Yiddish for Yeshivah Bachurim/Print version

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Table of Contents


  1. Reading Yiddish
  2. Conjugating verbs
  3. Verbs with prefixes and זיך
  4. Possessive pronouns


  1. Some very common words
  2. Questions
  3. Prepositions
  4. Verbs
  5. Nouns and adjectives
  6. Phrases that do not fit into other lessons


Intended audience

Though the Yiddish language took a heavy toll during the Holocaust, when most of its speakers were lost, the language is still commonly used to give shiurim or mussar shmuessn in yeshivos. Unfortunately, many English-speaking yeshivah-students, though they already know many Yiddish words, and even incorporate them into their English, are unable to understand a full shiur given in Yiddish.

The purpose of this guide is to teach enough vocabulary and grammar to understand a Yiddish shiur.

Because of this intended purpose, this booklet differs from typical Yiddish lessons in two ways. First of all, it is assumed that the reader is already familiar with the large number of Yiddish words that most yeshivah bachurim already know. If you understand the following sentence, you should be okay: The Rambam holds that it’s a machlokes hasugyos, but other rishonim are meyasheiv the stirah.

The other difference between this book and others is the type of Yiddish that is taught. The goal of this kuntres is to enable the reader to listen to a shiur in Yiddish, not to buy a washing machine in Meah Shearim. That being said, the grammar and much of the vocabulary presented here would be useful to anyone learning Yiddish.


The book is divided into two sections. The first section is about some basic grammar rules. It avoids going into any boring details that are unnecessary for someone whose sole purpose is to understand Yiddish, not to speak it. The second section is a list of words, divided into categories, which are commonly used in Yeshivos, together with examples.

The two sections are more or less independent of each other. You can read either section first, or both at the same time. If you are already more familiar with the vocabulary (as is common with people who have been learning in Yeshivah for a long time), you may want to concentrate more on the grammar section. If you already know the basic grammar (which is, in any case, similar to English and easy to pick up), you may wish to concentrate on the vocabulary section. One suggested reader order is first to read the Reading Yiddish section, followed by the section about Some very common words, followed by the rest of the grammar section, and finally the remainder of the vocabulary section.

The book may be freely copied and distributed. Please be mezakeh the rabim by doing so.

PART 1: Grammar

Reading Yiddish

Though a typical yeshiva bachur doesn’t need to read Yiddish too often, this lesson is essential so that you’ll be able to read the Yiddish words found in the remaining lessons.

Yiddish is written with the Hebrew alphabet. However, its rules of spelling are quite different. Unlike Hebrew, all vowels are written as full letters. Nekudos aren’t written, with a few exceptions, which are always written. Also, consonant blends are allowed. In other words, two consonants in a row are pronounced together, unlike in Hebrew where there must be a vowel or shva in between. For example, בּענטש is pronounced bentsh.

Words which come from Hebrew are spelled as they are in Hebrew, though they are pronounced the way Ashkenazim would pronounce them in everyday conversation (as opposed to the more correct pronunciation used for davening and layning). For example, יום טובֿ is pronounced yontiff; שלש סעודות is pronounced shalashudes; תּוספֿות is pronounced toysfis; ײשר כּח is pronounced shkoyach.

Pronunciation cannot always be determined exactly from the way it is spelled. For example, ער is sometimes pronounced like the English word air (such as in the word ער which means he) and sometime like the er in the English word her (such as the word שטאַרקער, stronger).

There are several different pronunciation systems for Yiddish; for convenience the Litvish and Polish systems are given here.

Following is a list of letters in the Yiddish alphabet, and how they differ from their Hebrew equivalents.


Some vowels are preceded by a silent א when they appear at the beginning of a word.

  • אָ, אַ – pronounced the same as in Ashkenazi Hebrew (Polish: אָ is often oo as in too)
  • ו – Litvish: oo as in too (Polish: usually pronounce ea as in read)
  • ױ – This represents two distinct vowels. 1 Litvish: ay as in say (Polish: oy); 2 Litvish: oy as in boy (Polish: sometimes oy and sometimes ow as in bowl);
  • י – i as in him (Polish: also ee as in green)
  • ײ – Litvish: ay as in say (Polish: y as in by)
  • ײַ – Litvish: y as in by (Polish: a as in car)
  • ע – e as in bed (Polish: also ey as in prey)


  • א, ע – never used as a consonant in Yiddish, except for words that originate from Hebrew
  • ב – always pronounced as a b, except in words originating from Hebrew. In these words, it may be pronounced with a v, in which case a line may be added on top (בֿ).
  • ג, ד, ה, ז, ט, ל, מ, נ, ס, צ, ק, ר – same as Hebrew
  • װ – when used as a v sound, a vov is always doubled
  • ח, ת, כּ – used mostly in words originating from Hebrew
  • י – same as in Hebrew, when used as a consonant. If a yud sound comes at the beginning of a word, it may be changed into an א (as in the word אידיש).
  • כֿ – generally pronounced like a chof. In Hebrew words with a כּ, a dot is written.
  • פֿ, פּ – f when written with a line, and p when not. If a p appears at the end of a word, it does not change into a ף (as in כֿאַפּ, catch).
  • ש – when written without a dot (which is usually), it is pronounced sh. It has a dot for Hebrew words with a sin.

Conjugating verbs

Present tense

Most verbs are conjugated in the same form in present tense, though there are some exceptions. The subject usually comes before the verb (like in English), but sometimes the order is reversed (like Hebrew) to change the tone (most notably, in questions). Here is an example of a regular verb:

  • הערן – hear
  • איך הער – I hear
  • דו הערסט – you hear
  • ער הערט – he hears
  • זי הערט – she hears
  • עס הערט – it hears
  • מיר הערן – we hear
  • איר הערט – you (plural or formal) hear
  • זיי הערן – they hear

Verbs that come from Hebrew are usually conjugated together with the word זײַן to be, similar to in Yeshivish (they are Modeh; he is Meyasheiv the Stirah; they are Mechaleik between them). Here is an example:

  • מסכּים זײַן – agree
  • איך בּין מסכּים – I agree
  • דו בּיסט מסכּים – you agree
  • ער/זי/עס איז מסכּים – he/she/it agrees
  • מיר/זיי זײַנען מסכּים – we/they agree
  • איר זײַנט מסכּים – you agree

Past tense

Past tense is conjugated by adding the helping verb האָבּן have, and (usually) adding the letters גע to the verb. This is similar to some past tense words in English ("I have done that.") For words which come from Hebrew, זײַן becomes געווען. Here are some examples:

  • האָבּן געהערט - Had
  • איך האָבּ געהערט – I had
  • דו האָסט געהערט – you had
  • ער/זי/עס האָט געהערט – he/she/it had
  • מיר/זיי האָבּן געהערט – we/they had
  • איר האָט געהערט – you had
  • האָבּן מסכּים געווען – agreed
  • איך האָבּ מסכּים געווען – I agreed
  • דו האָסט מסכּים געווען – you agreed
  • ער/זי/עס האָט מסכּים געווען – he/she/it agreed
  • מיר/זיי האָבּן מסכּים געווען – we/they agreed
  • איר האָט מסכּים געווען – you agreed

Future tense

Similar to past tense (and future tense in English), future tense is expressed by adding the helping verb װעלן will. Here are the (now familiar) examples:

  • וועלן הערן – will hear
  • איך װעל הערן – I will hear
  • דו װעסט הערן – you will hear
  • ער/זי/עס װעט הערן – he/she/it will hear
  • מיר/זיי װעלן הערן – we/they will hear
  • איר װעט הערן – you will hear
  • וועלן מסכּים זײַן – will agree
  • איך װעל מסכּים זײַן – I will agree
  • דו װעסט מסכּים זײַן – you will agree
  • ער/זי/עס װעט מסכּים זײַן – he/she/it will agree
  • מיר/זיי װעלן מסכּים זײַן – we/they will agree
  • איר װעט מסכּים זײַן – you will agree

Verbs with prefixes and זיך

Lots of verbs in Yiddish have associated adverbs attached to them. For equivalent English example, take and take on have quite different meanings, as do pay and pay back. These added words are usually added on to the beginning of the word in infinitive form, and to the end in conjugated form. Here are a few examples.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אָנהײבּן begin
Example קענען מיר אָנהײבּן? Can we begin?
Example דער ריטבֿ"א הײבּט אָן מיט אַ קשיא. The Ritva begins with a question.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   צולײגן add
Example איך װיל צולײגן אַ ביסל צו דײַן װאָרט. I would like to add a bit to your explanation.
Example דער רשבּ"א ברענגט דעם רמבּ"ן און לײגט צו אַ פּאָר װערטער. The Rashba quotes the Ramban and adds a few words.

Another word which is commonly added to Yiddish verbs is the word זיך (pronounced zach or zich). It is always the next word after a verb, and it makes the verb before it passive. For example, עסן means to eat. עסן זיך means to be eaten.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   זיך (pronounced זאַך) (passive verb)
Example װאָס הערט זיך? What's up? (literally, what is heard, which is the source of the Hebrew expression מה נשמע?)
Example דאָס רופֿט זיך אָן גירי דיליה. This is called (from the verb אָנרופֿן, to call) his arrow (see the second Perek of Bava Basra).

Possessive pronouns

Possession can be demonstrated by adding 'ס, just like 's in English. It is also pronounced as a z sound, similar to English.

PART 2: Vocabulary

Some very common words

There are several different words which all translate to the English word "the". There are rules when to use each word, but if your goal is just to know basic Yiddish, it's not so important to actually know these rules.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   דער, די, דאָס, דעם the
Example זאָגט דער רמבּ"ן אַזױ. The Ramban says the following:
Example די ראשונים מאַכֿן אַ חילוק. The Rishoinim differentiate.
Example דאָס עסן אין ישיבֿה איז ניט גוט. The food in Yeshivah isn’t good.
Example ער האַלט פֿון דעם הסבּר. He approves of the explanation.

These words are also used to mean "this". When it means this, more emphasis is given to the word.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   דער, די, דאָס, דעם this
Example די סוגיא איז געשמאַק. This subject is enjoyable.

Another common word, which has already been used in some of the examples, is איז. It is usually pronounced exactly like the English word is, but sometimes the ז at the end is left unpronounced. It means the exact same thing as the English word is.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   איז is
Example ער איז גערעכֿט. He is correct.

Here are a few more common words:

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   יאָ yes
Example עס איז יאָ שװער. It is indeed difficult.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   נײן no
Example נײן! װאָס איז שװער? No? What’s problematic?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word  
ניט (usually pronounced נישט)
Example עס איז ניט שװער בּכֿלל. It is not difficult at all.

The word ניט is very often used together with קײן, which is somewhat hard to translate. It usually replaces the word אַ or אַן before a noun.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   קײן not
Example איך האָבּ ניט קײן צײַט. I don't have time.
קײן עין הרע (usually pronounced keNAYne horo)
May there be no evil eye.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אָדער or
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אָבּער but
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   דען then
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word  
עס איז דאָ (usually shortened to ס'איז דאָ)
there is (literally: it is here)
Example עס איז דאָ אַ פּני יהושע אױף דעם. There is a Pnei Yehoshua about this.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אַז that
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אַזױ so
Example װי אַזױ? How so?


אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װאָס what/which
Example װי הײסט איר? What is your name?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   פֿאַרװאָס why
Example פֿאַרװאָס האָט רש"י צוגעלײגט די װערטער? Why did Rashi add these words?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װער/װעמען who
Example װער װײסט װאָס װעט זײַן? Who knows what will be?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װען when
Example װען דאווענט מען מעריבֿ? When is Maariv?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װי (אַזױ) how
Example מען דאַרף װיסן װי תּוספֿות האָט געלערנט די סוגיא. One has to know how Tosfos taught the sugya.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װוּ (vi) where
Example װוּ איז זײַן מקור? What is his source?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װיפֿל how much
Example װיפֿל קען מען טאָן? How much can one do?


There are quite a few prepositions in Yiddish, and they don't all quite correspond to an equivalent English expression. It takes a while to get used to all of their different uses. Here are a few examples of some common ones.

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   בּײַ by, and all sorts of other words
Example בּײַ רעק"א איז עס גאָר פּשוט. That's very clear to Rebbi Akiva Eiger.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   פֿון from, of
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אין in
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אױף (pronounced אַף) on
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   צו to
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   בּיז until
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   פֿאַר before
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   נאָך after
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   מיט with
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אָן without
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אַקעגן opposite


אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   רעדן speak
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אױסרעדן speak out; say explicitly
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   זאָגן say
Example זאָגט די משנה: The Mishnah says:
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   גײן go
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   בּלײַבּן remain
Example רעק"א בּלײַבּט שװער. Rebbi Akiva Eiger leaves it as difficult (unresolved) question.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   צושטעלן compare
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אױספֿירן finish
Example פֿירט אױס ר' חיים מיט אַן אינטערעסאַנטער הערה. R' Chaim finishes off with an interesting insight.

Nouns and adjectives

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   זאַך thing

Phrases that do not fit into other lessons

אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   װאָס הײסט? What’s going on?
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   דאכֿט זיך I think
Example ס'איז אַ ריטב"א אין שבּת דף ל"ט., דאכֿט זיך. It’s a Ritva on Shabbos 39a, I believe.
אַ נײַ װאָרט - A new word
The word   אויפֿן אָרט on the spot
Example רש"י אויפֿן אָרט איז מסבּיר. Rashi on the spot explains.


  • Clum - Started the book, and contributed significant text

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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified version.
  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.