Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Glossary/T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z

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Word Meaning
Target cell A cell whose activity is affected by a particular hormone
Tarsals The bones of the “ankle”
Tendons A tough cord of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones
Testis The male gonad that produces sperm
Testosterone The hormone produced by the cells between the seminiferous tubules of the testis
Thoracic cavity The chest cavity that contains the heart and lungs
Thorax The part of the body between the neck and the diaphragm
Thymus gland The organ dorsal to the sternum that is essential to the immune response
Thyroid gland The endocrine gland with lobes on either side of the trachea
Thyroxine The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
Tibia The medial bone of the lower hind limb
Tidal breathing Normal at rest breathing
Tidal volume The volume of air breathed in or out in any one “at rest” breath
Tissue A group of similar cells
Tissue fluid Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues; also known as intercellular fluid or interstitial fluid
Total lung capacity The sum of the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve and residual volume of the lungs
Trachea The windpipe
Transverse A crosswise slice of an animal or organ
Triceps The muscle that extends from the shoulder to the elbow responsible for extending the forearm
Triglycerides A biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule. A fat
Trunk The part of the body to which the fore and hind limbs are attached
Tympanic membrane The thin transparent membrane of connective tissue between the external ear, canal and the middle ear. Also called the eardrum
Ulna The longer bone of the forelimb between the humerus and the “wrist”
Umbilical cord The cord containing arteries and vein that attaches the foetus to the placenta
Unguligrade locomotion Locomotion on the “fingernails” as in horses and pigs
Urea The soluble excretory product produced when excess amino acids (from proteins) are broken down by the body
Ureter One of two tubes that connect the kidney with the bladder
Urethra The duct from the bladder to the exterior of the body
Uric acid An insoluble excretory product produced when excess amino acids(from proteins) are broken down by the body
Urinalysis The analysis of urine
Urine The fluid produced by the kidneys
Uterus The hollow muscular organ in females where the foetus develops
Vagina The muscular, tubular organ in the female where sperm are deposited during copulation
Vagus nerve The cranial nerve that controls the muscles that bring about swallowing,the muscles of the heart, airways, lungs, stomach and intestines
Vane The flat part of a feather emerging from the shaft; there are two vanes per feather
Vas deferens The duct that conducts the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Vascular To do with blood
Vasoconstriction The decrease in size of the channel down a blood vessel
Vaso dilation The increase in size of the channel down a blood vessel
Vein A blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart
Velvet The tissue layer that covers antlers
Vena cava One of two large blood vessels that return blood to the heart
Ventral Nearer the belly of the animal than
Ventricles The caudal chambers of the heart
Venule A small vein
Vertebral canal The channel that encloses and protects the spinal cord
Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone or vertebral column
Vesicles Small, intracellular membrane-bound sac
Vestibular organ The organ of balance – semicircular canals and otolith organ
Villus (pl. villi) A projection from the lining of the small intestine to help absorb digested food molecules
Viscera The organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Visceral skeleton Bones formed in the organs of the body
Viscosity The thickness or stickiness of a liquid
Vital capacity The sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes and the tidal volume
Vital capacity The volume of the air expired when a maximum expiration follows a maximum inspiration
Vitamin An organic molecule necessary in minute quantities for the proper functioning of the chemical processes in the body
Vitreous Humor The fluid in the posterior chamber of the eye
White matter Masses of myelinated axons located in the brain and spinal cord
Xiphoid process (or xiphisternum) A small process/ extension at the lower part of the sternum. Cartilage at birth; gradually ossifies to bone and fuses with the sternum
Yellow marrow Bone marrow that is yellow with fat; found at the ends of long bones
Zona pellucida The tough layer surrounding the ovum
Zygote Single cell resulting from the union of the sperm and egg