Pulsars and neutron stars/Modelling timing residuals

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Pulse numbering[edit]

Glitch events[edit]

In tempo/tempo2, glitch events are modelled as an offset in pulse phase, and the permanent increments in the pulse frequency and first frequency time derivative . In addition it is sometimes necessary to in a transient frequency increment which decays exponentially to zero with a timescale of . The phase model (caused by the glitch) is therefore taken as:

where is the glitch epoch and is the current time.

Frequency-dependent and frequency-independent noise[edit]

Spatially correlated timing residuals[edit]

Spectral analysis of timing residuals[edit]

Interpolation and extrapolation of pulsar timing residuals[edit]