خوشگل Look up خوشگل in Wiktionary ‹xošgel› (“pretty”)
  • خوش تیپ Look up خوش تیپ in Wiktionary ‹xoš tip› (“handsome”)
  • خوشقیافه Look up خوشقیافه in Wiktionary ‹xošqiyâfe› (“good looking”)
  • بد قیافه Look up بد قیافه in Wiktionary ‹bad qiyâfe› (“bad looking”)
  • زشت Look up زشت in Wiktionary ‹zešt› (“ugly”)
  • غمگین || "sad"
  • جوان || "young"
  • قشنگ Look up قشنگ in Wiktionary ‹qašang› (“beautiful”)
  • زیبا Look up زیبا in Wiktionary ‹zibâ› (“beautiful, elegant”)
  • گران Look up گران in Wiktionary ‹gerân› (“expensive”)
  • ارزان Look up ارزان in Wiktionary ‹arzân› (“inexpensive, cheap”)
  • تنبل || "lazy"
  • جدّی Look up جدّی in Wiktionary ‹jeddi› (“serious”)
  • آشنا Look up آشنا in Wiktionary ‹âšnâ› (“acquainted”)
  • امیدوار Look up امیدوار in Wiktionary ‹omidvâr› (“hopeful”)
  • مبارک Look up مبارک in Wiktionary ‹mobârak› (“blessed”)


  • رنگ Look up رنگ in Wiktionary ‹rang› (“color”)
  • خوش رنگ Look up خوش رنگ in Wiktionary ‹xoš rang› (“of pretty color”)
  • بد رنگ Look up بد رنگ in Wiktionary ‹bad rang› (“of ugly color”)
  • سفید Look up سفید in Wiktionary ‹sefid› (“white”)
  • سیاه Look up سیاه in Wiktionary ‹siâh› (“black”)
  • سیز Look up سیز in Wiktionary ‹siz› (“green”)
  • زرد Look up زرد in Wiktionary ‹zard› (“yellow”)
  • صورتی Look up صورتی in Wiktionary ‹surati› (“pink”)
  • بنفش Look up بنفش in Wiktionary ‹banafš› (“purple”)
  • نارنجی Look up نارنجی in Wiktionary ‹nâranji› (“orange”)
  • سرخ Look up سرخ in Wiktionary ‹sorx› (“red”)
  • گلی Look up گلی in Wiktionary ‹goli› (“rose red”)
  • قرمز Look up قرمز in Wiktionary ‹qermez› (“red”)
  • قهوه‌ای Look up قهوه‌ای in Wiktionary ‹qahve’i› (“coffee-colored”) || not sure about the transliteration. does this really have a glottal stop?
  • خاکستری Look up خاکستری in Wiktionary ‹xâkestari› (“gray”)
common verbs and modal verbs:
  • رفتن Look up رفتن in Wiktionary ‹raftan› (“to go”), pr. stem رَو ‹rav› colloquially ‹r›
  • دیدن Look up دیدن in Wiktionary ‹didan› (“to see”) || present stem بين
  • بودن Look up بودن in Wiktionary ‹budan› (“to be”)
  • داشتن Look up داشتن in Wiktionary ‹dâštan› (“to have”) || present stem دار
  • کردن Look up کردن in Wiktionary ‹kardan› (“to do”) || present stem كُن
  • شدن Look up شدن in Wiktionary ‹šodan› (“to become”) || present stem شَو
  • آمدن Look up آمدن in Wiktionary ‹âmadan› (“to come”), pr. stem آ ‹â› , می‌آید ‹miyâd›
  • توانستن Look up توانستن in Wiktionary ‹tavânestan› (“to be able to”), pr. stem: توان ‹tavân› ,
  • باید Look up باید in Wiktionary ‹bâyad› (“should, ought, must”)
  • نباید ‹nabâyast› (“you should not”) colloquially ‹nabâs›, نباید ‹nabâyad› (“he/she should not”)
  • شاید Look up شاید in Wiktionary ‹šâyad› (“may, might, maybe, probably”)
  • خواستن Look up خواستن in Wiktionary ‹xâstan› (“want”), pr. stem خواه ‹xâh› colloquially ‹xâ› drops following ‹a›
one-word verbs (see also [1] and wikt:Category:Persian verbs):
  • خندیدن Look up خندیدن in Wiktionary ‹xandidan› (“to laugh”)
  • نوشتن Look up نوشتن in Wiktionary ‹neveštan› (“to write”)
  • گفتن Look up گفتن in Wiktionary ‹goftan› (“to say”), pr. stem گو ‹guy› colloquially ‹g›
  • خوردن Look up خوردن in Wiktionary ‹xordan› (“to eat”) || present stem خور
  • دادن Look up دادن in Wiktionary ‹dâdan› (“to give”), pr. stem دِه ‹dah›, colloquially ‹d›
  • خواندن Look up خواندن in Wiktionary ‹xândan› (“to read”) || present stem خوان
  • دانستن Look up دانستن in Wiktionary ‹dâneštan› (“to know (something)”) || present stem دان
  • فروختن Look up فروختن in Wiktionary ‹foruxtan› (“to sell”) || present stem فُروش
  • خریدن Look up خریدن in Wiktionary ‹xaridan› (“to buy”) || present stem خَر
  • شناختن Look up شناختن in Wiktionary ‹šenâxtan› (“to know (someone)”) || present stem شِناس
  • زدن Look up زدن in Wiktionary ‹zadan› (“to hit, to strike”) || present stem زِن
  • پوشیدن Look up پوشیدن in Wiktionary ‹pušidan› (“to wear”)
  • بوسیدن Look up بوسیدن in Wiktionary ‹busidan› (“to kiss”)
  • گذاشتن Look up گذاشتن in Wiktionary ‹gozâštan› (“to let”), pr. stem گذار ‹gozâr› colloquially ‹zâr› after prefix ‹mi›/‹be›

light verbs:

  • کار داشتن Look up کار داشتن in Wiktionary ‹kâr dâštan› (“to be busy”) (“to have work”), e.g. کار دارم ‹kâr dâram› (“I’m busy.”)
  • کار کردن Look up کار کردن in Wiktionary ‹kâr kardan› (“to do word”)
  • پیدا شدن Look up پیدا شدن in Wiktionary ‹peydâ šodan› (“to become found”)
  • گوش دادن Look up گوش دادن in Wiktionary ‹guš dâdan› (“to give ear (listen)”)
  • خوب بودن Look up خوب بودن in Wiktionary ‹xub budan› (“to be good”)
  • درد کردن Look up درد کردن in Wiktionary ‹dard kardan› (“to hurt”)
  • سرما خوردن Look up سرما خوردن in Wiktionary ‹sarmâ xordan› (“to catch a cold”)
  • فکر کردن Look up فکر کردن in Wiktionary ‹fekr kardan› (“to think”)
  • استراحت کردن Look up استراحت کردن in Wiktionary ‹esterâhat kardan› (“to rest, to relax”)
  • یاد آوردن Look up یاد آوردن in Wiktionary ‹yâd âvardan› (“to remind”)
  • یاد کردن Look up یاد کردن in Wiktionary ‹yâd kardan› (“to commemorate, to remember”)
  • یاد دادن Look up یاد دادن in Wiktionary ‹yâd dâdan› (“to teach”)
  • صحبت کردن Look up صحبت کردن in Wiktionary ‹sohbat kardan› (“to converse”)
  • شوخی کردن Look up شوخی کردن in Wiktionary ‹šuxi kardan› (“to joke”)
  • باور کردن Look up باور کردن in Wiktionary ‹bâvar kardan› (“to believe”)
  • جدّی گفتن Look up جدّی گفتن in Wiktionary ‹jeddi goftan› (“to say in earnest”)
  • آشنا شدن Look up آشنا شدن in Wiktionary ‹âšnâ šodan› (“to become acquainted”)
  • جشن گرفتن Look up جشن گرفتن in Wiktionary ‹jašn gereftan› (“to celebrate”)

pronouns, adverbs, prepositions...:

  • چه Look up چه in Wiktionary ‹ce› (“what?”) (literary form)
  • کجا Look up کجا in Wiktionary ‹kojâ› (“where?”)
  • همه || "all"
  • چند Look up چند in Wiktionary ‹cand› (“several, how many?”), used with تا Look up تا in Wiktionary ‹tâ› (“units”)
  • دیگر Look up دیگر in Wiktionary ‹digar› (“another”)
  • بسیار || "many"
  • از Look up از in Wiktionary ‹az› (“from, than”) || and other basic prepositions
  • آیا Look up آیا in Wiktionary ‹âyâ› formal question marker
  • ولی Look up ولی in Wiktionary ‹vali› (“but”)
  • هر روز Look up هر روز in Wiktionary ‹har ruz› (“every day”)
  • زیاد Look up زیاد in Wiktionary ‹ziyâd› (“much, many, too much”)
  • که Look up که in Wiktionary ‹ke› (“that”)
  • شاید Look up شاید in Wiktionary ‹šâyad› (“maybe, probably”)
  • پیش Look up پیش in Wiktionary ‹piš› (“before”)
  • پشت Look up پشت in Wiktionary ‹pošt› (“behind”)
  • پس Look up پس in Wiktionary ‹pas› (“then, so, back”)
  • نزدیک Look up نزدیک in Wiktionary ‹nazdik› (“near”)
  • روبرو Look up روبرو in Wiktionary ‹ruberu› (“opposite”)
  • چرا Look up چرا in Wiktionary ‹cerâ› (“why”)
  • اینکه Look up اینکه in Wiktionary ‹inke› (“the fact that”)
  • مثل اینکه Look up مثل اینکه in Wiktionary ‹mesl-e inke› (“it seems as if”)
  • مگر Look up مگر in Wiktionary ‹magar› (“but”), colloquially ‹mage›
  • همدیگر Look up همدیگر in Wiktionary ‹hamdigar› (“each other”)

units and measures:

months of the year: (wikt:Category:fa:Gregorian calendar months and wikt:Category:fa:Months)

  • مارس Look up مارس in Wiktionary ‹mârs› (“March”)
  • جلد Look up جلد in Wiktionary ‹jeld› (“volume (of a publication)”)
  • نفر Look up نفر in Wiktionary ‹nafar› (“individual”)
  • می‌دانید Look up می‌دانید in Wiktionary ‹midânin› (“do you know?”)
  • ژاکت Look up ژاکت in Wiktionary ‹žâkat› — “jacket”
  • ژن Look up ژن in Wiktionary ‹žen› — “gene”
  • طناب Look up طناب in Wiktionary ‹tanâb› — “rope”
  • شاخ Look up شاخ in Wiktionary ‹šâx› — “branch”
  • زر Look up زر in Wiktionary ‹zar› — “gold”
  • فرش Look up فرش in Wiktionary ‹farš› — “carpet”
  • شیر Look up شیر in Wiktionary ‹šir› — “milk”
  • عسل Look up عسل in Wiktionary ‹asal› — “honey”

Also review vocabulary linked from other language Wikibooks of Persian:


  • کاغذ Look up کاغذ in Wiktionary ‹kâqaz› (“paper”)
  • ورق Look up ورق in Wiktionary ‹varaq› (“sheet of paper”)

Dialogue[edit | edit source]

In the dialogues, use sentences that the reader might use, hear, or read.

Following are several characters to use in the dialogues. Various relationships, ages, levels of formality, and dialects can be assigned to each and used to introduce register, deference, etc:

  • شيرين ‹širin› (“Shirin”): female, friend of Arash. In Persian/Lesson 1, آرش ‹âraš› and شيرين ‹širin› greet each other informally.
  • آرش ‹âraš› (“Arash”): male, friend of Shirin, acquaintance of Peyman. In Persian/Lesson 1, آرش ‹âraš› and شيرين ‹širin› greet each other informally. In Persian/Lesson 2, آرش ‹âraš› and آقاى پیمان ‹âqâ-ye peymân› greet each other formally.
  • پیمان ‹peymân› (“Peyman”): male, acquaintance of Arash. In Persian/Lesson 2, آرش ‹âraš› and آقاى پیمان ‹âqâ-ye peymân› greet each other formally.
  • حسن ‹hasan› (“Hassan”): male, close friend of Mohamad. In Persian/Lesson 3 (صبح بخیر ‹sobh bexeyr› "good morning"), حسن ("Hassan", a.k.a. حسن ی /hasani/) talks with Mohamad (a.k.a. ممد /Mammad/).
  • (“Mohamad”): male, close friend of Hassan. In Persian/Lesson 3 (صبح بخیر ‹sobh bexeyr› "good morning"), حسن ("Hassan", a.k.a. حسن ی /hasani/) talks with Mohamad (a.k.a. ممد /Mamad/).
  • رضا ‹rezâ› (“Reza”): male. In Persian/Lesson 4, خانم شيرين ‹xânom širin› stops by the office of آقا رضا ‹âqâ rezâ›.
  • شبنم ‹šabnam› (“Shabnam”): female
  • رضا ‹rezâ› (“Reza”): male
  • ساسان ‹sâsân› (“Sasan”): male
  • ژاله ‹žâle› (“Zhaleh”): female
  • آقای جوادی ‹âqâ-ye javâdi› (“Mr. Javadi”): male
  • مینو ‹minu› (“Minu”): female
  • مینا ‹minâ› (“Mina”): female
  • مهرداد ‹mehrdâd› (“Mehrdad”): male
  • کیوان ‹keyvân› (“Kayvan”): male
  • علی ‹’ali› (“Ali”): male
  • پروانه ‹parvâne› (“Parvaneh”): female
  • هوشنگ ‹hušang› (“Hushang”): male
  • منیژه ‹maniže› (“Manizheh”): female
  • منوچهر ‹manucehr› (“Manuchehr”): male
  • فرهاد ‹farhâd› (“Farhad”): male
  • بیژن ‹bižan› (“Bizhan”): male
  • فرخنده ‹farxonde› (“Farkhondeh”): female
  • لقمان ‹loqmân› (“Loghman”): male
  • پروین ‹parvin› (“Parvin”): female
  • مریم ‹maryam› (“Mariam”): female
  • اسمیت ‹esmit› (“Smith”): transliterated surname

Following are phrases that can be worked into dialogues:

  • دوست من ‹dust-e man› (“friend of mine”) Used as vocative between friends.
  • فارسی را کجا یاد گرفتین؟ ‹fârsi ro kojâ yâd gereftin?› (“Where did you learn Persian?”)
  • خیلی خوب صحبت می‌کنین. ‹xeyli xub sohbat mikonin.› (“You converse very well.”) Used to flatter someone who is learning Persian.
  • من باید برم ‹man bâyad beram› (“I should be leaving.”) Used to excuse oneself, usually followed by mutual "goodbye"s.
  • اسم من [...] است. اسم شما چی است؟ ‹esm-e man [...] e. esm-e šomâ ci-ye.› (“My name is [...]. What is your name?”) Used to introduce oneself, with either first name or full name replacing “[...]”. (If the name ends in a vowel, does the final ‹e› change, e.g. into ‹s› or ‹st›?)
  • و شما؟ ‹va šomâ?› (“And you?”) Used to ask for reciprocation after various things, including the name introduction above.
  • منهم [...]م. ‹manam [...]m.› (“I am also [...].”) Fill in the blank with an occupation, role, or nationality. If it ends in و or ی, append ام instead of just م.
  • این [...] مال [...] است؟ ‹in [...] mâl-e [...] e?› (“Does this [...] belong to [...]?”) Final ‹e› becomes ‹st› or ‹s› after a vowel.
  • نه، مال [...]‌ است. ‹nah, mâl-e [...] e.› (“No, it belongs to [...].”) Final ‹e› becomes ‹st› or ‹s› after a vowel.
  • کجا می‌ری؟ ‹kojâ miri?› (“Where are you going?”)
  • تو [...] را می‌شناسی؟ ‹to [...] o mišenâsi?› (“Do you know [...]?”) Fill in blank with a person's name or a pronoun, e.g. آرش ‹âraš› (“Arash”), او ‹u› (“he/she”)
  • خیلی [...] خوب است. ‹xeyli [...]-e xub e.› (“He/she is a very good [...].”) Fill in blank with a role, e.g. پسر ‹pesar› (“boy”), دختر ‹doxtar› (“girl”), etc.
  • خیلی [...] مهربان است. ‹xeyli [...]-e mehrabun e.› (“He/she is a very kind [...].”) Fill in blank with a role, e.g. پسر ‹pesar› (“boy”), دختر ‹doxtar› (“girl”), etc.
  • [...] کجایی است؟ ‹[...] kojâ-iy-e?› (“Where is [...]?”) Fill in blank with a person's name.
  • نمی‌دانم. ‹nemidunam.› (“I don't know.”)
  • به نظر من [...] ‹be nazar-e man [...]› (“In my opinion, [...]”)
  • زیاد [...] نیست. ‹ziyâd [...] nist.› (“He/she/it is not very [...].”) Fill in blank with adjective, e.g. خوب ‹xub› (“good”) for a thing or باهوش ‹bâhuš› (“smart”) for a person.
  • (من) تو [...] زندگی می‌کنم. ‹man tu [...] zendegi mikonam.› (“I live in [...].”). Fill in blank with place of residence, e.g. خوابگاه ‹xâbgâh› (“dormitory”)
  • یک [...] دارم که هم [...] است. ‹yek [...] dâram ke ham [...] ast(/st/s/e).› (“I have a [...] that is also [...].”) Fill first blank with descriptive noun phrase and second with adjective.
  • [تو\شما] کجا [کار\ناهار] می‌کت[ی\ید]؟ ‹[to/šomâ] kojâ [kâr/nâhâr] mikon[i/id]?› (“Where do you [work/have lunch]?”)
  • [من\تو\او\...] هر [روز\شب] با [ماشین\اتوبوس\...] سر کار می‌رو[م\ی\د]. ‹[man/to/u/...] har [ruz/šab] bâ [mâšin/otubus/...] sar-e kâr mirav[am/i/ad/...].› (“[I/you/he/...] go to work by [car/bus/...] every [day/evening].”)
  • تو همیشه می‌آیی اینجا؟ ‹to hamiše miâi injâ?› (“Do you always come here?”)
  • معمولا روزهای [...]، بعد از ظهر[...]. ‹mo’amulâ ruzâ-ye [...], ba’d az zohr [...].› (“Usually on [...]s, [...].”) Fill first blank with day of week (e.g. جمعه ‹jom’e› (“Friday”)), and second with a complete present tense clause, indicating what is done on those afternoons.
  • برای چی؟ ‹barâye ci?› (“Why? (in order to do what?)”)
  • [من\تو\او\...] هر [روز\شب] تلویزیون نگاه می‌کن‍[م\ی\د]. ‹[man/to/u/...] har [ruz/šab] televizion negâh mikon[am/i/ad/...].› (“[I/you/he/...] watch television every [day/evening].”)
  • [من\تو\او\...] هر [روز\شب] روزنامه می‌خوان‍[م\ی\د]. ‹[man/to/u/...] har [ruz/šab] ruznâme mixân[am/i/ad/...].› (“[I/you/he/...] read the newspaper every [day/evening].”)

Archive Lessons[edit | edit source]

This is the archive of the Persian Lessons in Dutch which were originally here, which could be translated to develop this course in English: Persian Archive Lessons

Suggested Future Persian Wikibooks[edit | edit source]

Add suggestions here:


Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting