Icelandic/Grammar/Verbs

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Icelandic
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Sagnorð

Verbs

Introduction to verbs[edit | edit source]

A verb is a "doing" word eg.

  • He plays the piano.
  • We like to relax.

Conjugation[edit | edit source]

Template:Expand section Most verbs end in a. Some verbs end in á, while there are very rare examples of verbs ending in e, o, and u. Verbs are classed as strong and weak verbs, which represents how they are conjugated.

Person and number[edit | edit source]

Strong class 1
-í_a Singular Plural
1st person -í_ -í_um
2nd person -í_ur -í_ið
3rd person -í_ur -í_a
Strong class 2
-jó_a
-jú_a
-ú_a
Singular Plural
1st person -ý_ -ý_um
2nd person -ý_ur -ý_ið
3rd person -ý_ur -ý_a
Weak class 1
-ja Singular Plural
1st person - -jum
2nd person -ur -jið
3rd person -ur -ja
Weak class 2
-a Singular Plural
1st person -i -um
2nd person -ir -ið
3rd person -ir -a
Weak class 4
-a Singular Plural
1st person -a -um
2nd person -ar -ið
3rd person -ar -a

Tense[edit | edit source]

Icelandic verbs are conjugated for the present and past tense. The future tense is indicated by auxiliary verbs such as munu, skulu, and vera að fara að.

The inflection tables above show the present tense, while the inflection tables below show the past tense.

Strong class 1
-í_a Singular Plural
1st person -ei_ -i_um
2nd person -ei_st -i_uð
3rd person -ei_ -i_u
Strong class 2
-jó_a
-jú_a
-ú_a
Singular Plural
1st person -au_ -u_um
2nd person -au_st -u_uð
3rd person -au_ -u_u
Weak class 2
-a Singular Plural
1st person -di -dum
2nd person -dir -duð
3rd person -dir -du
Weak class 4
-a Singular Plural
1st person -aði -uðum
2nd person -aðir -uðuð
3rd person -aði -uðu

Mood[edit | edit source]

Icelandic verbs are conjugated for two moods: indicative and subjunctive. The indicative mood is used for certain facts, while the subjunctive mood is used for hypothetical actions or possibilities. The above conjugations were for the indicative mood.

Subjunctive present[edit | edit source]

Strong class 1
-í_a Singular Plural
1st person -í_i -í_um
2nd person -í_ir -í_ið
3rd person -í_i -í_i
Weak class 2
-a Singular Plural
1st person -i -um
2nd person -ir -ið
3rd person -i -i
Weak class 4
-a Singular Plural
1st person -i -um
2nd person -ir -ið
3rd person -i -i

Subjunctive past[edit | edit source]

Strong class 1
-í_a Singular Plural
1st person -i_i -i_um
2nd person -i_ir -i_uð
3rd person -i_i -i_u
Weak class 2
-a Singular Plural
1st person -di -dum
2nd person -dir -duð
3rd person -dir -du
Weak class 4
-a Singular Plural
1st person -aði -uðum
2nd person -aðir -uðuð
3rd person -aði -uðu

Other conjugations[edit | edit source]

  • The supine (Icelandic: sagnbót) is a form that is used after the auxiliary verbs geta and hafa. It is identical to the neuter past participle.
  • The present participle is always formed by adding suffix -ndi to the infinitive. It is not inflected for gender, number, or case. Note that it is not used as a gerund; for example, the English phrase I am coming would be translated as Ég er að koma, not Ég er komandi.
  • The imperative mood has three primary forms: truncated, singular, and plural. The truncated form is always followed by þú, while the plural form is always followed by þið.

Mediopassive[edit | edit source]

Template:Expand section Most verbs have a mediopassive form, which is sometimes considered to be a separate word. It is always equivalent to the active infinitive plus -st. The mediopassive form is used like this:

  • Active:
    • Hann braut gluggann.
    • He broke the window.
  • Mediopassive:
    • Glugginn braust.
    • The window broke.

However, there are many words whose mediopassives have entirely different meanings than the active.

Past participle[edit | edit source]

Template:Expand section The past participle is inflected for gender, number, case, and strength, unlike the present participle. Like the mediopassive, it is sometimes considered to be a separate word.

Categories[edit | edit source]