Handbook of Management Scales/Loyalty
It was aimed to measure Leader-Member Exchange (LMX). Therefore a multidimensional measure was developed and validated. Item analysis involving 302 working students, followed by construct and criterion-related validation using 249 employees representing two organizations resulted in a multidimensional LMX scale. The results provided support for the affect, loyalty, and contribution dimensions identified by Dienesch and Liden (1986), as well as a fourth dimension, professional respect. The following items are taken from the loyalty dimension of LMX.
- My supervisor defends my work actions to a superior, even without complete knowledge of the issue in question.
- My supervisor would come to my defense if I were "attacked" by others.
- My supervisor would defend me to others in the organization if I made an honest mistake.
- Liden/Maslyn (1998): Multidimensionafity of Leader-Member Exchange: An Empirical Assessment through Scale Development. Journal of Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 43-72.
Loyalty (AVE = 0.89; CR = 0.89)
A previously used scale by Arnold & Reynolds (2003) was adapted to measure loyalty.
- I am a loyal customer of this company. (0.80)
- I have developed a good relationship with this company. (0.95)
- I am loyal to this company. (0.93)
- Walsh & Beatty (2007): Customer-based Corporate Reputation of a Service Firm: Scale Development and Validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 127-143.
Loyalty (alpha = 0.84)
The authors reconceptualize organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in terms of civic citizenship and propose a new OCB measurement. It uses five categories of citizenship: loyalty, obedience, social participation, advocacy participation, and functional participation. Based on data from 950 employees, support is found for the measurement's construct validity.
Organizational citizenship can be conceptualized as a global concept that includes all positive organizationally relevant behaviors of individual organization members.
Loyalty is understood as allegiance to an organization and promotion of its interests.
- Represents organization favorably to outsiders. (0.75)
- Does not go out of way to defend organization against outside threats (R). (0.68)
- Does not tell outsiders this is a good place to work (R). (0.68)
- Does not defend organization when employees criticize it (R). (0.68)
- Actively promotes organization's products and services. (0.60)
- Would accept job at competing organization for more money (R). (0.59)
- Would not urge coworkers to invest money in organization (R). (0.54)
- Van Dyne, Graham & Dienesch (1994): Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Construct Redefinition, Measurement, and Validation. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 765–802
The factor loadings of some of the items were below 0.60 and, thus, relatively low.