Flora of New York/Carduoideae

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Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Menyanthaceae
Flora of New York: Carduoideae
Cichorioideae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos

Family Asteraceae[edit]

The Asteraceae (or Compositae)

Subfamily Carduoideae[edit]

Tribe Cardueae[edit]

The Cardueae is a mostly non-native tribe of Asteraceae. It contains various thistles and knapweeds, many of which are considered highly invasive in the region.

Subtribe Carlininae[edit]

Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carlininae
Carlina Carline-thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
ssp. vulgaris

(=) C. vulgaris ssp. longifolia
Carline thistle Introduced
Carlina vulgaris 02 (HS).JPG
Carlina vulgaris ssp vulgaris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp

Subtribe Echinopsinae[edit]

Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Echinopsinae
Echinops Globethistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Great globethistle Introduced
Echinops sphaerocephalus Werner1122.JPG
Echinops sphaerocephalus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Subtribe Carduinae[edit]

Genus Onopordum[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carduinaegenus Onopordum
Onopordum Cottonthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
Scotch thistle,
Scotch cottonthistle
Introduced
Talamantes - Onopordum acanthium.jpg
Onopordum acanthium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XM





Images, wsp
Genus Arctium[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carduinaegenus Arctium
Arctium Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3

Arctium vulgare
A. minus ssp. nemorosum
Arctium nemorosum
Lappa major
Greater burdock Introduced
Arctium lappa02.jpg
Arctium lappa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Common burdock,
Lesser burdock
Introduced
Arctium minus corimbo.jpg
Arctium minus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Woolly burdock Introduced
Arctium tomentosum (inflorescences).jpg
Arctium tomentosum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Silybum[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carduinaegenus Silybum
Silybum Milk thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Gaertn.
Blessed milkthistle,
St. Mary's thistle
Introduced
Milk thistle flowerhead.jpg
Silybum marianum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Cirsium[edit]
New-World Cirsium[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carduinaegenus Cirsium
Cirsium(North American) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9

Carduus discolor
Cnicus discolor
Field thistle Native,
Secure
Cirsium discolor drawing.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngCirsium discolor.jpg
Cirsium discolor NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Swamp thistle,
Dunce-nettle,
Horsetops
Native,
Secure
Cirsium muticum drawing 2.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngCirsium muticum.jpg
Cirsium muticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
var. pumilum
Pasture thistle Native,
Secure
Cirsium pumilum drawing 1.png
Cirsium pumilum var pumilum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Carduus altissimus
Tall thistle,
Roadside thistle
Native,
Likely extirpated
Cirsium altissimum drawing.png
Cirsium altissimum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Carduus flodmanii
Cirsium oblanceolatum
Flodman's thistle,
Prairie thistle
Introduced,
Midwest native
Cirsiumflodmanii.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngCirsium flodmanii drawing.png
Cirsium flodmanii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
var. horridulum
Yellow thistle,
Bristly thistle,
Horrid thistle,
Bull thistle
Introduced,
US South native
Cirsium horridulum NRCS.jpg
Cirsium horridulum var horridulum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
Old-World Cirsium[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carduinaegenus Cirsium
Cirsium(Eurasian ) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9

Carduus arvensis
Cirsium incanum
Cirsium setosum
Serratula arvensis
Canada thistle,
Creeping Thistle
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 71%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3] NE-2[4]
20050716-004-thistle.jpg
Cirsium arvense NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 (Savi) Ten.

1753. Carduus lanceolatus  L.
1798. Carduus vulgaris  Savi
1835. Cirsium vulgare  Ten.
1938. Cirsium vulgare  Airy Shaw (hom.)
1972. Cirsium lanceolatum  Scop. non Hill
Bull thistle,
Common thistle,
Spear thistle,
Scotch thistle

Chardon vulgaire,
Chardon lancéolé
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Invasive,
NE-3[4],
Invasive.org
Cirsium vulgare - carrick tasmania.JPG
Cirsium vulgare NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Cardus palustris
Marsh thistle,
European swamp thistle
Introduced,
Invasive,
NYIS: 68% [5],
NE-2[4]
Kveten pr skalak u senotina 18.jpg
Cirsium palustre NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XW





Images, wsp
Genus Carduus[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Carduinaegenus Carduus
Carduus Plumeless thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
ssp. acanthoides
Spiny plumeless thistle Introduced
Carduus acanthoides syp 2.JPG
Carduus acanthoides ssp acanthoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Curled plumless-thistle,
Welted thistle,
Curled thistle
Introduced
Carduus crispus 002a.JPG
Carduus crispus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Musk thistle,
Nodding thistle,
Nodding plumeless thistle
Introduced
Carduus nutans 6 (Espagne).JPG
Carduus nutans NY-dist-map.png

USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Italian thistle Introduced,
Unvouchered waif
Carduus pycnocephalus 1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngCarduus pycnocephalus 2.jpg
Carduus pycnocephalus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-U
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Subtribe Centaureinae[edit]

The Centaureinae[1]

Genus Plectocephalus[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Centaureinaegenus Plectocephalus
Plectocephalus Basketflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

Centaurea americana
American star-thistle,
American basketflower,
Powderpuff thistle,
Thornless thistle
Introduced,
US South native
Centaurea americana2.jpg
Plectocephalus americanus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
Genus Centaurea[edit]
Centaurea subg. Centaurea – diffusa clade[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Centaureinaegenus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaurea subg. Centaureaclade diffusa Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L.
ssp. micranthos (S.G.Gmel. ex Gugler) Hayek

1838. Centaurea biebersteinii  DC.
1872. Centaurea australis  Pančić ex A. Kern.
1907. C. maculosa ssp. micranthos Gugler
1931. C. stoebe ssp. micranthos Hayek
2003. C. stoebe ssp. australis Greuter
auct.. Centaurea maculosa  non Lam.
auct.. Acosta maculosa  non (Lam.) Holub
Spotted knapweed,
Spotted star-thistle

Centaurée maculée,
Centaurée tachetée
Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
CP-3[2] NE-1[3]
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos EP4490-04.png
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Lam.

1785. Centaurea diffusa  Lam.
1799. Centaurea parviflora  Desf.
1822. Centaurea parviflora  Besser hom.
1970. Centaurea microcalathina  A.O.Tarassov
1972. Acosta diffusa  (Lam.) Soják
Diffuse knapweed,
White knapweed,
Tumble knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
FEIS
Centaurea diffusa 0021031.jpg
Centaurea diffusa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-0
USDA-XX

ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp

Centaurea diffusa ×
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos
Hybrid of
 Diffuse knapweed &
 Spotted knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1]
Centaurea diffusa 1459254.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngCentaurea stoebe ssp micranthos EP4490-06.png
Centaurea × psammogena NY-dist-map.png

USDA-0X





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea cineraria  L.
1785. Centaurea candidissima  Lam.
1839. Centaurea gymnocarpa  Moris & DeNot.[4]
1974. Acosta cineraria  (L.) Holub
Star-thistle,
Dusty miller
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Casual escape
Centaurea cineraria, Manie van der Schijff BT.jpg
Centaurea cineraria NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
Trop.

IPN
Images, wsp
Jersey knapweed Introduced,
Impersistent,
Questionable[5]
Centaurea paniculata 000191782.jpg
Centaurea paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS



Images, wsp
  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentC. stoebe, C. diffusa, C. × psammogena: High (79).
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. Euro+Med Plantbase lists Centaurea gymnocarpa as an accepted species, while the Global Compositae Checklist lists it as a synonym of Centaurea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2014.1, states "C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor."
  5. The naturalized status of Centaurea paniculata in New York is in question. Its checklist entries are based on reports only. No known specimens from New York exist. It is similar in appearance to Centaurea stoebe.
Centaurea subg. Centaurea – jacea clade[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Centaureinaegenus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaurea subg. Centaureaclade jacea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L.

1753. Centaurea jacea  L.
1778. Jacea pratensis  Lam.
1799. Centaurea pratensis  Thuill. hom.
Brown knapweed,
Brownray knapweed,
Brown-rayed knapweed,,
Brown starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1],
CP-3[2]
Centaurea jacea seite.jpeg
Centaurea jacea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
Lesser knapweed,
Black knapweed,
Common knapweed,
Black starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea nigra.JPG
Centaurea nigra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Centaurea vochinensis
C. dubia ssp. vochinensis
Centaurea pratensis
C. debeauxii ssp. thuillieri
Short-fringed starthistle,
Tyrol knapweed,
Short-fringed knapweed,
Vochin knapweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea nigrescens subsp. nigrescens bgiu.jpg
Centaurea nigrescens NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Centaurea jacea ×
Centaurea nigra

Centaurea pratensis
Meadow knapweed,
Protean knapweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea × moncktonii 5435714.jpg
Centaurea × moncktonii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-0X





Images, wsp
 (L.) L.

1753. Cnicus benedictus  L.
1763. Centaurea benedicta  (L.) L.
1895. Cirsium pugnax  Sommier & Levier
1908. Carduus benedictus  Thell. inval.
Blessed thistle,
Our Lady's thistle

Chardon béni,
Cnicaut béni,
Chardon bénit
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
C. benedictus.jpg
Centaurea benedicta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN
Images, wsp

(=) Centaurea austriaca
(=) C. uniflora ssp. nervosa
Wig knapweed Introduced,
Not naturalized
Centaurea phrygia by Igors Jefimovs.jpg
Centaurea phrygia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Centaurea – aspera clade[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Centaureinaegenus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaurea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
Rough star-thistle Introduced
Centaurea aspera flor.jpg
Centaurea aspera NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp
Purple starthistle,
Red star-thistle,
Caltrops
Introduced
Centaurea calcitrapa 01.JPG
Centaurea calcitrapa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
North African knapweed Introduced
Centaurea diluta (37.548916,-4.640892,Co,IV,MFR) D3S2 01c.jpg
Centaurea diluta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp
Great starthistle,
Greater knapweed,
Hardheads,
Scabious knapweed,
Greater centaury
Introduced
Centaurea scabiosa.jpeg
Centaurea scabiosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 L.
Yellow starthistle,
Barnaby star-thistle,
St. Barnaby’s thistle
Introduced
Centaurea solstitialis InflorescenceCloseup 20June2009 CampodeCalatrava.jpg
Centaurea solstitialis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Cyanus[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Centaureinaegenus Centaureasubg. Cyanus
Centaurea subg. Cyanus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L. (1753)

Cyanus segetum Hill (1769)
Centaurea pulchra DC. (1837)
Cornflower,
Bachelor’s-button,
Bluebottle,
Bluebonnets
Introduced,
IO
Bachelor's button, Basket flower, Boutonniere flower, Cornflower - 1.jpg
Centaurea cyanus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea montana  L.
1768}Cyanus montanus. (L) Hill
Mountain starthistle,
Mountain cornflower,
Mountain bluet,
Perennial cornflower
Introduced
0 Centaurea montana - Centaurée des montagnes (1).JPG
Centaurea montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Carthamus[edit]
Asteraceaesubfam. Carduoideaetribe Cardueaesubtr. Centaureinaegenus Carthamus
Carthamus Distaff thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Safflower Introduced,
Impersistent
Carthamus tinctorius 050709b.JPG
Carthamus tinctorius NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp