Hindi/Verbs

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क्रिया (Verb)[edit]

In Hindi verbs are inflected basing upon gender, person, number, tense, mood, and aspect. There are three tenses – past, present and future (some linguists include the subjunctive mood in the tenses); three moods - imperative, indicative, and subjective; two aspects: imperfective and perfective. In sentence structuring the verb always comes at the end.

The verb होना which is equivalent of 'be' is used as a copula in simple predicative sentences and as an auxiliary in different types of verbal constructions (just as in English). The verb होना has four sets of verbal forms: present, past, presumptive, and subjunctive. It is one of the most important verbs, and a learner has to learn its different inflected forms before progressing any further for the sake of avoiding confusion.

a)Present (corresponds to the verb 'be')

Person Singular Plural
1st हूँ (मैं एक छात्र हूँ - I'm a student) हैं (हम मनुष्य हैं - We are humans)
2nd person (casual/intimate) है (तु एक छात्र है - You are a student) हो (तुम सब खिलाड़ी हो - You all are players)
2nd person (honorary) हैं (आप एक शिक्षक हैं - You are a teacher) हैं (आप लोग काबिल हैं - You people are able)
3rd person है (वो/वह एक छात्र है - He is a student) हैं (वे छात्राएं हैं - They are students)

b)Past (corresponds to past form of 'be' I.e - was/were)

Gender Singular Plural
Masculine था (मैं लंदन में था - I was in London) थे (हम लंदन में थे - We were in London)
Feminine थी (मैं लंदन में थी - I was in London) थीं (हम लंदन में थीं - We were in London)

c)Prejunctive form

Person Masculine (Singular) Masculine (Plural) Feminine (Singular) Feminine (Plural)
1st हूँगा होंगे हूँगी होंगी
2nd (casual/intimate) होगा होगे होगी होगी
2nd (honorary) होंगे होंगे होंगी होंगी
3rd होगा होंगे होगी होंगी

d)Subjunctive Form

Person Singular Plural
1st होऊँ (मेरी ईच्छा है की मैं राष्ट्रपति होऊँ - My wish is that I be the president) हों (काश हम लोग चयनित हों - Maybe we be selected)
2nd (Casual/intimate) हो (तुम जल्द अच्छे हो जाओ (May you get well soon) हो (अगर तुम लोग खिलाड़ी हो तो कितना अच्छा हो - It'd be so nice if you people were players)
2nd (Honorary) हों (अगर आप मेरी जगह हों तो आप क्या करेंगे - If you were in my place what will you do) हों (अगर आप लोग तैयार हों तो अच्छा है - It'd very good if you people are ready)
3rd हो (काश वो ही मुखिया हो - May only he be the leader) हों (काश वे ही चयनित हों - May only they be selected)

Verb forms

The lexical form of Hindi verbs I.e – the infinitive form found in dictionaries is always in the form of verb stem+ना. For example to sleep = सोना, to eat = खाना, to cook = पकाना. To form other forms we remove ना and add the required suffix (which depends upon tense as well as person). For example 'will sleep' (3rd person sing.) = सोना-ना+एगा=सोएगा.

Let us just have a basic idea of how to make and use verbs in present tense. We'd learn more about the modification of verbs basing upon tense and aspect in the lesson on tenses.

To form verbs for describing an action that regularly goes on (the present imperfect), add ता/ते to the verb stem. Example : लिख+ता+=लिखता/ते. Remember that लिखते is used for plural nouns/pronouns (and the 2nd person singular in honorary form I.e-for आप). So we can say मैं लिखता हूँ (I write), वो किताबें लिखते हैं (They write books) etc.

For changing verb to show present continuous for describing a current ongoing action, add रहा हुँ (1st person sing), रहा है (2nd person sing. intimate,3rd person sing.), रहे हो (2nd person plural intimate) or रहे हैं (all rest plural and 2nd person sing honorary) has to be added to verb stem. So we can have मैं लिख रहा हूँ (I'm writing), वे लिख रहे हैं (They are writing) and so on.

Another point to be noted is that these are all masculine forms. For agreement with a feminine noun/pronoun the last 'आ/ए’ mātrā must be replaced by the mātrā 'ई’. Examples : गीता जाती है (Geeta goes), वो लिखती है (She writes), हम जा रही हैं (We are going) etc. VERB in short related to just two words simply -> 1. TO BEING ( hona ) , 2. TO DO ( karna )