Introduction to Chemical Engineering Processes/General chemistry review

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Stoichiometry[edit]

Le Système International d'Unités (SI Units)

Mole[edit]

The mole is a measure of the amount of substance. A mole is the amount of material which contains the same number of elementary entities as there are atoms in 12g of Carbon-12.

There are Avogadro number of atoms in 12g of Carbon-12, i.e. 6.023 x 10^23 atoms.

Thus a mole of cars implies there are 6.023 x 10^23 cars and so on.

Periodic Table[edit]

Key Elements and Molecules[edit]

Acid-Base[edit]

An acid is traditionally described as a proton-donor while a base is a proton-acceptor. Such definitions give the incorrect impression that atoms bond by exchanging protons. Changing the number of protons, of course, would change the atomic number and thus the element.

A more modern definition is that an acid is an electron-acceptor while a base is a electron-donor.

Bonding[edit]

Structure and Formula[edit]

Ideal Gas Law[edit]

PV = nRT

P = Pressure; V = Volume; n = moles; R = Ideal gas constant; T = Temperature

Enthalpy[edit]

The enthalpy content of a substance is given by

\hat{H} = U + pV

where

H is the enthalpy (SI units: J/kg) U is the internal energy and p is the pressure V is the volume

Entropy[edit]

Branches of Chemistry[edit]

  • Inorganic Chemistry - The study of the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds.
  • Organic Chemistry - The study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
  • Physical Chemistry - The study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of laws and concepts of physics. It applies the principles, practices and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics, equilibrium.
  • Analytical Chemistry -
  • Biochemistry -
  • Organometallic chemistry -