Wikijunior:Languages/Persian

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What writing system(s) does this language use?[edit]

Persian uses a modified form of the Arabic alphabet. Several letters used in Persian are not used in Arabic, while several letters used in Arabic are not used in Persian. Persian uses 32 letters and is written from right to left.

How many people speak this language?[edit]

There are about 71 million native speakers of Persian, making it the 14th most spoken language in the world.

Where is this language spoken?[edit]

Geographic distribution of the Modern Iranian languages: Persian (green), Pashto (purple) and Kurdish (turquoise), as well as smaller communities of other Iranian languages
Countries where Persian is an official language.

Persian is mainly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikstan, and Uzbekistan. There are large communities of Persian speakers in the Persian Gulf as well as the United States.

Persian has several local names. In Iran Persian is called Farsi or Parsi. In Afghanistan the language is called Dari. In Tajikstan and Uzbekitstan Persian is called Tajik and is written with the Cyrillic alphabet.

What is the history of this language?[edit]

There were several languages in the areas when Persian is spoken today that developed into modern Persian. The oldest was Avestan, which declined during the 8th century BC. The next oldest was Old Persian, which declined during the 3rd century CE. After that was Middle Persian, which declined during the 9th century CE. Finally, from the 9th century CE to today there is Modern Persian. Persian was also brought into India particularly from the 12th century CE and beyond and significantly influenced the development of Wikijunior:Languages/Urdu and Wikijunior:Languages/Hindi.

Who are some famous authors or poets in this language?[edit]

  • Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi (1207 - 1273) - Poet; commonly known as Rumi
  • Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah (1184-1283) - Poet; commonly known as Saadi
  • Khwajeh Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi (1310-1337) - Poet; commonly known as Hafez

What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?[edit]

Persian writing system Persian in Latin letters English
به نام خدا be name khoda In the name of God
پدر pedar father
مادر madar mother
پسر pesar son, boy
دختر dokhtar daughter, girl
برادر baradar brother
ناز naz nice
بوس boos kiss
لب Lab lip
نام Nam name
موش mush mouse
گرفتن gereftan grab
گرم garm warm
در dar door
جنگل Jangal Jungle
پا Pa foot
بند band Band, Schnur
نَسک،کتاب nask,ketab Book
زبان zaban Language

What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this language?[edit]

Saadi is well known for his aphorisms, the most famous of which, Bani Adam, in a delicate way shows the essence of Ubuntu and calls for breaking all barriers between the human beings:[1][2]

بنى آدم اعضای یک پیکرند
که در آفرینش ز یک گوهرند
چو عضوى به درد آورد روزگار
دگر عضوها را نماند قرار
تو کز محنت دیگران بی غمی
نشاید که نامت نهند آدمی

The poem is pronounced this way:

bani Adam aazaye yek peikarand,
ke dar afarinesh ze yek gowharand,
cho ozvi be dard avarad ruzgar,
degar ozvhara namanad gharar,
to kaz mehnate digran bighami,
nashayad ke namat nahand adami,

The poem is translated by H. Vahid Dastjerdi as:[3]

Adam's sons are body limbs, to say;
For they're created of the same clay.
Should one organ be troubled by pain,
Others would suffer severe strain.
Thou, careless of people's suffering,
Deserve not the name, "human being".

Word by word translation:

بنى(sons of) آدم(Adam) اعضا(limbs)ی(of) یک(one) پیکر(body)ند(are), که(Thus) در(in) آفرینش(creation) ز(from) یک(one) گوهر(gem/essence)ند(are), چو(If/when) عضو(limb)ی(a) به(to) درد(pain) آورد(takes) روزگار(the circumstances of era), دگر(Other) عضوها را (limbs) ن(do not)ماند(remain) قرار(at rest), تو(you) کز(that from) محنت(distress of) دیگران(others) بی(less)غم(sorrow)ی(are), ن(do not)شاید(deserve) که(that) نام(name)ت(your) نهند((they) set) آدمی(Human).

References[edit]

  1. From Gulistan Saadi. chapter 1, story 10
  2. "گلستان سعدی، باب اول، تصحیح محمدعلی فروغی". Dibache.com. http://www.dibache.com/text.asp?cat=3&id=1338. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  3. [Vahid Dastjerdi, H. 2006, East of Sophia (Mashriq-e-Ma'rifat). Qom: Ansariyan.]