Introduction to Chemical Engineering Processes
Contents
 1 Chapter 0: Introduction
 2 Chapter 1: Prerequisites
 3 Chapter 2: Elementary mass balances
 4 Chapter 3: Mass balances on multicomponent systems
 5 Chapter 4: Mass balances with recycle
 6 Chapter 5: Mass/mole balances in reacting systems
 7 Chapter 6: Multiplephase systems, introduction to phase equilibrium
 8 Chapter 7: Energy balances on nonreacting systems
 9 Chapter 8: Combining energy and mass balances in nonreacting systems
 10 Chapter 9: Introduction to energy balances on reacting systems
 11 Appendix 1: Useful Mathematical Methods
 12 Appendix 2: Problem Solving using Computers
 13 Appendix 3: Miscellaneous Useful Information
 14 Appendix 4: Notational Guide
 15 Appendix 5: Further Reading
 16 Appendix 6: External Links
Chapter 0: Introduction[edit]
 Purpose of the Book
 Formatting of the Book
 Invitation to Contribute
Chapter 1: Prerequisites[edit]
 Base unit types
 Consistency and Systems of units
 How to convert between units
 Dimensional analysis as a check on equations
 Why do they matter? The parable of an expensive cement block.
 How to compute them when we're adding
 How to compute them when we're multiplying
 When do you round 5 down? And why not just round it up like the elementary school teachers taught you?
 Stoichiometry and Moles vs. Grams
 Ideal Gas Law
 Enthalpies and Entropies of Formation
Chapter 2: Elementary mass balances[edit]
 Black box approach
 Conservation of mass
 General conservation equation
 How that conservation equation will apply to this class
 Some notation
 The final result
Converting Information into Mass Flows
 Introduction: Easilymeasurable vs. derived variables
 Volumetric flow and Density
 Velocity and Crosssectional Area
 Mass flows vs. Molar flows
 More complex example, 1component streams and multiple operations
 Drawing flowcharts
 Some basic conversions and strategies
 Overall balances vs. balances on single operations
Chapter 3: Mass balances on multicomponent systems[edit]
 Mass of each species is conserved (when there's no reaction)
 The use of concentrations and total flows
 Bulk mixture properties
Problem Solving with Multiple Components
 General methods and tips
 Conversions between Units.
 Example Problem with Solution
Multiple Components in Multiple Processes
 Things in reality are often considerably more complex.
 Degree of Freedom Analysis.
 Example of a more complex problem
Chapter 4: Mass balances with recycle[edit]
 Conserve resources
 Increase yield
 Save space
 Most importantly, save money
How to Analyze a Recycle System
 Use of combination and splitting points in balances
 Words of caution with regards to degree of freedom analysis
 An example of the effect of recycle on a separation process.
Example: A simple system with recycle
 Displays another application of recycle.
Chapter 5: Mass/mole balances in reacting systems[edit]
 Review of reaction stoichiometry
 Lack of a "law of conservation of moles"
 Molar extents of reaction
 SteadyState Molecular mole balance equation
Problem considerations with molecular balances
 Degrees of Freedom
 Independent and dependent chemical reactions
 Inerts versus Reactive Species
 Equilibrium constants (introduction/review from general chem)
 Extent of Reaction is still Extent of Reaction
 Example Problem without equilibrium
 Example Problem with equilibrium
 Example of how a separation process can be used to improve efficiency.
 Conservation of moles of atoms
 The general idea
 Some specific examples
 Advantages and shortcomings of the atom balance method
Chapter 6: Multiplephase systems, introduction to phase equilibrium[edit]
 Ideal Gas assumption, not law
 Concept of Equations of State
 Alternative Equations to the Ideal Gas Equation
NonIdeal LiquidPhase Analysis
 Activity Coefficients
 Solubility Coefficients
Fundamentals of Phase Equilibrium
 Gibbs energy
 Fugacity and fugacity coefficients
 What is different for a mixture?
 Partial properties
 Properties of ideal mixtures (liquid and gas)
 Equality of partial fugacities in all phases at equilibrium
 Ideal gases and ideal solutions (to do: move this to the "mixtures" section)
 Vapor pressure; Antoinne equation
 Raoult's Law (VLE)
 VLE for nonideal systems
 VLE charts
 Immiscible fluids
 Miscible fluids: Separation constant, K
 Use of acid/base reactions in separation
 LLE charts
 Critical Constants
 Generalized Forms of the Equations of State
 Generalized Compressibility Charts
 Kay's Rule
 Bubble points and dew points
 Solving for equilibrium concentrations, temperature, and pressure
 Use of equilibrium equations in solving mass balances
Chapter 7: Energy balances on nonreacting systems[edit]
 Idea behind energy balance: conservation of energy
 Types of energy that might be important
 Most common types of energy
 Energy change due to flows
 Energy change due to temperature changes
 Energy change due to PE and KE differences
 Heat and work
 Actual steady state Energy balance equation (for open and closed systems)
Use of the steady state energy balance
 Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas
 Reference Values
 Methods for calculating heat transfer
Unsteady state energy and mass balances
 Understanding "accumulation"
 Unsteadystate mass balance (discretized)
 Discretized unsteadystate mass balance
 A glimpse of things to come
( A note: there are many, many, many different forms of the energy balance out there for specific situations, this one is somewhat general but does not get into internals of the system at all and thus cant tell us about local temperature profiles and stuff like that. Also, this is most useful form for heatdominated processes; for mostly mechanical processes a different form is more useful)
 Open and Closedsystem problems (examples)
Chapter 8: Combining energy and mass balances in nonreacting systems[edit]
 The basic idea
 Most common unknowns
 What is in common between the balances?
 Several example problems illustrating how to combine these two concepts.
 Without phase change
 With phase change
Chapter 9: Introduction to energy balances on reacting systems[edit]
 What's different for a reacting system?
 Incorporating heat of reaction into the energy balance
 Putting it all together: steadystate mass/energy balance problem with reaction(s)
Appendix 1: Useful Mathematical Methods[edit]
Basic Statistics and Data Analysis
 Linear Regression
 Transformation of functions into linear form (linearization)
 Interpolation and Extrapolation
Numerical Root Finding Methods
 Fixed Point and Weighted FixedPoint Iteration
 Bisection Method
 Regula Falsi
 Tangent (Newton) Method
Systems of algebraic equations
 Explanation of Systems and Solvability
 General strategies
 Specific instances: linear equations, quadratic equations
 Example Solutions from This Text
 How to choose a scale
 Linearization's use in graphing
 Alternate axes: Loglog and semilog plots
 Common plot types:

 Parity plots
 Residual plots
Mathematical Methods Practice Problems
Appendix 2: Problem Solving using Computers[edit]
 Data entry
 Manipulation and Graphing of Data
 Regression Analysis
 Goal seek
 Solving systems of equations with symbolic math toolbox
 Linear and Polynomial Regression
 Plotting functions and data points
Appendix 3: Miscellaneous Useful Information[edit]
Measurement of System Variables
 Direct measurement methods for flow rates (bucket and timer, flow meters, etc.)
 Measurement methods for pressure or pressure drop (manometer, barometer, etc.)
 Measurement of velocity (orifice meters, venturi meters, etc.)
 Measurement of concentration (GC, titrations, etc.)
 Measurement of temperature (types of thermocouples and thermometers)
 Standard vs. Actual Volume
 Types of Moles Other than grammole
 Gauge Pressure vs. Absolute Pressure
 PoundsForce vs. PoundsMass
 Equipment Description Summaries
 Links to Further Information
Appendix 4: Notational Guide[edit]
 Notation used in this book
 Warning about nonuniformity of notation across sources
Appendix 5: Further Reading[edit]
Chapra, S. and Canale, R. 2002. Numerical Methods for Engineers, 4th ed. New York: McGrawHill.
Felder, R.M. and Rousseau, R.W. 2000. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Masterton, W. and Hurley, C. 2001. Chemistry Principles and Reactions, 4th ed. New York: Harcourt.
Perry, R.H. and Green, D. 1984. Perry's Chemical Engineers Handbook, 6th ed. New York: McGrawHill.
Windholz et al. 1976. The Merck Index, 9th ed. New Jersey: Merck.
General Chemistry: For a more indepth analysis of general chemistry
Matlab: For more information on how to use MATLAB to solve problems.
Numerical Methods: For more details on the rootfinding module and other fun math (warning: it's written at a fairly advanced level)
Himmelblau, D. M. and Riggs, J. B. 2004. "Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering", 7th ed. New York: Prentice Hall
Appendix 6: External Links[edit]
Data Tables
Unit conversion table (Wikipedia)
Enthalpies of Formation (Wikipedia)
Periodic Table (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
Chemical Sciences Data Tables: Has a fair amount of useful data, including a fairly comprehensive List of Standard Entropies, and Gibbs Energies at 25oC (also a list for ions), a chart with molar masses of the elements, acid equilibrium constants, solubility products, and electric potentials. Definitely one to check out.
NIST properties: You can look up properties of many common substances, including water, many light hydrocarbons, and many gases. Data available can include density, enthalpy, entropy, Pitzer accentric factor, surface tension, JouleThompson coefficients, and several other variables depending on the substance and conditions selected. To see the data in tabular form, once you enter the temperature and pressure ranges you want, click "view table" and then select the property you want from the pulldown menu. It'll tell you acceptable ranges.
Generalized compressibility chart: This is very useful in the section on gases and liquids, and you should be able to find a copy of this chart in any thermodynamics book or in Perry's handbook. I've linked here so you have some clue what I'm talking about when I write about it.
Critical constants for various materials
SIRCh: Physical Property Searches (Selected Internet Resources)