§1. Explain the difference in food value between whole wheat flour and white flour.
Whole wheat retains the bran and germ as well as the endosperm, in contrast to white flour which retains only the endosperm.
Whole wheat foods are nutritionally superior to refined grains, richer in dietary fiber, antioxidants, protein (and in particular the amino acid lysine), dietary minerals (including magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and selenium), and vitamins (including niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin E).
The greater amount of dietary fiber, as much as four times than found in refined grains, is likely the most important benefit, as it has been shown to reduce the incidence of some forms of cancer, digestive system diseases, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Some of these protective effects occur because carbohydrates from whole grains are digested and enter the bloodstream more slowly, avoiding the "sugar rush."
§2. Describe the effects of yeast in bread making.
Yeast interacts chemically with sugar in warm water to provide leavening. This allows the bread to "rise".
In more detail, yeasts make up a group of single-celled fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread. In the absence of oxygen, yeasts produce their energy by converting sugars into carbon dioxide and ethanol. In baking, the carbon dioxide raises the bread and the ethanol evaporates.
§3. Give one Old Testament and one New Testament incident where leavening is mentioned.
Old Testament:Exodus 12:34 & 39 -- The Israelites prepared unleavened bread for the first Passover
1/4 C soft tofu (mashed), stir until chunks are minimal (egg replacer or 1 T ground flax seed also works)
2 1/2 C cups fine-milled or medium-milled whole wheat flour
3 7/8 C unbleached all-purpose white flour
In a small bowl stir up the yeast in 1/2 cup warm water, add a pinch of unrefined sugar. Let the yeast activate for 10 minutes.
To a large mixing bowl add the other 1/2 cup water, milk, unrefined sugar, melted vegan margarine, salt, tofu, and whole wheat flour. Stir with wooden spoon until creamy.
Add the yeast mixture which should be foamy by now. Add walnuts. Add in the unbleached wheat flour a little at a time. Stir until the dough is too thick for the spoon then put the dough on a lightly fluored cutting board or counter top and mix by hand. When all the flour is added, knead dough for around 5-7 minutes. Cover dough with a towel and let rise for around 1 to 1.5 hours. Dough should double in size.
Knock the dough down once then place 2 equal portions of the dough into 2 greased pans. If you want the loaves to look fancy do this: roll dough into 4 separate dough "snakes". Twist 2 of these together to make a nice looking intertwined loaf. Let rise about 45 minutes.
Brush tops of loaves with melted margarine (keeps them from drying out) and dust with cinnamon, uncooked oatmeal or white flour (aesthetics). Bake in oven preheated to 375F for around 35 minutes. When done, loaves will sound hollow when tapped.
In a large bowl, combine zucchine, egg substitute, oil, brown sugar, and vanilla extract. Set aside.
In a separate bowl, combine flour, baking soda, salt, baking powder, and cinnamon.
Add the zucchini mixture.
Stir until smooth.
Add the nuts and fold them in.
Pour the mixture into a loaf pan
Bake at 325°F for 75 minutes.
§6. Explain why the use of baking powder and soda should be avoided and why the mixture of milk, sugar, and eggs is harmful to health.
Baking soda and baking powder
In The Ministry of Healing, Ellen White wrote that baking soda and baking powder should not be used for making bread. She wrote, "Soda causes inflammation of the stomach and often poisons the entire system."
Milk, sugar, and eggs
When these ingredients are mixed and eaten, they ferment in the abdomen, giving the same effect as alcohol products.
§7. How do you test a cake for being done? How do you keep a cake from "falling"?
You can test to see if a cake is done by inserting a toothpick or butter knife carefully into the center of the cake. If it comes out clean without any "cake goo" attached, then the cake is done.
You can keep a cake from falling by not introducing a cake to temperatures drastically different from the oven too quickly and by not slamming the door on the oven before the cake is done.
§a. Cake from basic ingredients (any flavor)
See the Wikibook Cookbook recipes for Cakes and Cupcakes. Remember that you can use soymilk instead of cow's milk. In cake recipes calling for eggs, you can substitute a half banana and a quarter cup of apple sauce.
The best advice we can give here is to buy a mix and follow the directions on the package. Cake mixes were introduced to the market in the 1950s, though they were not initially well received. At that time, the only thing the homemaker needed to do was add water, blend, pour it in a pan, and bake. Marketeers determined that homemakers did not like this because it did not feel enough like "homemade" so they omitted powdered eggs from the mix and had the homemaker add fresh eggs along with the water. As soon as this change was made to the formulation, sales skyrocketed.
It should be noted however, that it is perhaps impossible to find a cake mix that does not use either baking powder or baking soda, or the combination of eggs, milk, and sugar (see requirement 6). However, 3 tablespoons of water plus 1 tablespoon of either cornstarch or ground flax seed makes a good egg-substitute.
§10. Make and bake one recipe of cookies. Make one recipe of refrigerator cookies. It is preferable to use wholesome ingredients such as fruit, oatmeal, nuts, etc.
By definition, refrigerator cookies are made from a stiff dough that is refrigerated to become even stiffer. The dough is typically shaped into cylinders which are sliced into round cookies before baking. Refrigerator cookies are any type of cookie where the dough needs chilled before baking the cookies.
Examples of refrigerator cookies include:
Most "cookie cutter" cookies
Some types of chocolate chip cookies.
§11. Prepare recipe file for all of the items required above and any others desired. See how many recipes you can find using fruit without large amounts of sugar.
Try one of many recipe sites online such as recipesource.com. Or, even better, use this as an opportunity to learn recipes that your parents and grandparents have made over the years! Be sure that you include your favorite recipes!