Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Glossary/E-F

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Word Meaning
Echolocation The use of high frequency sound like sonar and radar by animals (i.e. whales and bats) to locate objects in the surrounding environment
Effector A muscle or gland that responds to a motor neuron impulse
Egestion The elimination of indigestible waste products from the body
Electrolyte A compound that separates into charged particles or ions
Electron microscope A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope
Element Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
Embryo The young of any organism in an early stage of development
Emulsification The breakdown of large fat particles to smaller ones in the presence of bile
Enamel The hard white substance covering the crown of teeth
Endocrine gland A ductless gland that secretes hormones into the blood
Endometrium The inner lining of the uterus
Endoplasmic reticulum The network of membranous channels running through the cytoplasm of cells
Endothelium The layer of squamous epithelium that lines blood vessels
Enzyme A substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction
Eosinophil A white blood cell with granules in the cytoplasm
Epidermis The thin outer layer of the skin
Epididymis The organ composed of convoluted tubules that lies on the border of the testis Where sperm mature
Epiglottis The cartilage on the top of the larynx that closes the windpipe during swallowing
Epiphyseal line The remnant of epiphyseal plate at end of long bone
Epiphyseal plate The cartilaginous plate at the end of a long bone where bone growth occurs
Epiphysis The end of a long bone
Epithelial tissue Tissue that forms outer part of skin, lines blood vessels, hollow organs and passages in the body
Erythrocyte A red blood cell
Essential amino acids The 10 amino acids that can not be made by animals and must be acquired in the diet
Eustachian tube The passage connecting middle ear to pharynx. Equalises air pressure in middle and outer ear
Evolution All the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today
Excretion To cast out material from the body, cell or tissue
Exocrine gland A gland that secretes substances into a duct
Exocytosis The discharge of substances through the plasma membrane
Expiration Breathing out
Extension Bending of a joint so that the angle between the bones increases
Extracellular fluid Fluid outside body cells
Facilitated diffusion Diffusion across a membrane using a carrier substance
Fallopian tube A slender tube through which eggs pass from an ovary to the uterus
Fats Biological compounds consisting of three fatty acids linked to one

glycerol molecule

Feedback system The sequence of events where information about the status of a situation is

continually fed back to the central control region

Femur The long bone between the pelvis and the knee
Fertilisation Penetration of ovum by sperm and union of nuclei
Fetlock The joint between the metacarpals or metatarsals and the phalanges in horse
Fibrin The insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen
Fibrinogen The protein in blood plasma essential for blood clotting
Fibula The lateral bone of the lower hind limb
Filtrate The fluid produced by filtration of blood in the nephron
Flagellum A long hair like process e.g. tail of sperm
Flexion The movement involving decreasing the angle between two bones
Fluoroxylate An anticoagulant used for biochemical tests for glucose
Foetus Later stage of development of a young animal
Follicle The cavity surrounding the developing ovum
Follicle stimulating

hormone (FSH)

Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland. Stimulates development of ovarian follicle
Foramen A hole in a bone for passage of vessels or nerves
Foramen magnum The hole at the base of the skull for passage of the spinal cord
Fossa A furrow or shallow depression in a bone
Fovea The area of the retina of greatest concentration of cone cells. Area of sharpest vision
Functional caecum The enlarged large intestine and caecum occupied by cellulose digesting micro-organisms