Láadan/Lessons/6

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The Goal and Source markers (to, from)
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Introduction[edit]

In English, we use prepositions like "in", "at", "on", "to". In Láadan, these concepts are conveyed through suffixes.

The Goal marker: -di[edit]

Pattern: [(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S (CP-O) CP-GOAL]

The Goal case phrase is where something is directed. This could be in a direction of travel, or towards some recipient.

Examples[edit]

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi sháad le bethedi wa. I am going home. sháad = to come/to go, beth = home
Bíi eril ban le doyuth háawithedi wa. I gave the apple to the child. eril = past, ban = to give, doyu = apple, háawith = child

The Source marker: -de[edit]

Pattern: [(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S (CP-O) CP-SOURCE]

Sentences using the verb "sháad" (to come/to go) will be very similar to each other, and the only way to tell a "come" from a "go" is based on whether the Goal or the Source marker is used.

Examples[edit]

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi eril sháad le bethedi wa. I came home. sháad = to come/to go, beth = home
Bíi eril sháad le bethede wa. I came from home. sháad = to come/to go, beth = home

Alternative to -di[edit]

For some people, -de and -di might sound too alike. If you prefer, you can use -dim instead of -di. (Suzette Haden Elgin (1988), A First Dictionary and Grammar of Láadan, Second Edition, p. 30 )

Notes[edit]