Latin/Lesson 4-Adverbs and Prepositions

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Latin
Intro: 12
Chapter 1 123456
Chapter 2 12345678
Chapter 3 12345678
Chapter 4 12345678910
Chapter 5 123456789

Comparatives and Superlatives of Adjectives (Comparativa et superlativa adjectivorum)[edit]

Lesson Vocabulary
Latin English
fortis, forte strong, brave
vir man
long-us, -a, -um long
ingeniosus, -a, -um clever, talented
denarius, -i, m. denarius (unit of currency)
soror, sororis, f. sister
quam than
habet he/she has

There are three types of adjectives: Positive (the 'normal' adjective, eg. the brave man: fortis vir), Comparative (eg. the braver man, or the rather brave man: fortior vir) and Superlative (eg. the bravest man, or the very brave man: fortissimus vir). Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives are usually formed by appending the suffix -ior (genitive is -ioris) for comparatives and -issimus for superlatives. All comparatives are declined like third declension nouns while superlatives are declined like second declension nouns, and thus must match the gender of the noun the superlative modifies. Often stem changes occur when appending theses suffixes.

Adjective: longus (long)
longus longior longissimus
long longer longest

Irregular Adjectives[edit]

Fortunately, there are only a few irregular adjectives.

Irregular Adjectives
Meaning Positive Comparative Superlative
good bonus melior (better) optimus (best)
bad malus peior (worse) pessimus (worst)
large, great magnus maior maximus
small parvus minor minimus
many multus plus plurimus



Examples:

Latin English
Marcus est fortior quam Publius Marcus is stronger than Publius
Publius ingeniosior est quam Marcus Publius is more clever than Marcus
Marcus plures denarios habet quam Publius Marcus has more denariuses1 than Publius
Publius plures sorores habet quam Marcus Publius has more sisters than Marcus
1: We won't say "Marcus has more money" (pecunia) since plus in the singular takes the genitive case, which will not be covered for a few more lessons

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs are formed usually by replacing the suffix appended to the stem with the -e, or -i and sometimes -um. Adverbs modify the verb in the clause that contains the adverb. The adverb may be placed anywhere with the clause. Adverbs may be of positive, comparative and superlative form. Unlike adjectives and substantives, adverbs do not have declension or gender. And thus they are referred to as being 'indeclinable.' Following suffices are appended to form the comparative and superlative forms of adverbs: -ius for comparatives and -issime for superlative.

Example[edit]

Adverbs
fortiter fortius fortissime
bravely more bravely most bravely

Irregular adjectives form adverbs regularly from the adjective forms.

For example:

  • melior (better) -> melius
  • maximus (greatest) -> maxime

Some adverbs do not come from adjectives but rather exist on their own:

  • diu (for a long time) -> diutius, diutissime
  • saepe (often) -> saepius, saepissime

Exercise 1[edit]

EXERCISE • Lesson 4-Adverbs and Prepositions • Answer
  1. What is the comparitive adverbial form of sol-us, sol-a, sol-um (alone)?
  2. What is the positive adverbial form of laetus? (happy)
  3. What is the positive adjectival form of īrātior? (angrier)
  4. What is the postive adverbial form of certus? (certain)
  5. What is the superlative adjectival form of certus?
  6. What is the superlative adverbial form of certe?
  7. What is the superlative adjectival form of male?
  8. What is the superlative adverbial form of malus?
  9. What is the comparative adjectival form of dēsertus? (deserted)
SOLUTION • Latin/Lesson 4-Adverbs and Prepositions • Answer
  1. Solius
  2. Laete
  3. Īrātus
  4. Certe
  5. Certissimus
  6. Certissime
  7. Pessimus
  8. Pessime
  9. Dēsertior

Conjunctions[edit]

Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together to form sentences. Examples of forms of conjunctions in English are: and, but and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joining a subclause to a main clause).


List of Common Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions
atque and
aut or
aut...aut^^ either...or
enim (usually placed second in sentence) for
ergo and so, therefore
et and
et...et^ both...and
igitur therefore
itaque and so
nam for
nec/necque and not, nor
nec/necque...nec/necque^ neither...nor
-que* and
sed but
tamen (usually placed second in a sentence however
Subordinating Conjunctions
cum when
dum while, for the time
nisī unless, except
quamquam however
quod because
if
ubi where, when
ut as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to

Exercise 2[edit]

Latin English Notes
virtus, virtutis virtue, courage
in animo habeo I have in mind, I intend Takes an infinitive
ire to go The indicative forms (I go, you go, etc) are eo, is, it, imus, itis, eunt
hodie today hodie is an adverb, don't try to use it as a noun ("Today is a good day")
domi at home An instance of the locative case, normally used for cities
ambulat he/she walks
forum, -i marketplace

Based upon your reading of the table of conjunctions, how would one translate these sentences?

  1. Aut tu es bonus aut tu es malus ergo dīc mihi vēritātem (tell me the truth).
  2. Cavēte canem quod nec estis fortes nec cum virtūte.
  3. Puer ē forō cum canē ambulat
  4. Et canis et cattus sunt laetī.
  5. In animō habeō īre ad grammaticum hodiē sed habeō labōrem (work) domī.

Prepositions[edit]

You have met a few prepositions already. Prepositions are indeclinable and genderless. Prepositions are placed before substantives and adjectives. Most prepositions take only the accusative or ablative case. Some prepositions may take both, however their meanings differ depending on the case.

List of Common Prepositions
Prepositions Taking the Accusative Case
ad to
ante before
circum around
contra against
extra outside
in* into
inter between, among
per through
post after
prope near
propter because of
super above
trans across
Prepositions Taking The Ablative Case
a/ab** from
cum with
de about, down from
e/ex** out of
in* in
pro for, on behalf of
sine without
sub under
*notice the two different meanings of in depending on the case
** Just like a/an in English, the form with a consonant is used when the following word begins with a vowel
Ablative case forms for nouns and adjectives
Nominative singular puell-a (1st decl.) domin-us (2nd decl. m.) triclini-um (2nd decl. n.) canis (3rd decl.)
Ablative singular puell-ã domin-o tricilini-o can-e
Ablative plural puell-is domin-is triclini-is can-ibus

Exercise 3[edit]

Latin English
ero
eris
erit
erimus
eritis
erunt
I will be
You will be
He/she will be
We will be
You will be
They will be
dives, divitis wealthy
aedificium, -i building
anima, -ae mind, soul
venit he/she comes

Translate the following sentences:

  1. eo domum (Latin omits 'ad' with 'domus,' specific city names, and small islands; e.g. Eunt Romam = They go [to] Rome.)
  2. cum bona fortuna ero dives!
  3. circum agrum est aedificium cum atrio
  4. tu non es vir sine animis.
  5. familia venit cum amore.

List of Frequent Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions in Latin[edit]

Taken from http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/classics203/resources/latin.lex

  • atque, ac (conj): and [also], and; atque is used before consonants, ac before vowels
  • ad modum: adv. very, quite; fully; + neg. = at all
  • ad huc/adhuc: thus far, as yet, still, in addition, in the future
  • aliquam: in some degree
  • aliqui -qua -quod: some, any
  • aliquis -qua -quid: someone, something; some, any
  • aliquando: at times, sometimes; once, formerly
  • aliquotiens: several times, at different times
  • at (form of ad = in addition to): but (intro startling transitions)
  • atque: and as well, even, together with, in everything;
  • atque...atque, both..and
  • atqui: rather, however, but at any rate, but for all that (transition in arg.)
  • aut: or, at least, or else; aut...aut: either...or
  • autem: but, on the other hand, however
  • coram: adv. and prep. in the presence of, before
  • dehinc: adv. while, from here, from now, henceforth; then, next
  • deinde: adv. from there; then, afterwards; secondly, next (in order), in the second (next) place
  • demum: adv. at last, finally, not till then; precisely, exactly, just, in fact, certainly, to be sure; modo demum: only now, just now.
  • denique: adv. finally
  • donec: while, as long as, until
  • dum: conj. while, now; so long as, provided that, if only; until
  • enim: (conj) namely, indeed, certainly, in fact, for, because
  • eo quod: because
  • etenim: (conj) and indeed, for, as a matter of fact
  • etiam: also, besides; even, actually; (time) still
  • etsi: (conj.) though, although, and yet
  • fas (est): indecl. (it is) right, proper
  • huc: here, to this place; so far, for this purpose
  • ibi: there, then, therein, on that occassion
  • idcirco: for that reason, on that account, therefore
  • ideo: therefore, for this reason
  • illuc: (adv.) (to) there; to that; to him/her
  • immo: (adv.) or rather; indeed; no, yes (emphasis)
  • interdum: occasionally, sometimes, now and then
  • inde: from there, from that source, then, after; from then
  • iuxta: (adv) near by, alike, equally; (prep) close to, right after, near to, beside.
    • iuxta (7th-15th c.): according to
    • iuxta aliquid: to some extent
  • ita: thus, so, in this way; ita...ut: just as, so...that
    • ita...quomodo: just as
  • licet: all right; (with dat + inf) it is right for someone to; (conj) although, even if
  • modo: only, just now
  • necnon: also, moreover, certainly, besides
  • nempe: to be sure, of course
  • non numquam: sometimes
  • nondum: not yet
  • nonnullus -a -um: some, several
  • nuper: recently, lately
  • nusquam: nowhere
  • ob: before, in front of; on account of, because of; for the sake of; instead of; in proportion to
    • ob rem: to the purpose, usefully
    • quam ob rem: wherefore, accordingly
  • olim: once; of old; one day
  • praeterea: besides, moreover; hereafter
  • postea: afterwards
  • postmodum: afterwards; presently
  • procul: far off
  • proinde: adv. consequently, therefore; just as
  • propterea: for that reason, therefore
  • prorsus/prorsum: (adv.) forwards; absolutely; in short
  • prout: (conj) according as
  • qua: (adv) where, as far as, how; qua..qua: partly...partly
  • qualibit: anywhere, any way, as you please
  • qualis -e: what sort of, what kind of, such as, as
  • qualiter: adv. how, as, just as
  • quam: (adv) how, how much; as, very
  • quamdiu: as long as; while; inasmuch as
  • quamquam: although
  • quamvis: (adv) however; (conj) although
  • quando: when (after nisi, ne) ever; (conj) when, since, because
  • quandoque: (adv) at some time; (conj) whenever, as often as, since
  • quantum: (adv) as much as, as far as, so much as, to what extent
  • quantus: how great, how much
    • in quantum: to what extent
    • quanto: for how much
  • quantum ad: in terms of, as far as x is concerned, with respect to
  • quapropter: wherefore
  • quare: by what means, how; why, wherefore
  • quasi: as if, as though
  • quatenus: adv.(inter.) how far, how long? (rel.) as far as, in so far as, since
  • quemadmodum: (adv) in what way, how; (conj) as, just as
  • quicquam: anything
  • quicumque quae- quod-: whoever, whatever; all that, any whatever
  • quidam quae- quid-: a certain one, someone, a kind of
  • quidem: indeed, in fact
  • quippe: adv. certainly, of course; conj.(explaining) for in fact, because, since
  • quisquam quid-: anyone, anything
  • quisque quidque: each, each one, every
  • quisquis, quidquid: whoever, whatever; all
  • quo: where, what for, to what end
  • quoad: as to, with respect to
  • quocumque: wither so ever, how so ever
  • quod: (conj) because, as far as, in so far as, as for the fact that, in that, that
    • quod si: but if
  • quodamodo: in a way
  • quomodo: how, in what way; (rel) as, just as
  • quondam: once, sometimes, formerly
  • quoniam: because, since, seeing that, now that
  • quoque: also, too
  • quot: how many; (conj) as many
  • quotiens: how often (rel) as often as
  • rursus: again, in turn
  • recte: rightly, correctly
  • rursum: again
  • sane: reasonably, sensibly; certainly, doubtless, truly; of course; c. neg. = really, at all; to be sure, however
  • scilicet: adv. evidently, naturally, of course; (as explan. particle:) namely, that is to say, in other words
  • semel: once
  • seu: and
  • simul: at the same time; together; likewise
  • sin: but if
  • siquidem: if in fact; if only, if indeed; since indeed, since that
  • talis -e: adj. such, of such a kind, the following
  • taliter: in such a manner, so
  • tam: so, so greatly; tam...quam: so...as, much...as well as
  • tamen: yet, nevertheless, still
  • tamquam: as, just as; (conj) as if, just as if
  • tandem: at last, finally
  • tantum: (adv) so much, so greatly; to such a degree; so far; only
  • tantus -a -um (adj): of such (a size); so great, so much
  • tot: as many, so many
  • tunc: (avd) then, just the; thereupon, accordingly, consequently
  • ubicumque: wherever, everywhere
  • unde: whence, from where; wherefore; this being the case
  • usque: as far as, all the way, continually, straight on, up to; until
  • ut...ita: while...nevertheless
  • uterque -raque -rumque: both, each (of two)
  • utinam: would that, if only
  • utique: anyhow, at least, at any rate
  • utpote: as, in as much as
  • utrum: (conj) either, whether
  • velut: as, just as, as it were, as though
  • verumtamen: but yet, nevertheless
  • vero (conj): but, truly
  • videlicet: clearly, evidently; namely