Latin/Lesson 5-Vocative

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3rd, 4th, and 5th Declension Nouns[edit]

We will now complete the table of nouns with the 3rd, 4th, and 5th declensions. These declensions are more difficult to work with because their nominative and accusative plural forms are identical, as are their dative and ablative plural forms. To distinguish the cases, you must use a very simple key: context. Context will tell you the meaning.

3rd Declension Masculine or Feminine (each word has a set gender): rēx, m.[edit]

3rd declension nouns have two stems: The nominative and vocative singular stem and the stem used for all other cases. Both stems have to be memorized for each noun. Feminine and masculine forms are indistinguishable.


3rd Declension Singular Plural
nominative rēx rēg-ēs
accusative rēg-em rēg-ēs
genitive rēg-is rēg-um
dative rēg-ī rēg-ibus
ablative rēg-e rēg-ibus

3rd Declension Neuter i-stem: mare[edit]

3rd Declension Neuter Singular Plural
nominative* mare mar-ia
genitive mar-is mar-ium
dative mar-ī mar-ibus
accusative mare mar-ia
ablative mar-ī mar-ibus

4th Declension Masculine/Feminine (each word has a set gender) gradus, m.[edit]

4th Declension Singular Plural
nominative grad-us grad-ūs
accusative grad-um grad-ūs
genitive grad-ūs grad-uum
dative grad-uī grad-ibus
ablative grad-ū grad-ibus

4th Declension Neuter: cornū[edit]

4th Declension Neuter Singular Plural
nominative corn-ū corn-ua
vocative corn-ū corn-ua
accusative corn-ū corn-ua
genitive corn-ūs corn-uum
dative corn-ū corn-ibus
ablative corn-ū corn-ibus

5th Declension Masculine/Feminine (each word has a set gender; most are feminine): rēs, f.[edit]

5th Declension Feminine/Masculine Singular Plural
nominative r-ēs r-ēs
vocative r-ēs r-ēs
accusative r-ēm r-ēs
genitive r-ēī r-ērum
dative r-ēī r-ēbus
ablative r-ē r-ēbus

Exercises[edit]

Exercise 1[edit]

Translate the following:

Hodiē militēs ad villam meī amīcī mittō. Meō amicō, Marcō Tulliō nomine, mē in Senatū maledicere placet, quā rē istum interficere volō.

Vocabulary:

  • villa -ae f., farmhouse
  • mittō mittere mīsī missus, to send
  • nomen nominis n., name
  • maledicō -dicere -dīxī -dictum, to insult
  • placet placēre placuit placitus + dative, it pleases
  • quā rē, on account of which
  • iste ista istud, that damn (man/woman/thing)
  • interficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectus, to kill
  • volō velle voluī --, to want
For extra credit, who in the late Republic might have said such a thing?

Exercise 2[edit]

Translate the following:

Eheu! Mūs meum pānem mandit. Nunc nihil habeō. Me miserum!

Vocabulary:

  • mando mandere mansi mansus, to chew on