SAASTE Technology/Modules/Processing Grade 8-9

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SAASTE Technology
Key Concepts
Grade 4 - Grade 5 - Grade 6 - Grade 7 - Grade 8 - Grade 9
Processing Grade 8/9 - Mechanical Systems Grade 9 - Structures Grade 5 - Structures Grade 8
Conductors & Insulators - Electronic Circuits - AND & OR Gates - Circuit/Systems Diagram - Hydraulics - Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Technological Products - Preservation-1 - Identifying Materials - Properties of Materials - Preservation-2 - Electroplating - Conditioning-Strengthening/Waterproofing-1 - Conditioning-Strengthening\Waterproofing-2 - Shaping - Forming - Forces - Types of Structures - Mechanisms Worksheet


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Company TLTP is inviting you to submit a design and sample for a new material to be used in the manufacture of a variety of South African made products. The company is looking for innovative use of basic materials and processes for a material that meets with the following: The use of any recyclable paper (non-gloss)

The use of a suitable laminating and /or weaving technique that maximizes strength The use of a suitable bonding agent ­ that allows for initial and/or further forming and contributes to the strength of the material.

===Activity 1=== approx: 1 week (LO 1, 3) Basic raw materials have for centuries been processed to produce useable materials. Some of these materials were plant (flax, bamboo, reed), animal (hides, silk, hair) or mineral (sand, clay) in origin. Conduct a basic research into how "your forefathers" ­ "the San culture" ­ "the Egyptians", "Khoi"; processed plant materials. Present your research topic under the following headings:

  • The plant type that was processed (include pictures/drawings where possible)
  • The actual process that was carried out on the plant
  • What the final product was for the processed plant
  • What do you think the need was for this product
  • What effect do you think the use of this plant had on the environment

Place this research task in your portfolio under the section: Investigate.

  • Assessment ­ RESEARCH*

===Activity 2 === approx: 2 weeks (LO 2, 1) Textile is a word commonly used to describe something made from fibres.

Fibres are the basic materials (building blocks) and can be natural (wool, rubber, cotton, wood, carbon) or synthetic (nylon, polyester-made from chemicals). These can be processed in different ways: they can be twisted together to produce yarn, can be pulped and rolled to produce sheets, they can be extruded (forced through a small hole) to produce thread. Fibres can be classified as primary materials. When they have been processed they can be called secondary materials.


Secondary materials could be used in this state or could be further processed to produce fabrics.Fabrics are anything that is made by interlacing these secondary materials. There are many methods of interlacing, but this module will focus on a common method of interlacing called weaving. When we weave we use two sets of material. One is referred to as the warp and the other the weft. The warps are usually the initial structure of the fabric. The weft, which is the filler, usually runs at right angles (90 degrees) to the warp. They do not always have to be at right angles. It is the way in which the weft is interlaced that gives a fabric its working qualities.

In this module we indicate warp as shaded and weft as un-shaded.

Warp and Weft
Warp and Weft
Warp and Weft
Warp and Weft

Study the basic weaves shown below:


The strength of Fabrics is influenced by the orientation of the fibers. A unidirectional material has the fibres laid parallel to one another (like laminating), a bi-directional material is one where the fibres are at an angle to one another, and random reinforcement is where the fibers are randomly placed (felting, matting).


Practical task 1

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Make one or more of the different types of interlacing (plain, twill, satin, diamond, random) using any one of the following: paper, thin cardboard, plastic, string, knitting wool etc.

Worksheet 1

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Refer to worksheet 1 for the task

Place this worksheet task in your portfolio under the section: Investigate. You must also put the examples of the weaving that you made in this section.

  • assessment ­ TEST*
  • assessment ­ PRACTICAL

===Activity 3=== approx: 1 week (LO 1, 2) Materials technology is one of the fastest growing technologies in the world. It is because of new materials or new ways of making materials that their initial properties are improved. These new materials allow products to be better, stronger, smaller, lighter, resistant to the elements, etc. One of the ways to improve the properties is to use a bonding agent.

This activity is a practical activity in experimentation. It is a controlled experiment where certain variables are kept constant. We want to find out which bonding agent is best AND which interlacing is best. You will conduct the experiment, record the results in graph form, make your findings and finally offer an informed decision on which of the four test pieces is the strongest (in terms of bending).

Refer to worksheet 2 for the task

Recording of results - using a bar graph. An example of a bar graph is shown below.

Bar Graph
Bar Graph
In the bar graph alongside the X axis is the constant (days of the week) ­ the Y axis is the responding variable.

Place the graph in your portfolio under the section: Investigate. ­ If it is possible place the test pieces in a plastic sleeve or glue to a page in the portfolio as well.

Activity 4- approx: 1 week (LO 1)

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Now that you have created your own material we are going to look at manufacturing something with it. In this module we will look at a basic concepts viz: forming (refer to the glossary for the meaning of forming)

Container Container

  • First do a sketch of the shape you want to form a curve hollow, etc
  • Use any interlacing technique to create a piece of material. The size is up to you
  • Decide on what to use as a former or how you will do the forming
  • Use your bonding agent to complete the piece.

Technological Process (LO 1)

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Identify a need or opportunity to use the knowledge and skill that you gained in this module to design and make something within the context of the brief from Company Kalamazoo. The material must be hard, scratch resistant and waterproof.


  • Write down the need or opportunity that you identified.
  • Write a design brief for what you will design and make.
  • Write two design specifications for the material that you will make
  • Write one product specification of the artifact that you will make.

Design: Show two alternative designs of the product you will make

  • Do a final drawing that shows the design of the material.
  • Show also the design of the product that you will make
  • These final drawings should include the following:
  • Measurements (dimensions) of the product
  • A 3D drawing of the product with notes/labels
  • A list of materials needed for the product
  • A set of steps you will follow to make the product (do this in the form of a flow chart)

Make: The material and then the product (you will be assessed on the material that you make

Evaluate: Evaluate the material that you have made. Test your material for the following properties: waterproof, hardness and scratch resistance.



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Research ­ finding out (e.g. Reading up, questionnaire, experiment, survey, etc)

Forming ­ pushing, pulling stretching, etc a materila into a particular shape (all of the material is used nothing is cut away)


Investigate ­ finding out about specific things

Textile ­ something that is made of fibres or filaments

Flow chart ­ block diagram that shows set steps (can be words or pictures or both)n

Fibre ­ fine threads (can be natural or synthetic)

Interlacing ­ textiles made by using fibres that have been interlocked by weaving, knitting, crocheting, etc

Product specification ­ about the finished product (use, purpose, material, shape, colour, size, etc)

Weaving ­ a form of interlacing

Design specification about how it will be made (construction technique, manufacturing technique, finishing technique, etc)

Yarn ­ fibres / filaments twisted together

Fabric ­ interlacing yarns or filaments

Laminating ­ making materials by layering separate pieces

Processing ­ series of actions towards a specific end

Processes ­ Actual things that we do to materials (form, shape, extract, reduce, etc)

Graph ­ a drawing (graphical) representation of data / information

You will need

  • A4 sheet of paper
  • A pair of scissors
  • Any two bonding agents (e.g. wood glue, varnish, resin, wall paper glue, or silicone)
  • Two R5-00 coins (as mass pieces) or something of similar mass.

You are required to do the following:

1. Use the paper and cut it into strips of 10 mm wide. 2. Choose a method of interlacing (twill, plain, satin, etc) and create two pieces (set 1) of fabric - (40 mm X 100 mm) 3. Choose a different method of interlacing and create two more pieces (set 2) of the same size. 4. Apply a bonding agent to one piece from each set. 5. Apply a different bonding agent to the other pieces in each set. (allow time to dry) - (note that you will have to apply at least 3 or 4 coats )

Now test each piece for strength.

6. Place each test piece between two wooden blocks of 44 mm in height. 7. Place the two coins on top of each test piece and determine the bending distance of each piece. 8. Fill in the table below and use it to record the results.

Test Piece Type of weave Bonding agent Bending distance in mm

9. Use your results to draw a bar graph.

10. Which of the four pieces is the strongest? ............................................

11. Come up with an experiment to test your material for the following: (a) Waterproof (b) Scratch resistance

NB! Place this worksheet task in your portfolio under the section: INVESTIGATE.

Worksheet 2

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1. Draw a flow chart to show how any two of the following are processed from its primary state to a secondary state and then to a useable material. You must choose one from each set.

Set 1 ­ cotton plant, sheep, sisal (plant) Set 2 - tree, sand (silica-glass), chemicals (plastic)

File:Saaste Modules 1.png

Flowchart one

Flowchart two

2. In the drawings below add labels to show which are the warps & which are the wefts.



3. Do a freehand sketch to show any two of the following methods of producing a fabric; Felting, twill weaves, satin weave, plain weave.

NB! Place this worksheet task in your portfolio under the section: INVESTIGATE.


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1. In the drawing below add in labels to show which are the warps and which are the wefts. (2) Test1_Tech.jpg

2. The drawing below shows the warps in a piece of material. Use a pencil to draw in the wefts so that the material shows a twill weave. Shade either the warp of weft to make the drawing clear (2) Test6_Tech.jpg

3. The strength of a textile is influenced by the way the fibres are arranged. Three ways of arranging the fibres are shown below. Choose from the given words to indicate each type. RANDOM ­ BIDIRECTIONAL ­ UNIDIRECTIONA(3)L




4. Refer to the graph shown below and answer the questions: (5) Test5_Tech.jpg

4.1 Which player scored the most points in 10 minutes in game 1?

4.2 Which player scored the fewest points in 10 minutes in game 1?

4.3 How many more points did the highest scorer make than the lowest scorer in game 2?

4.4 If you were to choose a player for your team which player would you choose. Give a reason for your choice.

5. Draw a flow diagram to show how any primary material is processed until it is made into a product. Show only 3 stages of processing in your diagram. (3)

Total: 15

Educators Guide

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The focus of this module is on outcomes 1, 2 & 3

The core of this module is to:

  • Create an understanding of the term processing
  • Create an understanding of materials
  • Create an understanding of interlacing as one way to produce a material
  • Create an awareness that different cultures have created materials for specific purposes
  • Provide authentic (real) experiences of the creation of a material outside of mere reproduction of existing ones.
  • Expose learners and educators to various aspects that make up research and how this falls within investigations
  • Provide opportunities to develop technological literacy by creating an understanding and awareness of technological terminology
  • Creating opportunity for learners to acquire relevant knowledge and apply this to a real situation.

This module requires that educators "teach" the module. ­ It also requires that learners "actively do things" so that learning takes place. The entire module could be completed in 4 to 5 weeks (approx 4 periods in a 5 day cycle)

The module is designed to take a logical approach by first setting the scene or context (in this case the need from the company for a material with specific properties). We want learners to see the connection to technology today and to the past and we do this by addressing outcome 3. We then address outcomes 2 & 1 by finding out things by research, investigations, experiments, etc to construct knowledge relevant to the context /situation ­ and then in line with the definition of technology we ask the learners to apply the knowledge and skills to address the situation (outcome 1). When this module is done we pick out those activities we want to assess for certain forms of assessment.

Introduce activity 1 by using anything in the classroom to begin the conversation: This could be a non threatening way to start this module is to have an oral discussion. This also draws on their prior learning.

You could ask what the tiles on the floor, the glass of the window, the desk, the roof sheet, the clothes they are wearing, the paper in the class, the ink in the pen, etc are made of. ­ All of these things made of materials that have been processed in some way. Ask what they think the raw material was and how they thing it was processed. Notice we want their ideas on these questions and not necessarily a technical or pure scientific correct answer. When this is done tell them about their first task that will be discussed in the next period ­In the next period introduce activity 1 ­ Explain that it is a research task and that they have to go and find out how another culture in the past created products from basic materials. They should write this up ­ It should not be longer than one page ­ discourage photocopies of books This is an assessment activity

In activity 2 we have started with knowledge ­ The idea is for you to go through this with the learners (teaching and explain as you go along) ­ For the knowledge we have supplied a worksheet which summarizes the essential things that need to be known. Later as a form of assessment we give a test. The practical activity is to get them to make the connection between the theory and the practice ­ We suggest that paper be used so that the final task is easier to do. This is an assessment activity for two things (practical ­ the small weave that they make & the test of knowledge: notice the way in which we set out the test ­ it is less theoretical)

In activity 3 we focus on an investigation in the form of an experiment ­ the idea is to get learners into the skills of performing authentic test and recording findings and then making decisions based on their findings ­ What is good about this activity is that it has a direct bearing on the final task (that is, it is not just something to do in the class, but what they find out here can and should influence their decisions on the final product). As this is the first of our modules we are giving the steps of the experiment. The idea is to make the test pieces, use the diagram as a guide to test them and recording the findings in a graph. There is a lot of learning in this activity ­ one is that they learn the value of fair testing, two they learn how to work with graphs, three they learning about conducting relevant research. Note the following: they must use many layers of the bonding agent (one or two is not going to be enough) ­ They must note exactly how many layers they apply to each side ­ All test pieces must have the same number of layers or the results will be false.

When doing the graph the following is important: The constants always go on the "X" axis ­ In our case it will be each test piece. The responding variables always go on the "Y" axis ­ In our case it will be the measurement of the amount of sagging with the mass pieces on it. The example in the module is of the constants on the X axis which is the days of the week (this is constant) ­ the Y axis the responding variable which shows the number of learners that were absent on particular days.

In activity 4 we introduce the concept of forming (forming is twisting, pushing, etc a material out of shape without removing any of the material, i.e. no cutting or filing, etc). The simplest way to form the interlaced material is to place it over or into a former. Formers can be things like plastic bottles, bowls, balloons, pipes, etc. ­ After the bonding agent is applied and it dries the material will keep its shape.

For the technological process we have set out lead questions or statements to help the learners complete the task. They can decide on any situation to address (e.g. a pencil holder, a sweet tray, a protective cover for something, a holder for something, etc)

  • They must write a design brief
  • They must write 2 design specifications of the material (type of interlacing, type of bonding agent, number of layers of bonding agent, etc)
  • They must write 1 product specification (shape, size, use, purpose, etc)
  • The designing has two parts to it ­ one is of the material and the other is of the product ­
  • Ensure that learners understand what is required ­ The module tell them exactly what is required.

Other aspects of the task are in the module.

Enjoy the module with your learners

Author/s: Deon Khan (Mentor-Osman Sadeck)