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The Instrument marker and the Location marker (per/by means of, at)

The Instrument marker: -nan

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[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S (CP-O) CP-Instrument]

This is similar to “with” or “per”, denoting a tool being used to accomplish a task. The suffix is “-nan”.


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Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi yod le wa. I am eating. yod = to eat
Bíi yod le bathanan wa. I am eating with a fork. batha = fork
Bíi yod le thuzheth bathanan wa. I am eating cake with a fork. thuzh = cake

The Location markers: -ha and -ya

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[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Time/CP-Place]

Similar to the English preposition "at", there are two location markers. "-ha" specifies a location in space, and "-ya" specifies a location in time.

If more precision is required, a postposition can be added after the "-ha"/"-ya", such as "obée" for "during". These postpositions never change their form and cannot take affixes.


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Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi eril hal le hohaleha wa. I worked at the office. eril = past, hal = work, hohal = office
Bíi aril hal le háasháaleya wa. I will work at morning. aril = later, háasháal = morning
Bíi hal le náaleya obée wa. I work during the night. náal = night, obée = during


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