Latin/Lesson 3-Passive

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Latin
Intro: 12
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See discussion for a tutorial on the passive voice and how to use it in Latin, including external links which explain future, imperfect, and present indicative passive verb forms.

I consider commercial textbooks to be inadequate, so I do not believe that this article can wait.


Here are the conjugations for the imperfect passive tenses. The basic rules for going to passive are:

In the first person, add -r if the active ending is a vowel, otherwise change the final constant to an -r. Examples:

paro (I prepare) -> paror (I am being prepared)
aperiebam (I was opening) -> aperiebar (I was being opened)
defendemus (we will defend) -> defendemur (we will be defended)
tenebimus (we will hold) -> tenebimur (we will be held)

In the third person, add -ur. Examples:

parat (he prepares) -> paratur (he is being prepared)
aperiebat (he was opening) -> aperiebatur (he was being opened)
defendent (they will defend) -> defendentur (they will be defended)
tenebunt (they will hold) -> tenebuntur (they will be held)

In the second person, things get more complicated. For the plural, replace "tis" with "mini". Note the exception in "ferre", where "fertis" becomes "ferimini". In the word "ferre", the "rm" letter combination consistently gets separated (ferimus instead of fermus, ferimur instead of fermur and ferimini instead of fermini). For the singular present, take out the active ending, add the thematic vowel (a from -are, e from -ere, i from -ire and nothing from -re, as in ferre) of the verb's infinitive ending and add -ris. Examples:

paras (you prepare) -> pararis (you are being prepared)
tenes (you are holding) -> teneris (you are being held)
defendis (you are defending) -> defenderis (you are being defended)
audis (you are listening) -> audiris (you are being listened to)
defendetis (you will defend) -> defendemini (you are being defended)
amabis (you will love) -> amaberis (you will be loved)

Note the -eris ending in the future passive. The future active bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt looks like the third conjugation so the passive bor, beris, bitur, bimur, bimini, buntur looks like the third conjugation. The imperfect passive is bar, baris, batur, bamur, bamini, bantur.

Conjugation in the Present Passive
1st 2nd 3rd mixed 4th Irregular
Infinitive: amare terrere legere capere audire ferre
Singular
1st person: amor terreor legor capior audior feror
2nd person: amaris terreris legeris caperis audiris ferris
3rd person: amatur terretur legitur capitur auditur fertur
Plural
1st person: amamur terremur legimur capimur audimur ferimur
2nd person: amamini terremini legimini capimini audimini ferimini
3rd person: amantur terrentur leguntur capiuntur audiuntur feruntur
Conjugation in the Imperfect Passive
1st 2nd 3rd mixed 4th Irregular
Infinitive: amare terrere legere capere audire ferre
Singular
1st person: amabar terrebar legebar capiebar audiebar ferebar
2nd person: amabaris terrebaris legebaris capibaeris audiebaris ferebaris
3rd person: amabatur terrebatur legebatur capiebatur audiebatur ferebatur
Plural
1st person: amabamur terrebamur legebamur capiebamur audiebamur ferebamur
2nd person: amabamini terrebamini legebamini capiebamini audiebamini ferebamini
3rd person: amabantur terrebantur legebantur capiebantur audiebantur ferebantur
Conjugation in the Future Passive
1st 2nd 3rd mixed 4th Irregular
Infinitive: amare terrere legere capere audire ferre
Singular
1st person: amabor terrebor legar capiar audiar ferar
2nd person: amaberis terreberis legeris capieris audieris fereris
3rd person: amabitur terrebitur legetur capietur audietur feretur
Plural
1st person: amabimur terrebimur legemur capiemur audiemur feremur
2nd person: amabimini terrebimini legemini capiemini audiemini feremini
3rd person: amabuntur terrebuntur legentur capientur audientur ferentur