Structural Biochemistry/Proteins/Sources of production of Monoclonal antibody
Antibodies are made by injecting live animals with antigens. These animals are the sources of producing the antibodies. They can be rabbits, mice, goats, and other kinds of animals. Some antibodies that are produced from one animal can also react in antibodies that are found in another type of animal.
For example, goat anti-mouse antibodies means the antibodies are taken out from goat and injected into mice, the antibodies from goat can react in the mouse's antibodies.
Antibodies can also be multiplied in a cell culture dish.
Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies: An antigen is injected into a mouse, and after a few weeks its spleen is removed and plasma cells are extracted. The mouse's spleen cells are fused with myeloms cells to create hybrid cells called hybridoma cells. Each hybridoma cell indefinitely produces identical antibody, and the hybridoma cells are then screened using an antigen/antibody assay that will reveal which cells produce the desired antibody. The collection of selected hybridoma cells that produce the preferred antibody are re-screened multiple times until a pure line is isolated. These cells are grown in a culture and/or injected into into mice to induce tumors. The cells can also be frozen and saved for later use. The hybridoma method for producing monoclonal antibodies is useful because large amounts of specifically-tailored identical antibodies can be produced easily.