Flora of New York/Ammaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae

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Asparagales (2)
Iridaceae & Asphodelaceae
Flora of New York — Asparagales (3)
Ammaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae

Poales (1)
Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order P Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Asparagales 1 Orchidaceae Vanilloideae Pogonieae Pogonia (snakemouth orchid)
Isotria (fiveleaf orchid)
2 3
Cypripedioideae Cypripedium (lady's slipper) 1 8
Epidendroideae Neottieae Epipactis (helleborine)
Listera (twayblade)
2 6
Triphoreae Triphora (noddingcaps) 1 1
Arethuseae Arethusa (dragon's mouth) 2 2
Malaxideae Liparis (widelip-orchid)
Malaxis (adder's-mouth-orchid)
2 5
Maxillarieae Corallorhiza (coralroot)
Aplectrum (Adam and Eve)
3 6
Calypsoeae Calypso (fairy slipper)
Tipularia (cranefly orchid)
2 2
Orchidoideae Orchideae Amerorchis (roundleaf orchis)
Coeloglossum (frog-orchid)
Galearis (galearis)
Platanthera (fringed-orchid)
4 23
Cranichideae Goodyera (rattlesnake-plantain)
Spiranthes (ladies'-tresses)
2 12
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis (eastern yellow stargrass) 1 1
2 Iridaceae Iridoideae Irideae Iris (iris) 1 10
Sisyrinchieae Sisyrinchium (blue-eyed grass) 1 7
Crocoideae Ixiae Crocus (crocus) 1 4
Asphodelaceae Hemerocallidoieae Hemerocallideae Hemerocallis (daylily) 1 2
3 Ammaryllidaceae Allioideae Allium (garlic, onion, leek, chives) 1 14
Amaryllidoideae Narcisseae Narcissus (daffodil) 1 4
Galantheae Galanthus (snowdrop)
Leucojum (snowflake)
2 3
Asparagaceae Scilloideae Ornithogaleae Ornithogalum (star-of-Bethlehem) 1 2
Hyacintheae Chionodoxa (glory of the snow)
Hyacinthoides (English-bluebell)
Muscari (grape-hyacinth)
Scilla (squill)
4 5
Agavoideae Agaveae Yucca (Adam's needle)
Hosta (plantain lily)
2 4
Asparagoideae Asparagus (asparagus) 1 1
Nolinoideae Convallaria (lily-of-the-valley) 1 2
Maianthemum (mayflower)
Polygonatum (Solomon's-seal)
2 6

Family Amaryllidaceae[edit]

The Amaryllidaceae (family)...

Subfamily Allioideae[edit]

Allium[edit]

Allium subg. Anguinum[edit]
Allium tricoccum
wild leeks, ramps
Subg. Anguinum contains the native wild leeks, also known as ramps.
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Anguinum
Alliumsubg. Anguinum Wild leeks N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Aiton
var. tricoccum

1789. Allium tricoccum Aiton
1808. Allium triflorum Raf.
1822. Ophioscorodon tricoccum (Aiton) Wallr.
1840. Aglitheis tricoccum (Aiton) Raf.
1903. Validallium tricoccum (Aiton) Small
Small white leek,
Wild leek,
Wood leek,
Ramp,
Ramps
Ail des bois,
Ail trilobé,
Ail sauvage
Native, C:8,
Secure
Wild leeks (Whitefish I) 2.JPG
Allium tricoccum var tricoccum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: FLNPS
 Aiton
var. burdickii Hanes

1953. Allium tricoccum var. burdickii Hanes
1979. Allium burdickii (Hanes) A.G.Jones
Narrow-leaf wild leek,
Burdick's wild leek,
Ramp
Ail de Burdick
Native, C:8,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
DEC-A[1]
Allium tricoccum - Ramps.jpg
Allium tricoccum var burdickii nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Allium subg. Amerallium[edit]
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Amerallium
Alliumsubg. Amerallium Onion N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
var. canadense

Meadow garlic,
Canadian garlic,
Wild onion
Native,
Secure
Allium canadense, 2015-06-10, Fox Chapel, 01.jpg
Allium canadense var canadense NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 





Images, wsp
Note: FLNPS
var. cernuum

Nodding onion Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]
Nodding Wild Onion - Allium cernuum, Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia.jpg
Allium cernuum var cernuum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Note: FLNPS
 Cirillo

Ail de Naples,
Neapolitan garlic,
White garlic
Introduced,
Old-World native
Allium neapolitanum kz1.jpg
Allium neapolitanum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Allium subg. Cepa[edit]
Allium schoenoprasum L.
wild chives
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) is a circumboreal species. Although escapes of these widely-cultivated plants are common, natural populations are now considered to be endangered in New York.
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Cepa
Alliumsubg. Cepasect. Schoenoprasum Chives N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Allium schoenoprasum L.
1753. Allium sibiricum L.
yyyy. A. schoenoprasum var. laurentianum
yyyy. A. schoenoprasum var. sibiricum
Wild chives Native, C:9,
Endangered,
Note[1][2]
Allium schoenoprasum(01).jpg
Allium schoenoprasum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA 



Images, wsp
Alliumsubg. Cepasect. Cepa Onions N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

Garden onion,
Cultivated onion
Introduced,
Not naturalized
Allium cepa Czosnek cebula 2017-10-15 02.jpg
Allium cepa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-C0






Images, wsp
  1. USDA-NRCS PLANTS shows Allium schoenoprasum var. schoenoprasum as introduced in North America, but not present in NY. It shows var. sibiricum as native to North America, present in NY, and threatened in MI, MN, and NH. The New York Flora Atlas treats these varieties as cultivars and gives the species a state-exotic status. Flora of North America treats the species as a polymorphic North American native, with no reliable varietal separations.
  2. New York Rare Plant Status Lists, November 2017:Changes Since the June 2010 Rare Plant Status Lists: Taxa added to the Active List: Allium schoenoprasum G5 S1
Allium subg. Allium[edit]
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Allium
Alliumsubg. Alliumsect. Allium Garlic & Leeks N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

Wild garlic,
Wild onion,
Onion-grass
Introduced,
Widespread weed,
NE-3[1]
Allium vineale1.jpg
Allium vineale NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 





Images, wsp
 L.
var. ophioscorodon

Hardneck garlic Introduced Allium sativum sl2.jpg
Allium sativum var sativum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Round-head garlic Introduced Allium sphaerocephalon 02.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X






Images, wsp
 L.

Leek Introduced Inflorescence-allium-polyanthum-voile.jpg
Allium porrum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Alliumsubg. Allium (excluded taxa) Garlic & Leeks N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

Wild garlic Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Jazevčí 4 - Allium oleraceum.JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XW
NEW 





Images, wsp
 L.
var. sativum

Garlic Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Allium sativum harilik kyyslauk estonia.JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.
var. paniculatum

Mediterranean onion Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Allium paniculatum Enfoque 2011-6-11 CampodeCalatrava.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
 L.

Broadleaf wild leek,
Broad-leaved wild leek
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Allium ampeloprasum Inflorescencia 2011-05-22 SierraMadrona.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Subamily Amaryllidoideae[edit]

The Amaryllidoideae (amaryllis subfamily)...

Tribe Narcisseae[edit]

Narcissus[edit]
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Amaryllidoideae — Narcisseae — Narcissus
Narcissus Daffodil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

Poet’s narcissus,
Pheasant’s-eye narcissus,
Daffodil
Introduced Flower of a Narcissus.jpg
Narcissus poeticus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
L. 1753

Daffodil,
Common daffodil,
Trumpet narcissus
Introduced,
from Eurasia,
Macaronesia
20140226Narcissus pseudonarcissus2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Mill. (pro sp.)
[ poeticus × pseudonarcissus ]

Nonesuch daffodil Introduced
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Narcissus (excluded taxa) Daffodil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L

Jonquil,
Daffodil
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Narcissus jonquilla 3.jpg
Narcissus jonquilla NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Tribe Galantheae[edit]

Leucojum[edit]
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Amaryllidoideae — Galantheae — Leucojum
Leucojum Snowflake N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L. 1759

Summer snowflake,
Loddon-lily
Introduced,
from Eurasia
Leucojum aestivum 2010 4×3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Galanthus[edit]
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Amaryllidoideae — Galantheae — Galanthus
Galanthus Snowdrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
Hook.f. 1875

1882. G. graecus Orph. ex Boiss.
Giant snowdrop,
Greater snowdrop
Introduced,
from Eurasia
Weiße Blütenglocken.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
 L. 1753

1839. G. imperati Bertol.
1888. G. nivalis ssp. imperati Baker
Snowdrop,
Common snowdrop
Perceneige
Introduced,
from Eurasia
Snieguole resize.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp

Family Asparagaceae[edit]

Subfamily Scilloideae[edit]

Tribe Ornithogaleae[edit]

Ornithogalum[edit]
Ornithogalum umbellatum L.
common star-of-Bethlehem


Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Scilloideae — Ornithogaleae — Ornithogalum
Ornithogalum Star of Bethlehem N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Ornithogalum umbellatum L.
Common star-of-Bethlehem,
Pyrenees Star of Bethlehem,
Nap-at-noon,
Sleepy dick
Dame de onze heures
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Invasive,
WW
20170421Ornithogalum umbellatum3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 L. (1753)

Drooping star-of-Bethlehem,
Nodding star-of-Bethlehem
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Ornithogalum nutans003.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp

Tribe Hyacintheae[edit]

Subribe Hyacinthinae[edit]
Chionodoxa[edit]
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Chionodoxa Glory-of-the-snow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE

Glory of the snow,
Lucile's glory of the snow
Introduced Chionodoxa-luciliae-close.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Hyacinthoides[edit]
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Hyacinthoides Hyacinthoides N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE

English-bluebell Introduced Bluebell aka Hyacinthoides non-scripta.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp
Muscari[edit]
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Muscari Grape-hyacinth N.Y. Status Images Distribution NE

Common grape-hyacinth,
Compact grape-hyacinth,
Italilan grape-hyacinth,
Grape-hyacinth
Introduced from
 Europe
Muscari botryoides.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp

Grape hyacinth,
Starch grape hyacinth
Introduced Muscari neglectum006.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp
Scilla[edit]
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Scilla Scilla N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE

    Scilla siberica
    Othocallis siberica
Siberian squill,
wood squill
Introduced Wood Squill (Scilla siberica) (25874058152).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Subfamily Agavoideae[edit]

Yucca[edit]

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Agavoideae — Agaveae — Yucca
Yucca Yucca N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE

Yucca,
Adam's needle,
Spanish bayonette
Introduced,
North America native
Yucca filamentosa0.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N



NSE BNA


Images, wsp

Hosta[edit]

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Agavoideae — Agaveae — Hosta
Hosta Plantain-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 (Thunb.) Engl.

Narrowleaf plantain lily,
Narrow-leaved plantain-lily
Introduced Hosta lancifolia leaves.JPG
Hosta lancifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Blue plantain-lily Introduced VM 5259 Muyu hills forest - blue flowers.jpg
Hosta ventricosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Fragrant plantain lily Introduced,
No NY reports
Funkia babkowata Hosta plantaginea fruit.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Camassia[edit]

Camassia scilloides
wild hyacinth, eastern camas
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth) was listed in the 1912 Flora of Onondaga County as Quamasia hyacinthina Raf., a "very rare" plant found on the bank of Onondaga Creek in 1900.[1] It is not listed in the New York Flora Atlas.
  1. L. Leonora Hutchinson Goodrich (1912) Flora of Onondaga County as Collected by the Members of the Syracuse Botanical Club. p. 64.
Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Agavoideae — Camassia
CamassiaRaf. (1818) 0 N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Raf.) Cory

1818. Cyanotris scilloides Raf.
1824. Quamasia scilloides (Raf.) Raf.
1896. Quamasia hyacinthina Britton
1908. Camassia esculenta (Ker Gawl.) B.L.Rob.)
1936. Camassia scilloides (Raf.) Cory
Eastern camas
Atlantic camas
Wild hyacinth

Camassie faux-scille
Jacinthe des bois
N. America native Camassia scilloides Ozarks.jpg
Nymap.svg

USDA-NN


FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp

Subamily Asparagoideae[edit]

The Asparagoideae (asparagus subfamily)...

Asparagus[edit]

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Asparagoideae — Asparagus
Asparagus Asparagus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Asparagus officinalis L.
1753. Asparagus officinalis ssp. officinalis
1753. Asparagus officinalis var. altilus L.
1783. Asparagus tenuifolius Lam.
1864. Asparagus altilus (L.) Asch.
Garden asparagus,
Common asparagus,
Asparagus
Asperge,
Asperge officinale
Introduced

Perennial,
Forb-herb
Asparagus officinalis 004.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily Nolinoideae[edit]

The Nolinoideae subfamily...

Convallaria[edit]

Convallaria majalis
lily of the valley
The lily-of-the-valley plants that have been found to have naturalized or persisted from old plantings in New York have been the Eurasian lily-of-the-valley (C. majalis ssp. majalis). The American lily-of-the-valley (C. majalis ssp. majuscula[1]) is considered to be native to the Appalachian Mountain region with a natural range extending only as far north as West Virginia. These North American natives have not been reported outside of cultivation in New York.
Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Nolinoideae — Convallaria
Convallaria Lily of the valley N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.
ssp. majalis

1753. Convallaria majalis L.
Eurasian lily-of-the-valley,
European lily-of-the-valley
Muguet
Introduced,
Naturalized
Convallaria majalisRHu.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X


FNA 



Images, wsp
Convallaria (excluded taxa) Lily of the valley N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.
ssp. majuscula (Greene)
Gandhi, Reveal, and Zarucchi

1840. Convallaria montana Raf.
1908. Convallaria majuscula Greene
1964. Convallaria majalis
var. montana (Raf.) H.E.Ahles
2012. Convallaria majalis ssp. majuscula
American lily-of-the-valley N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Convallaria-oliv-r2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Note: Gandhi[1]

Maianthemum[edit]

Maianthemum canadense Desf.
Canada mayflower

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Nolinoideae — Maianthemum
Maianthemum Mayflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Desf.

1807. Maianthemum canadense Desf.
1814. Smilacina canadensis Pursh
1888. Unifolium canadense Greene
Canada May-flower,
Canadian May-lily,
Wild lily-of-the-valley,
False lily-of-the-valley,
Two-leaved Solomon’s-seal
Maïanthème du Canada
Native,
Secure
Canada Mayflower (3816399004).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(L.) Link
ssp. racemosum

1753. Convallaria racemosa L.
1807. Smilacina racemosa Desf.
1821. Maianthemum racemosum Link
1840. Vagnera retusa Raf.
1889. Unifolium racemosum (Britton
1893. Vagnera racemosa Morong
1903. Vagnera australis Rydb.
False Solomon’s-seal,
False spikenard,
Solomon’s-plume,
Feathery false lily of the valley
Smilacine à grappes
Native,
Secure
Maianthemum racemosum 10180.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 (L.) Link

1753. Convallaria stellata L.
1807. Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf.
1821. Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link
Starry Solomon's-seal,
Little false Solomon’s-seal,
Starflower Solomon’s-seal,
Starflower Solomon's-plume
Smilacine étoilée,
Maïanthème étoilé
Native,
Secure
Maianthemum stellatum - Star flowered Solomon's seal 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
(L.) Sloboda

1753. Convallaria trifolia
    Smilacina trifolia
    Tovaria trifolia
    Vagnera trifolia
1852. Maianthemum trifolium L
Three-leaved Solomon's-plume,
Threeleaf false lily of the valley,
Threeleaf false Solomon's seal,
Swamp false Solomon's seal
Smilacine trifoliée,
Smilacine à trois feuilles
Native,
Secure
Maianthemum trifolium WFNY-032A.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N






Images, wsp

Polygonatum[edit]

Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott
Solomon’s seal

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Nolinoideae — Polygonatum
PolygonatumMill. Solomon's-seal N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Willd.) Pursh

1803. Convallaria pubescens Willd.
1814. P. pubescens (Willd.) Pursh
 auct. P. biflorum sensu Gray & Britton
Hairy Solomon’s seal,
Downy Solomon's-seal
Sceau-de-Salomon
  pubescent
Native, C:7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Polygonatum pubescens WFNY-021.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(Walter) Elliott
var. biflorum

1788. Convallaria biflora Walter
1817. Polygonatum biflorum Elliott
1917. P. biflorum var. hebetifolium
1927. P. hebetifolium (R.R. Gates) Bush
Giant Solomon’s seal,
Great Solomon’s seal,
Common Solomon's-seal,
Smooth Solomon’s seal,
King Solomon's-seal
Sceau-de-Salomon
  à deux fleurs
Native, C:7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Polygonatum biflorum 1392156.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(Walter) Elliott
var. commutatum (Schult.f.) Morong

1830. Convallaria commutata Schult.f.
1835. P. commutatum A.Dietr.
1894. P. biflorum var. commutatum
Large Solomon's-seal,
Giant Solomon’s seal,
Great Solomon’s seal
Sceau-de-Salomon géant,
Sceau-de-Salomon canaliculé
Native, C:5,
Unrankd

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Polygonatum biflorum.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Polygonatum (excluded taxa) Solomon's-seal N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Jacq.) Desf.

1775. Convallaria latifolia Jacq.
1797. Convallaria hirta Bosc ex Poir.
1807. P, latifolium (Jacq.) Desf.
1814. P. hirtum (Bosc ex Poir.) Pursh
1840. Sigillaria hirta (Bosc ex Poir.) Raf.
Broad-leaved Solomon's-seal
Broadleaf Solomon's-seal
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded,
Cultivated
Polygonatum latifolium sl1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0
NEW 
ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Asparagales (2)
Iridaceae & Asphodelaceae
Flora of New York — Asparagales (3)
Ammaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae

Poales (1)
Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index