Interesting social sciences/Machiavelli about ways of armed seizure of power

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Methods of capture of a throne[edit | edit source]

Nikkolo Makiavelli
Cyrus the Great
Crucifixion.Mathis Grünewald (1500—1508)
The she-wolf has nursed Romulus and Remus.

 

  • It is necessary to receive power not by grace of fortune, but with help of personal valor. Cyrus the Great and Romulus acted quite so. Cyrus the Great and Romulus had to introduce new the new rules and methods Without which it is impossible to base state and to ensure own safety. Cyrus the Great and Romulus were forced either to ask of allies, or to use force for success of own undertaking. Cyrus the Great and Romulus were doomed to defeat in the first case, Cyrus the Great and Romulus were doomed to to a victory in the second case. That is why all armed prophets won, and unarmed prophets perished. Niccolo Machiavelli hints on unarmed Jesus Christ and on the armed Muhammad. Because the character of people is changeable and if to turn of people in own belief is easy, then to keep of people in own belief is difficult.[1] When faith runs out in the people, then it is necessary to force of people to believe in utopia by force of arms. Bolsheviks acted quite so. At first Bolsheviks have managed to deceive a part of the Russian people with help of a Marxist utopia about communism which very much reminded religious dogma. And then Bolsheviks have seized power, Bolsheviks have established tyranny and Bolsheviks have driven of people to happiness with help of iron fist, because these people have ceased to trust to Bolsheviks, and communist happiness was unattainable.
  • It is possible to receive power even by means of wickedness. The cruelty is applied well when the cruelty is shown quickly and at once, but ruler don't persist in cruelty, and the cruelty is applied badly when punishments are made seldom at first, but punishments become frequent over time, but punishments don't become more rare. It is useful to provide good little by little so that citizens taste good as best as possible. It is possible for the sake of the power even to go for crimes – on political murders, executions of political opponents and the armed seizure of power without elections. For example, Agathocles of Syracuse became by tyrant of Syracuse by means of crime, his soldiers have killed of all senators and the richest people of the city during people's assembly.[2] Bolsheviks applied wickedness very widely. Such wickedness against own people yet weren't known in history. Bolsheviks behaved so ruthlessly in relation to own people as though Bolsheviks were in the conquered country.

Methods of retaining of tyrannical power in the conquered country:[edit | edit source]

Family of Nicholas II of Russia

 

Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire. Picture of Ilya Repin.

 

  • The Prince has to destroy the family of the prince who was ruling before.[3] Vladimir Lenin has acted quite so. All family of Romanov, including children, was shot in Yekaterinburg on Vladimir Lenin's order. Bolsheviks tried to hide long this fact that the Ural communists have made this shooting on order of Vladimir Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov that a telegram from Moscow existed with the order about shooting signed by Vladimir Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov. Only those relatives of the emperor have escaped, who have managed to go abroad beforehand, for example mother of Nicholas II of Russia. Vladimir Lenin's revenge for the elder brother Alexander Ulyanov was one of the personal reasons of shooting of family of Romanov. Alexander Ulianov was hanged for preparing the attempted murder of Alexander 3 (father of Nicholas 2), this attempt was prevented by the police.
  • The Prince has to move of residence to the conquered country because this is the only way to notice riot in time. For example, the Turkish sultan has transferred the capital to Constantinople [4], Peter the Great has transferred the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg (Land near Baltic sea was conquered by Russian army in head Peter the Great). And Vladimir Lenin has transferred the capital back from St. Petersburg to Moscow because the capital in St. Petersburg reminded the heart of the person located in a little finger. Though almost whole country fought against Bolsheviks in the end of civil war, but Bolsheviks have managed to win in this war only thanks to the improbable cruelty, Bolsheviks have managed to win in this war only thanks to fatigue of the people from World War I and civil war(1917‐1920), Bolsheviks have managed to win in this war only thanks to partial and temporary concessions of Vladimir Lenin to anti-Bolshevist forces in the form of New Economic Policy policy steps.
  • The Prince has to establish colonies in the conquered country. This action costs cheaper, than to hold troops here. It is necessary either to caress of people, or to destroy of people because in the second case people won't be able to revenge.[5] Cossacks were the Russian colonists on borders of the country. Cossacks protected from attacks of nomads not only themselves, but also all Russia. The Cossacks were very effective Russian invention in fight against attacks of nomads, Cossacks inspired fear and horror at nomads. Bolsheviks have arranged genocide against Cossacks because most of Cossacks were at war for White movement against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. Russian army had had big problems at suppression of a revolt in Chechnya at a boundary of 20 and 21 centuries after defeat of the Terek Cossacks, besides the Russian population is expelled or destroyed in Chechnya almost completely today, and the Russian army couldn't protect them without Terek Cossacks.
  • The Prince has to become by defender of weak neighbors in conquered country, the Prince has to weaken and smash of strong neighbors.[6] The English colonialists have expressed later this principle shorter: "Divide and rule!". Russians helped in the Caucasus always to Christians – Ossetians, Georgians, Armenians in fight against Muslims – Azerbaijanians, Chechens, Ingushs and so on. Vladimir Lenin has managed to set of poor peasants against rich peasants in the village, Vladimir Lenin has managed to set hired workers against businessmen, that to arrange civil war and to establish tyranny. Vladimir Lenin relied on workers and poor peasants in words, but it was a lie.
  • 'The Prince has to destroy conquered state or to lay of conquered state under tribute. The conqueror has to act resolutely. For example, Romans, expecting a trouble in advance, took measures immediately, but Romans didn't stay idle because of fear to cause war because Romans knew that war can't be avoided, it is possible to delay war only to benefit of the opponent. Romans considered beneficial only own valor and foresight.[7] Passion to conquests is natural and usual affairs. In my opinion this principle can be expressed shorter: "If war is inevitable, it is necessary to attack first!".

Methods retention of tyrannical power and methods of the fight against threat of political plots[edit | edit source]

Vladimir Lenin during a disease. Situated near Moscow Gorky. 1923
Vladimir Lenin during a disease. Situated near Moscow Gorky. 1923
Lenin's Mausoleum

 

Merkader's ice axe as crime tool
  • The Prince has to rule surrounded by servants, appointed at the request of the Prince, rather than The Prince has to rule surrounded by Barons, which rule not at his request, but due to antiquity of their genus. Example of the first is a power of Turkish Sultan, example of the second is a power of French King. It is difficult to win the monarchy of Sultan, but it is easily to keep the power in Ottoman Empire after her conquest, the French Kingdom is easily to win, but it is difficult to keep power in the French Kingdom after her conquest. [8] In fulfilling this advice of Niccolo Machiavelli, Joseph Stalin had destroyed all his yesterday's companions, all representatives of Vladimir Lenin’s guard, all “red Barons” in the 1930s, because “red Barons” have got their positions as a result of the October revolution, that is “red Barons” have won their posts themselves or “red Barons” have received their posts from Vladimir Lenin and “red Barons” were proud of that. Vladimir Lenin had turned out paralyzed in end of life, Vladimir Lenin accused of Joseph Stalin in abuse in Lenin's Testament, that Joseph Stalin hold unlimited power in their hands and Joseph Stalin doesn't know how to use own power, Vladimir Lenin has proposed to remove of Joseph Stalin from his position of General Secretary of the Russian Communist Party's Central Committee and Vladimir Lenin has proposed to transfer of Joseph Stalin into another place of job. Joseph Stalin responded to this criticism at the Congress of communists that Joseph Stalin was rude with enemies only. Vladimir Lenin was transferred from Kremlin to suburban Villa “Gorki”, where, in fact, Vladimir Lenin was under house arrest. Joseph Stalin has prohibited to Vladimir Lenin to meet with associates and to write letters on the pretext of concern for his bad health. Joseph Stalin met never with Vladimir Lenin in suburban Villa “Gorki”. Vladimir Lenin understood the own plight of perfectly, but Vladimir Lenin could do against Joseph Stalin nothing, because, in fact, all levers of power were already in possession of Joseph Stalin. Joseph Stalin ordered to do the mummy from body of Vladimir Lenin after the death of Vladimir Lenin. The mummy was exhibit in Mausoleum for worship of sacred "relics" and for bringing up in a spirit of communism. Leon Trotsky wrote in the work of “The Lessons of October” that this is only he, Leon Trotsky, had prepared October revolution (Vladimir Lenin was in illegal status and Vladimir Lenin could not prepare October revolution). Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev turned out to be traitors (because Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev has published before the October revolution open letter in the newspaper about own disagreement with the decision of the Central Committee of Bolshevik’s Party about the preparation to the rebellion, Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev has betrayed the Bolshevik’s plans to Russian Provisional Government with help this article in the newspaper). Only he, Leon Trotsky, created Red Army and only he, Leon Trotsky, directed by Red Army during the civil war, when Joseph Stalin was "gray spot”, when Joseph Stalin was “the most outstanding mediocrity”, Joseph Stalin was knew nobody. Therefore, only he, Leon Trotsky must be by the ruler after Lenin's death – “Leon Trotsky must be or near Lenin or on Lenin’s place”. Lev Kamenev said on the Congress of communists: “Joseph Stalin is not such figure, which may head the old Bolshevik’s headquarter ”. Joseph Stalin had an excellent memory, Joseph Stalin didn't forget and forgive nothing and never. As a result Leon Trotsky was expelled abroad and Leon Trotsky wrote a books that discredited of Joseph Stalin, therefore, the Soviet agent Ramón Mercader had killed of Leon Trotsky with help of ice axe by order of Soviet intelligence. Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin, and other “red Barons” were shot after torture and Moscow Trials, where “red Barons” were branded as the spies of foreign intelligence and “enemies of the people”. Joseph Stalin has named campaign for extermination of the yesterday's colleagues as "Great Purge", and modern historians has named this campaign as "Great Terror". In accordance with the recommendations of the Niccolo Machiavelli, Joseph Stalin appointed of own henchmen to key posts instead of "red Barons". Joseph Stalin spoke personally with each candidate before appointment on post, Joseph Stalin knew human psychology. Primarily, Joseph Stalin tried to determine the degree of personal loyalty of candidate in nomenclature in the course of personal conversation, then the candidate must was tested on willingness to participate directly in reprisals against “the enemies of the people". If the Minister has identified too few of “the enemies of the people" in his Ministry, that this meant that this Minister isn’t "vigilant",  this Minister must find oneself under suspicion of political police, this Minister wasn't worthy to be a member of the nomenclature, and this Minister has to be executed as “enemy of people”.  All persons from the environment of Joseph Stalin have passed through “bloody” test as members of the criminal group. All members of the nomenclature were afraid to be thrown out from the leading chair and to end up on prison plank bed once. Violent change of elite has happened thus, Joseph Stalin has put "nomenclature" at a wheel of the power instead of "Lenin's guard". The term “nomenclature” meant a list of posts originally and this term became to mean ruling layer under socialism later. Joseph Stalin had a habit to destroy his yesterday's colleague, to come at home, to drink the wine, to celebrate alone on the principle: “If you execute of person, then there is no problems”. Joseph Stalin has remained quite one at the end of his life, because Joseph Stalin had executed of all their friends and colleagues. Tyrant remained completely alone and in family life, his first wife Kato Svanidze died from diseases long ago, his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva has made a suicide with help of gun as a sign of protest against  the persecution of yesterday's friends and against the policy of collectivization, the policy of collectivization led to famine in the village. Joseph Stalin has sent to prison even some relatives. The first unloved by Joseph Stalin son Yakov Dzhugashvili has died in fascist’s captivity, second son Vasily Stalin suffered from alcoholism and Vasily Stalin was a disgrace to his father Joseph Stalin. His favourite daughter psychologist Svetlana Alliluyeva changed of husbands as gloves therefore Svetlana Alliluyeva was a disgrace to this father too. Later Svetlana Alliluyeva has thrown of own children, Svetlana Alliluyeva has run away from the USSR abroad, Svetlana Alliluyeva has published the memories about own father abroad - "Twenty Letters to a Friend ". 

  

  • The Prince has to secure itself against enemies, the Prince has to get friends, the Prince has to win with help of force or cunning, the Prince has to inspire fear and love at the people, and the Prince has to inspire obedience at soldiers, the Prince must have a dedicated and reliable army, the Prince must eliminate people who can or should harm, the Prince must to update old orders, the Prince must to get rid from unreliable army and the Prince must to create own army, the Prince mustn't to trust and to rely on those people who were offended by the Prince in the past, and this people will be afraid of Prince in the future. Because these people will revenge to Prince because of fear, or because of hatred. That person is mistaken, which thinks that new benefits can make forget of people about past grievances. [9] Joseph Stalin destroyed all suspicious and potentially dangerous men from the point of view of his sick imagination.
  • A autocracy is created either by the people or by the nobility. The Prince cann't choose of people freely after that, but the Prince can choose of nobility freely, because the Prince has own right to punish and to pardon. People can turn away from the Prince at the bad end simply, whereas nobility can go against the Prince, nobility can organize a plot or coup, because nobility is more far-sighted and moor cunning then people, nobility search of ways for rescue beforehand and nobility fawns before someone who is stronger. The Prince should be in friendship with people, otherwise the Prince will be overthrown in difficult minute. [10] The Bolsheviks tried to manipulate and to deceive of people with help of propaganda, the Bolsheviks tried to inspire in people false ideas through mass media. If Bolsheviks couldn't deceive of most of the people that Bolsheviks hadn't stopped even before that to frighten of people with help of State terror. Joseph Stalin considered that it is necessary to do "Great Purges" periodically, that is it is necessary to subject to reprisals of members of own environment periodically. Joseph Stalin sought that representatives of his environment denounce at each other continuously, that representatives of his environment quarrel to each other. Joseph Stalin inflamed of struggle of cliques in his environment specially, Joseph Stalin "pushed together them foreheads" of clique's leaders because of fear that clique's leaders will be able to unite everything against this tyrant. Joseph Stalin was especially afraid of generals, whom, unlike Joseph Stalin himself, the people loved. Joseph Stalin was especially afraid of generals, because the generals could organize military coup. The Red Army was beheaded on the eve of World War II as a result of Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization against generals in 1937. Joseph Stalin organized new case against the generals after this war again, as a result of marshal Georgy Zhukov and marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky were sent into exile, some generals were executed again, despite for its merits before fatherland. The generals were not able to avenge to Joseph Stalin, but generals could to avenge to Stalin’s hangman Lavrentiy Beria, the generals has arrested of Lavrentiy Beria in 1953 and generals has shot of Lavrentiy Beria personally in the prison cell.
  • 'The Prince has to rely on own army consisting of citizens and the Prince shouldn't rely on hired or allied army. The military affair is the only duty which the sovereign can't assign to the servants. Hired and allied troops are useless and dangerous, hired and allied troops are coward with the enemy. Hired and allied troops ruin of the Prince in peace time not less, than the enemy ruin of the Prince in wartime. Skillful and brave mercenaries will try to obtain the power, this mercenaries can overthrow of the Prince, inept mercenaries can lose of battle. Carthage was captured by own mercenaries nearly. Rome and Sparta had no mercenaries and Rome and Sparta stood armed and free for many centuries. Decline of the Roman Empire has begun with what Romans began to take on service of mercenaries - Goths.[11] Military art helps to achieve of power to someone who was born as a simple person. [12]

 

  • The Prince should be afraid of secret plots. For this purpose it isn't necessary to anger of nobility and it is necessary to be pleasing to the people. It is important not to subject to insults of the officials and servants surrounding of the Prince.[13] Philip 2 Macedon was killed by the bodyguard Pausanias of Orestis because Philip 2 Macedon did not want to protect of Pausanias of Orestis from insult in side of the relative of Philip 2 Macedon. Son of Philip 2 Macedon – Alexander the Great was suspected in the organization of this plot, motive for this crime could become the fact that Philip 2 Macedon has divorced with Alexander's mother, Philip 2 Macedon has sent of Alexander the Great and his mother in the exile and Philip 2 Macedon married on other woman who could give birth to Philip 2 Macedon of other successor. The Prince has to avoid of an alliance with someone who is stronger than the Prince.

Qualities of character which the Prince must have[edit | edit source]

  • The Prince has to be avaricious, but not generous that not to plunder of citizens and that the Prince must to have means for defense. Nothing else exhausts of state as generosity.[14]
  • The Prince has to be moderately cruel that to save of society from disorder which generates robberies and murders. All population suffers from robberies and murders whereas only certain people suffer from punishments.[15]
  • It is more profitable for the Prince when people afraid of the Prince than when people love of the Prince. Because people are ungrateful and changeable by own nature, people are inclined to hypocrisy and deception, people are frightened off danger and the profit attracts of people. It is necessary to inspire fear so that to avoid of hatred at the same time. It is necessary for this purpose to abstain from attempt at property and women of the citizens. Because people will forgive the father's execution, than loss of property rather. Hannibal kept order in the different races army with help of inhuman cruelty.[16]
  • The Prince can break the word of honor when it is required.[17] Joseph Stalin acted quite so also.
  • The Prince mustn't incite contempt to himself. The Prince excite contempt to themselves because of the levity, delicacy, cowardice and indecision. Decisions of the Prince have to be irrevocable. It has to come to mind to nobody to deceive or outwit of the Prince. The Prince must by his actions create himself the glory of a great man with an outstanding mind. People judge about mind of the Prince on those people whom the Prince chooses to himself in advisers. People act differently, trying to achieve of wealth and glory. Some people act with caution, others people act with onslaught, some people act with force, others people act skillfully. [18]

Conclusions:[edit | edit source]

  • If the Prince wants to keep power, then the Prince has to recede from good, from moral standards sometimes and to use this ability when it is required. People judge about the Prince on the end result therefore let the Prince try to keep the power and to win. All means are good for this purpose.
  • The treatise of Niccolo Machiavelli "The Prince" became the political textbook for applicants for a throne, the political textbook for tyrants, like Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler.
  • Tyranny became an outdated form of government after the invention of democracy today, therefore Niccolo Machiavelli's book, as a textbook for tyrants, is largely obsolete today too, but the behind-the-scenes struggle for power has kept own significance today and the behind-the-scenes struggle for power will never disappear in the future. Niccolo Machiavelli's book is also a textbook on behind-the-scenes struggle for power, therefore Machiavelli's book will never become obsolete.

Citations and references.[edit | edit source]

  1. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. Chapter 6. CONCERNING NEW PRINCIPALITIES WHICH ARE ACQUIRED BY ONE’S OWN ARMS AND ABILITY.https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  2. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER VIII. CONCERNING THOSE WHO HAVE OBTAINED A PRINCIPALITY BY WICKEDNESS https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  3. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  4. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  5. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  6. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  7. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  8. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER IV. WHY THE KINGDOM OF DARIUS, CONQUERED BY ALEXANDER, DID NOT REBEL AGAINST THE SUCCESSORS OF ALEXANDER AT HIS DEATH. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  9. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER VII. CONCERNING NEW PRINCIPALITIES WHICH ARE ACQUIRED EITHER BY THE ARMS OF OTHERS OR BY GOOD FORTUNE https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  10. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER IX. CONCERNING A CIVIL PRINCIPALITY https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  11. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XII. HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY THERE ARE, AND CONCERNING MERCENARIES https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  12. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XIV. THAT WHICH CONCERNS A PRINCE ON THE SUBJECT OF THE ART OF WAR https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  13. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XIX. THAT ONE SHOULD AVOID BEING DESPISED AND HATED https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  14. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XVI. CONCERNING LIBERALITY AND MEANNESS https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  15. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XVII. CONCERNING CRUELTY AND CLEMENCY, AND WHETHER IT IS BETTER TO BE LOVED THAN FEARED https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  16. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XVII. CONCERNING CRUELTY AND CLEMENCY, AND WHETHER IT IS BETTER TO BE LOVED THAN FEARED https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  17. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XVIII. CONCERNING THE WAY IN WHICH PRINCES SHOULD KEEP FAITH https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
  18. Nicolo Machiavelli (1532) The Prince. CHAPTER XIX. THAT ONE SHOULD AVOID BEING DESPISED AND HATED https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm