Lingwa de planeta/Compound sentence

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In this lesson you are going to learn:

  • 4 pronouns (swa, mutu, it, oni)
  • 12 verbs (pregi, kwesti, jawabi, dai, pren, helpi, go, lai, safari, gani, dansi, rasmi)
  • 10 special verbs (mog, janmog, darfi, treba, mus, gai, majbur, nidi, yao, pri)
  • 8 prepositions (a, om, fo, por, kun, sin, in, fon)
  • 6 question words (hu, kwo, wo, wen, way, komo)
  • 6 indicaive words (hir, dar, ahir, adar, dan, tak)
  • 6 useful words (yoshi, toshi, poy, snova, turan, tuy)
  • 3 conjunctions (sikom, obwol, yedoh)
  • 2 grammar words (ke, unkwe, hi, ku)

59 words altogether

(+34 from lesson 1 = 93 altogether)

Pronoun as an object[edit]

Pronouns in Lidepla don't change to indicate their grammatical role.

If a pronoun is put after the verb, it is an object (not a subject).

Me lubi yu. I love you.
Yu lubi me. You love me.

For "oneself" (myself, yourself etc.) the word "swa" is used.

For "one another" - the word "mutu".

Li lubi mutu. They love one another.
Ela bu samaji-te swa. She didn't understand herself.

An inanimate object can be replaced by the pronoun "it".

Me vidi it. I see it (a thing).

Translate please

English Lidepla
I see you.
You understand me.
She didn't understand you.
We love him.
They won't hear him.
She doesn't know herself.
You won't hear one another.
You don't hear yourself.
We understood each other.

Some prepositions[edit]

The preposition "a" corresponds to the English "to" to some extent.

Me ve shwo a yu. I will talk to you.
Ta dai-te it a me. He / she gave it (an object) to me.


The preposition "om" corresponds to the English "about" / "of".

Me ve dumi om yu. I will think of / about you.


Some other prepositions: fo (for), por (because of), kun (with), sin (without)

Me bu go sin yu. I don't go (am not going, won't go) without you.
Me jivi fo yu. I live for you.
Ta bu kredi por yu. He / she doesn't believe because of you.

Translate please

English Lidepla
for me
about you
because of us
for you
with you
without her
because of you

A gerund verb may also follow a preposition:

Me bu yao shwo sin samaji. I don't want to talk without understanding.

Question and indication words[edit]

Question words:

  • hu - who
  • kwo - what
  • wo - where (place)
  • a wo - whereto, whither (direction)
  • fon wo - wherefrom, whence
  • wen - when
  • way - why
  • komo - how

A question word is usually put in the beginning of a phrase; the word order doesn't change.

Kwo yu vidi? What do you see?

Translate please

English Lidepla
Who understands?
Who knew?
What did you know?
What will he understand?
Where did you work?
Where will we work?
Where and wherefrom are you going?
When did he come?
Why don't you understand?
How are you talking? / How do you talk?


To answer the questions you can use indication words:

  • se - this (noun)
  • to - that (noun)
  • hir - here (place)
  • dar - there (place)
  • ahir - here (direction)
  • adar - there (direction)
  • dan - then
  • tak - so, this way
Me bu samaji se. I don't understand this.
Ta bu yao shwo om to. He / she doesn't want to talk about that.
Me jivi hir. I live here.
Nu jivi-te dar. We lived there.
Me ve go adar. I won't go there.
Ta lai-te ahir. He came here.
Dan me samaji-te. Then I understood.
Me shwo tak. I talk so / this way.

Compound sentence[edit]

Question words can also begin a clause:

Me jan way yu bu gun. I know why you do not work.

Also, complex sentences can be formed, using the linking word ke (that):

Me jan ke yu lubi lu. I know that you love him.
Ela bu samaji-te ke lu bu lubi ela. She did not understand that he doesn't love her.

It is important not to confuse the words kwo and ke:

Me jan kwo yu lubi. I know what (that which) you love.
Me jan ke yu lubi me. I know that you love me.

Заметим, что такого явления как согласование времен в лидепла нет: в придаточном предложении частицы указывают на время действия относительно действия в главном.

Me shwo ke me ve go adar. Я говорю, что пойду туда.
Me shwo-te ke me ve go adar. Я говорила, что пойду туда.

Translate please

русский лидепла
Ты знаешь, где я жил.
Он видит, как я надеюсь.
Я не понимаю, чего ты хочешь (yao).
Мы говорили, что они будут путешествовать (safari).
Она не верит, что ты придешь (lai).
Они не знают, куда я пойду (go).
Я не понимаю, о чем ты поешь (gani).
Ты не знаешь, с кем она танцует (dansi).
Я не понимаю, как ты говоришь, не подумав.

Another way to build a complex sentence: preposition + the particle ke:

Me shwo-te om ke ta lubi yu. Я говорил о том, что он любит тебя.
Me bu yao go kun yu sin ke yu shwo ke yu lubi me. Я не хочу идти с тобой, если ты не скажешь (без того чтобы ты сказал), что ты любишь меня.

Generative meaning[edit]

В русском языке есть оборот «бы ни», который может встретиться после любого вопросительного слова в начале придаточного предложения: кто бы ни, что бы ни, как бы ни. В лидепла этот оборот выражается с помощью одного слова: unkwe, которое точно так же может стоять после любого вопросительного слова (глагол используется в основной форме):

Me ve lai a yu, kwo unkwe yu shwo. Я приду к тебе, что бы ты ни говорил.
Me bu jawabi, hu unkwe kwesti om yu. Я не отвечаю, кто бы ни спрашивал о тебе.

Sometimes it does not matter who is doing something. For such a case there is a pronoun oni, which can be translated as "one," "they," or even "people." In modern English, the word "one" is less often used; we sometimes say "you" in this situation.

Oni shwo ke ta bu lubi yu. They say that he doesn't love you.
Me lubi yu, kwo unkwe oni shwo. I love you, no matter what people might say.

Translate please

English Lidepla
где бы ты ни жил
о чем бы я ни думал
кто бы ни пришел
как бы меня ни просили

Special verbs[edit]

Специальные глаголы, выражающее отношение к действию, обычно называются "модальные". И их помощью можно составлять глагольные последовательности:

  • mog – мочь (широкое значение)
  • janmog – уметь
  • darfi – иметь разрешение
  • treba – надо (широкое значение)
  • mus – must
  • gai – should
  • majbur – быть вынужденным
  • nidi – need
  • yao – want
  • pri – испытывать приязнь

Сами специальные глаголы могут присоединять частицы, уточняющие время. Смысловые глаголы после специальных стоят в основной форме.

Yu mus helpi me. You must help me.
Me bu mog-te helpi yu. I cannot help you.


Подлежащее перед специальным глаголом может быть опущено. В этом случае фраза приобретает безличное значение:

Treba gun. Надо работать.

Translate please

русский лидепла
Она захочет спросить тебя.
Нам нравится работать.
Мне пришлось попросить (pregi).
Ведь тебе надо надеяться.
You may not (You're not permitted to) dance (dansi).
Следует отвечать когда тебя спрашивают.
Он не пришел (lai), потому что мне не хотелось его (ее) видеть.

Emphatic particles "hi" and "ku"[edit]

Для того, чтобы выделить, подчеркнуть смысл всего предложения (то есть в первую очередь его сказуемого) используют, как мы уже знаем, частицу ya. Но в лидепла есть также частица более направленного действия: она выделяет именно то слово, после которого находится. Это частица hi:

Me hi ga bu yao go. Лично я совершенно не хочу идти.
Me yao go hi, bu lopi. Я хочу именно идти, а не бежать.


For emphasizing of a word in a question the particle "ku" is used. It is put under the word in question.

Yu ku bu yao go? Is it you who doesn't want to go?

Particle "ku" is good whan one need to make a general question to a short phrase.

Yu lai ku? Will you come?


Translate please

English Lidepla
That's you I'm talking about.
Is that she who loves you?
I do know, I don't believe (I don't need to believe).

Useful words for stories[edit]

In a story you may need the word yoshi ("also"):

Me janmog gani. Yoshi me janmog rasmi. I can sing. I also can draw.

In a dialog the word toshi ("too") may be used:

Me janmog gani. - Me toshi. I can sing. - Me too.

Words used when talking about the order and time of some events:

  • poy (then, later)
  • snova (again)
  • turan (suddenly)
  • tuy (immediately, right now):
Ta dumi, poy snova shwo. He / she thinks, then talks again.
Turan li lai. Suddenly they came.
Treba jawabi tuy. One have to answer immediately.


Useful conjunctions:

  • sikom (as, for)
  • obwol (though)
  • yedoh (however, nevertheless)
Sikom yu bu shwo-te, me bu jan. As you din't talk (say), I don't know.
Yu bu jawabi, obwol me kwesti. You don't answer, though I ask / am asking.
Me bu kwesti, yedoh ta shwo. I don't ask, he / she is talking however.


Translate please

English Lidepla
I believe them too.
I don't work. Also I don't love you.
I have to understand that right now.
I can't understand, I have to work though.
He can come suddenly.
She doesn't want to hope, however he loves her.
We don't want to see him again.
I believe, because I don't want to live without you.
Then / later I will answer (jawabi) you.

New verbs[edit]

pregi to ask (for) me bu pregi-te yu, ta bu ve pregi om se, li pregi
kwesti to ask (about) nu ve kwesti ta, ob yu kwesti me? ta kwesti-te om yu
jawabi to answer ob yu jawabi-te a ta? me ve jawabi, li bu yao jawabi
dai to give nu ve dai it a yu, li bu dai-te, yu dai
pren to take me pren it, ela bu pren-te, ob yu ve pren?
helpi to help yu helpi-te (a) me om to, nu bu ve helpi, li helpi

(the preposition may be omited as there are no more objects)

go to go nu go adar, li bu ve go kun yu, yu go-te
lai to come ob yu ve lai? me bu lai-te, nu lai fo vidi yu
safari to travel yu bu ve safari, nu safari-te, me yao safari kun yu
gani to sing me pri gani, yu bu gani-te, ela ve gani fo yu
dansi to dance nu dansi-te kun mutu, ob yu dansi? li bu ve dansi hir
rasmi to draw (a painting) nu bu rasmi-te, me ve rasmi yu, kwo yu rasmi?

Translation exercise[edit]

Я не знал. Но ты сказал. Теперь я знаю. (Me ... . Bat yu ... . Nau me ...)


Мне нравится путешествовать. (Me ... .)


Я хочу отправиться в Китай. (Me ... go a Jungwo.)


Ты поедешь со мной? Я прошу тебя. (Ob yu ... kun me? Me ... .)


Что нам нужно взять с собой? (Kwo nu ... kun swa?)


Мы можем взять всё что ты хочешь. (Nu ... kwo unkwe yu ... .)


Что ты хочешь увидеть там? (Kwo yu ... dar?)


Ты не знаешь что сказать? (Ob yu ... kwo ...?)


Ты можешь спросить меня, я отвечу тебе. (Yu ..., me ... a yu.)


Ты рада? Я тоже рад. (Ob yu ...? Me toshi ... .)


Можно петь, потом танцевать, потом снова петь от радости. (Oni ..., poy ..., poy snova ... por joi.)


Почему ты вдруг говоришь, что не понимаешь, зачем путешествовать? (Way yu turan ... ke yu ... fo kwo ...?)


Ты спросишь меня об этом? (Ob yu ... om to?)


Но я не смогу тебе ответить, так как я не понимаю, что ты хочешь услышать. (Bat me ... sikom me ... kwo yu ... .)


Хотя я понимал тебя. (Obwol me ... yu.)


И надеюсь, что пойму. (E me ... ke me ... .)


О чем ты думаешь? Когда ты поможешь мне? (Om kwo yu ...? Wen yu ...?)


Тебе следует работать, а ты поешь и танцуешь. (Yu ..., yedoh yu ... .)


Мне придется сказать ему о тебе. (Me ... ... ta ...yu.)


Хотя я люблю тебя. Я любил и буду любить. (Obwol me ... . Me ... e ... .)



Text[edit]

Read the text. Try to retell it. Try to make your own story with all the words you know.

Me kwesti ta: "Hu komandi hir?"

Ta bu jawabi.

Me snova kwesti: "Way yu bu jawabi? Ob yu bu mog shwo?"

Ta shwo: "Me mog. Bat me bu jan kwo shwo. Bikos me bu jan hu komandi. Nu oli lubi mutu."

(afte Jani Rodari)

komandi - to command

Etiquette: Where are you from? Where do you live?[edit]

Before asking a question, it may be appropriate to apologize for interrupting someone: Skusi.

When meeting, you may ask the question: Wo yu jivi? (Where do you live?).

In response, you’ll need the preposition in. The meaning is just as in English:

Me jivi in Sankt-Peterburg. I live in St. Petersburg.

You might also ask: Fon wo yu lai? (Where do you come from?)

In response, you’ll need the preposition fon (from).

Names of countries in the Lidepla language sound as close as possible to the way they are pronounced in the native language of these countries:

  • Rusia - Russia (Россия, Rossiya)
  • Ingland - England
  • Frans - France
  • Doichland - Germany (Deutschland')
  • Espania - Spain (España)
  • Nipon - Japan (日本, Nippon)
  • Jungwo - China (中国, Zhōngguó)
Me lai fon Rusia. I come from Russia.

Language in focus: Chinese[edit]

Despite its popularity, the English language is only in third place by number of native speakers (about 300 million). The number of Chinese speakers is more than two times larger (over 800 million)!

The Chinese language is very ancient: scientists have found inscriptions carved on the bones of animals sacrificed as early as the 11th century BCE.

A feature of the single Chinese writing system is that the characters do not transmit the sounds and meanings of words. Several dialects were formed on the basis of this system, which have each evolved independently within different regions of China. Over time, more widely spoken dialects formed in the north, and these served as the basis for forming an official language for the Chinese empire, in which all significant documents were written, as well as the language of ordinary people, which was used only in oral communication.

The lexical structure of the language has undergone at least two significant transformations — in the 1st century BCE, when the arrival of Buddhism enriched the language with many religious and philosophical concepts; and from the beginning of the 20th century, when the language absorbed many concepts of Western civilization.

An excerpt from "The Little Prince" in Chinese (very approximate transcription recorded with the sounds of Lidepla but without marking the tones):

啊!我的小王子 ...... A! wo de syao wan zi
就这样,一点一滴地,我逐渐懂得了你那忧郁的小生命。 ziou je yan, idyen-idi-de, wo ju zien dun de le ni na you yu de syao shen min
长久以来,你惟一的乐趣只是欣赏落日。 ch'han ziou I lai, ni wei i de le tsiu ji shi sin shan luo r/shi
这是我在第四天早晨知道的,当你说出: je shi wo zai di si tien zao chen ji dao de dang ni shuo ch'hu
“我喜欢看夕阳。” wo si huan kan si yan

(reminder:

  • the Lidepla letter ‘z’ is read as a lightweight affricate "dz", as in the English word "adze."
  • the Lidepla letter ‘j’ is read as a lightweight affricate "dzh", as in the English word "June."

Chinese words are made up of syllables, each of which has its own value, and which are quite different from the sounds of familiar European languages. In addition, Chinese has not only the sounds themselves but also distinctive tones which specify how to pronounce a syllable — whether the vocal utterance is to be raised in pitch for that syllable, to be lowered or to remain at the same pitch.

Among the most frequent words of Lidepla, many words are borrowed from Chinese.

  • Reserved keywords and adverbs: bu (not), ba (повелит наклонение), gwo (еопред прош. вр.), zai (current activity), zuy (most), fen (to form a fraction), shi (ten), idyen (a little), haishi (still), shao (a little), turan (suddenly).
  • Nouns: jen (man), bao (bag), mao (wool), dao (path), yuan (employee), guan (a public institution), bey (back), duza (abdomen), tuza (hare), chiza (spoon), feng (wind).
  • Verbs: zwo (do), shwo (talk), lwo (fall), yao (want to), kan (watch), gun (work), chi (eat), zin (included), chu (go), zun (to do something), mangi (to be busy with something), tungitt (hurt), kaulu (consider, take into account).
  • Adjectives: hao (good), lao (old), gao (high), syao (small), byen (convenient), hwan (yellow), suan (sour), guy (expensive), kway (fast), lenge (cold), lan (lazy).


Exercise keys

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