A curriculum vitæ or résumé has a universal requirement: its formatting must be flawless. This is a great example of cases where the power of LaTeX comes to the front. Thanks to its strong typographical stance, LaTeX is definitely a document processor of choice to write a CV.
Of course you can design you own CV by hand. Otherwise, you may want to use a dedicated class for that task. This way, writing a CV in LaTeX is as simple as filling the forms, and you are done. LaTeXCV.org makes 4 of them available from a simple web form: no coding or editor required.
A full list of CV packages is available at CTAN.
Moderncv provides a documentclass for typesetting modern curriculums vitae, both in a classic and in a casual style. It is fairly customizable, allowing you to define your own style by changing the colours, the fonts, etc.
The official package provides some well commented templates which may be a good start. You can find those templates in your distribution (if documentation is installed along packages) or ultimately on CTAN.
We will not repeat the templates here, so we will only provide a crash course. You should really have a look at the templates for more details.
Most commands are self-explanatory.
It is especially convenient for résumés to have only one document for several output languages, since many parts are shared among versions (personal data, structure, etc.).
LaTeX with appropriate macros provide a comfortable way to manage it. See Internationalization.