Engineering Acoustics/Specific application-automobile muffler
General information about Automobile muffler
A muffler is a part of the exhaust system on an automobile that plays a vital role. It needs to have modes that are located away from the frequencies that the engine operates at, whether the engine be idling or running at the maximum amount of revolutions per second.A muffler that affects an automobile in a negative way is one that causes noise or discomfort while the car engine is running.Inside a muffler, you'll find a deceptively simple set of tubes with some holes in them. These tubes and chambers are actually as finely tuned as a musical instrument. They are designed to reflect the sound waves produced by the engine in such a way that they partially cancel themselves out.( cited from www.howstuffworks.com )
It is very important to have it on the automobile. The legal limit for exhaust noise in the state of California is 95 dB (A) - CA. V.C. 27151 .Without a muffler the typical car exhaust noise would exceed 110 dB.A conventional car muffler is capable of limiting noise to about 90 dB. The active-noise canceling muffler enables cancellation of exhaust noise to a wide range of frequencies.
The Configuration of A automobile muffler
How Does automobile muffler function?
The simple and main part of designing the automobile muffler is to use the low-pass filter. It typically makes use of the change of the cross section area which can be made as a chamber to filter or reduce the sound wave which the engine produced.
A low-pass filter is a circuit that passes low frequency signals but stops the high frequency signals. Once the low pass filter is set by the user at a specific cutoff frequency, all frequencies lower than that will be passed through the filter, while higher frequencies will be attenuated in amplitude. This circuit made up of passive components (resistor, capacitors and inductors) capable of accomplishing this objective. File:Inductive law pass filter.jpg
the formula to be used:
Human ear sound reaction feature
When these pressure pulses reach your ear, the eardrum vibrates back and forth. Your brain interprets this motion as sound. Two main characteristics of the wave determine how we perceive the sound:
1.sound wave frequency. 2.air wave pressure amplitude.
It turns out that it is possible to add two or more sound waves together and get less sound.
Description of the muffler to cancel the noise
The key thing about sound waves is that the result at your ear is the sum of all the sound waves hitting your ear at that time. If you are listening to a band, even though you may hear several distinct sources of sound, the pressure waves hitting your ear drum all add together, so your ear drum only feels one pressure at any given moment. Now comes the cool part: It is possible to produce a sound wave that is exactly the opposite of another wave. This is the basis for those noise-canceling headphones you may have seen. Take a look at the figure below. The wave on top and the second wave are both pure tones. If the two waves are in phase, they add up to a wave with the same frequency but twice the amplitude. This is called constructive interference. But, if they are exactly out of phase, they add up to zero. This is called destructive interference. At the time when the first wave is at its maximum pressure, the second wave is at its minimum. If both of these waves hit your ear drum at the same time, you would not hear anything because the two waves always add up to zero.
Benefits of an Active Noise-Canceling Muffler
1. By using an active muffler the exhaust noise can be easily tuned, amplified, or nearly eliminated.
2. The backpressure of a conventional muffler can be essentially eliminated, thus increasing engine performance and efficiency.
3. By increasing engine efficiency and performance, less fuel will be used and the emissions will be reduced.
It can be regarded as simplest form of absorptive muffler. Attach absorptive material to the bare walls of the duct.( in car that is the exhaustion tube) The attenuation performance improves with the thickness of absorptive material.
The attenuation curves like a skewed bell. Increase the thickness of the wall will get the lower maximum attenuation frequency. For higher frequency though, thinner absorbent layers are effective, but the large gap allows noise to pass directly along. Thin layers and narrow passages are therefore more effective at high frequencies. For good absorption over the widest frequency range, thick absorbent layers and narrow passages are best.
Parallel and block-line-of-sight baffles
Divide the duct into several channels or turn the flow channels so that there is no direct line-of-sight through the baffles. Frequently the materials line on the channels. Attenuation improves with the thickness of absorptive material and length of the baffle. Lined bends can be used to provide a greater attenuation and attenuate best at high frequency. Comparatively, at low frequency attenuation can be increased by adding thicker lining.
They are relatively large volume chambers, usually fabricated from sheet metal, which interconnect two ducts. The interior of the chamber is lined with absorbing material to attenuate noise in the duct. Protective facing material may also be necessary if the temperature and velocity conditions of the gas stream are too severe.
The performance of a plenum chamber can be improved by: 1.increase the thickness of the absorbing lining 2.blocking the direct line of sight from the chamber inlet to the outlet. 3.increase the cross-sectional area of the chamber.