Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Glossary/G-H

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Word Meaning
Gall bladder The small pouch that stores bile
Gamete A reproductive cell - sperm or ovum
Ganglion A group of nerve cells outside central nervous system
Gas exchange The process in which oxygen from inhaled air is transferred into the blood and

carbon dioxide from the blood is transferred into the alveoli

Gastric juice The digestive secretion produced by glands in the wall of the stomach
Gene A biological unit of heredity
Gestation The period of foetal development inside the uterus
Girdle An encircling or arching arrangement of bones
Gizzard The second part of the stomach of birds. In seed eating birds it contains pebbles and its muscular walls help grind the food
Gland A collection of cells that secrete substances
Gliding joint A synovial joint with flat articulating surfaces that permits limited movements e.g. between carpals and tarsals
Glomerular capsule See Bowman’s capsule
Glomerulus Tuft of capillaries surrounded by the Bowman’s capsule in nephron
Glottis Vocal cords
Glucose The smallest sugar. Major energy source for all cells
Glycerol A molecule that combines with three fatty acid molecules to form a fat or oil
Glycogen A highly branched polymer of glucose. Energy store in body
Goitre A condition involving enlargement of thyroid gland
Golgi complex apparatus A cell organelle concerned with packaging, processing and secretion of organic molecules
Gonads The ovary and testes
Graafian follicle The mature ovarian follicle
Grey matter Area of the nervous system consisting of cell bodies
Growth hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Stimulates growth, particularly of the skeleton
Haematocrit The percentage of blood made up of red blood cells. Also called packed cell volume (PCV)
Haematuria Urine that contains red blood cells
Haemoglobin Pigment containing iron in red blood cells that allows them to carry oxygen
Haemolysis The escape of haemoglobin from a red blood cell
Haemorrhage Bleeding
Haploid Having half the normal number of chromosomes, produced by meiosis
Haversian canal The canal down centre of a Haversian system
Haversian system The columns of boney tissue that make up compact bone
Heparin A naturally occurring anticoagulant. Also used in laboratory tests for heavy metals
Hepatic To do with the liver
Hepatic portal vessel The blood vessel that carries blood from the intestines to the liver
Hinge joint A synovial joint that allows movement in only one plane e.g. elbow
Histamine A substance secreted from white cells and platelets that is involved in the inflammatory response
Hock The joint (between the tarsals and metatarsals
Homoiothermic ‘Warm-blooded’ animals that regulate their body temperature
Hormone A secretion from an endocrine gland
Humerus The bone of the upper forearm between the scapula and the radius and ulna
Hyperglycemia Elevated blood glucose level
Hypertension High blood pressure
Hyperthermia High body temperature
Hypertonic Having an osmotic pressure higher than a solution with which it is compared
Hypotension Low blood pressure
Hypotonic Having an osmotic pressure lower than a solution with which it is compared