Láadan/Lessons/7

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search
« Láadan
The Association marker and Beneficiary marker (with, for)
»
Previous Page Next Page

The Association marker: -den and -dan[edit]

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Association]

The Association marker is used to specify with whom something is done. "-den" is the neutral form, while "-dan" can additionally specify that it is a pleasure to do so.

Examples[edit]

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi lalom le wa. I am singing. lalom = to sing
Bóo aril lalom leden. Would you sing with me? le+den = with me


The Beneficiary marker: -da[edit]

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Beneficiary]

The Beneficiary marker is used to specify for whom something is done for; on whose behalf.

The Beneficiary marker also has alternative forms in order to specify purpose: "-dá" for "against one's will", as in forced or coerced, "-daá" for "accidentally", and "-dáa" for "because of an obligation of law or duty that one accepts". For all other situations, "-da" should be used.

Examples[edit]

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi lalom le laneda wa. I am singing for a friend. lan = friend

Notes[edit]