HKDSE Geography/M3/Classification of Manufacturing
There are several ways to classify manufacturing industries. This page covers three ways. We will discuss the fourth later.
Heavy vs Light
- Heavy industries use heavy and bulky inputs and produce heavy and bulky outputs.
- Light industries use light and small inputs and produce light and small outputs.
Examples of heavy: ship-building, car manufacturing
Examples of light: electronics, watches, toys, textiles
Capital-Intensive vs Labour-Intensive
Capital-intensive industries mainly rely on capital. Labour-intensive industries mainly rely on labour.
There are two kinds of capital. Working capital refers to money, financial assets like bonds, inventory, etc. Fixed capital refers to machinery, tools, equipment, etc.
Examples of capital-intensive: Information technology, silicon chip manufacturing
Examples of labour-intensive: Watches, toys, textiles...
High-Technology vs Low-Technology
Examples of hi-tech: Silicon chips, pharmacy
Examples of lo-tech: Watches, toys