# Cookbook:Units of measurement

Recipes from different parts of the world use different **units of measurement**. This page is a guide to those that are most commonly used in cooking which follow metric units, imperial units, and US customary units.

## List of Units[edit | edit source]

### Volume[edit | edit source]

#### Metric[edit | edit source]

- ml or mL, also
**milliliter**,**millilitre**,**cc (cubic centimeter)** - l or L, also
**liter**,**litre**, - dl or dL, also
**deciliter**,**decilitre**

#### Imperial and US customary[edit | edit source]

- teaspoon (also
**t**or**tsp.**) - tablespoon (also
**T**,**tbl.**,**tbs.**, or**tbsp.**) - fluid ounce (also
**fl oz**) - gill (about 1/2 cup)
- cup (also
**c**) - pint (also
**p**,**pt**, or**fl pt**) - quart (also
**q**,**qt**, or**fl qt**) - gallon (also
**g**or**gal**)

### Weight[edit | edit source]

#### Metric[edit | edit source]

#### Imperial and US customary[edit | edit source]

### Length[edit | edit source]

#### Metric[edit | edit source]

#### Imperial and US customary[edit | edit source]

- inch (also
**in**or**"**) - yard

### Temperature[edit | edit source]

See the oven temperature table.

#### Metric[edit | edit source]

- °C (also
**degree celsius**)

#### Imperial and US customary[edit | edit source]

- °F (also
**degree Farenheit**)

#### Other[edit | edit source]

- Gas mark (informal temperature measurement on gas cookers)

## Metric Units[edit | edit source]

Metric units are made up of a *base unit* and a scale *modifier*. Each type of measurement has its own base unit. The modifiers are shared between all units. The relevant base units for cooking are:

- Mass: gram (g)
- Length: meter (m)
- Volume: cubic meter (m
^{3})

Commonly used prefix modifiers are:

- 1/1000 milli (m)
- 1/100 centi (c)
- 1/10 deci (d)
- 100 hecto (h)
- 1000 kilo (k)

In cooking the old unit Liter (l) is commonly used to measure volume. One liter is (exactly) equal to 0.001 cubic meters, or 1 cubic *deci*meter, written like: 1 l = 1 dm^{3}. The prefix modifiers can be used with any unit and thus 1 cl (centiliter) is equal to 1/100 of a liter. The unit for volume is *derived* from the unit for length. Two lengths forms an *area*, which is length x length and has the derived unit square meter (m^{2}). Three lengths forms the volume metric m^{3}. This has the consequence that a m^{3} is equal to 1000 dm^{3}, that is 10^{3} = 10x10x10.

Examples relevant for cooking:

- 1 l = 10 dl = 100 cl = 1000 ml = 1 dm
^{3}= 0.264 US gallons - 1 kg = 10 hg = 1000 g = 2.2 pounds
- 1 cm = 0.39 inches

Some recipes in Wikibooks Cookbook use American measurement units (*pounds and ounces, Fahrenheit, fluid ounces and pints, etc.*) and some recipes use metric units (*grammes and kilograms, Celsius, milliliter, etc.*). An attempt to ensure that all Cookbook recipes use metric units (alone or alongside American units) is an ongoing job. A list of recipes which have been confirmed as having metric units can be found here.

## Avoirdupois Conversion Reference[edit | edit source]

### Volume[edit | edit source]

- American (US) units

- 1 T = 3 t = 1/2 fl oz
- 2 T = 1 fl oz
- 1 cup = 16 T = 8 fl oz
- 1 pint = 2 cups = 16 fl oz
- 1 qt = 2 pints
- 1 gal = 4 qt

### Mass[edit | edit source]

- 1 lb = 16 oz

### Mass/Volume conversions[edit | edit source]

Approximate conversions based on water density. These conversions are useful for more than just water. Although other things have different densities, they are good enough for most estimates.

- 1 fl oz = 1 oz
- 1 pint = 1 lb
- 2 cups = 1 lb

Water has a density of exactly 1 g/cm³

- 1 ml = 1 g
- 1 L = 1 kg

An American stick of butter is 1/4 lb, and is divided into 8 tablespoons. So, 1 tbsp butter = 1/2 oz butter.

## Kitchen measures around the world[edit | edit source]

**Nigeria**[edit | edit source]

Empty tins of saturated milk are commonly used in Nigeria as a dry measure for foodstuff such as rice, beans and flour. This might cause some confusion when examining recipes from this region. Usually, the recipe will specify "two milk cups of beans" or "two milk tins of rice." Guidelines to convert these figures into more familiar ones are widely available online.

### Sweden[edit | edit source]

Sweden uses the following standard set of volume measures in recipes. (In the picture, from left to right, deciliter, tablespoon, teaspoon and milliliter.) All are metric, with the tablespoon defined as exactly 15 ml and the teaspoon as exactly 5 ml.

- deciliter (dl) = 100 ml
- tablespoon (
*"matsked"*, msk) = 15 ml - teaspoon (
*"tesked"*, tsk) = 5 ml - milliliter (
*"kryddmått"*, krm) = 1 ml

### Finland[edit | edit source]

Finland uses the following abbreviations.

- tablespoon (
*"ruokalusikka"*, rkl) = 15 ml - teaspoon (
*"teelusikka"*, tl) = 5 ml

## See also[edit | edit source]

- The Best and Most Accurate Way to Measure Wet and Dry Ingredients for Baking: spooned flour is less dense (weights less) than scooped flour.