# Geometry/Parallel and Perpendicular Lines and Planes

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world

< Geometry

## Contents

## Parallel Lines in a Plane[edit]

Two coplanar lines are said to be parallel if they never intersect. For any given point on the first line, its distance to the second line is equal to the distance between any other point on the first line and the second line. The common notation for parallel lines is "||" (a double pipe); it is not unusual to see "//" as well. If line *m* is parallel to line *n*, we write "m || n". Lines in a plane either coincide, intersect in a point, or are parallel. Controversies surrounding the Parallel Postulate lead to the development of non-Euclidean geometries.

## Parallel Lines and Special Pairs of Angles[edit]

When two (or more) parallel lines are cut by a transversal, the following angle relationships hold:

- corresponding angles are congruent
- alternate exterior angles are congruent
- same-side interior angles are supplementary

## Theorems Involving Parallel Lines[edit]

- If a line in a plane is perpendicular to one of two parallel lines, it is perpendicular to the other line as well.
- If a line in a plane is parallel to one of two parallel lines, it is parallel to both parallel lines.
- If three or more parallel lines are intersected by two or more transversals, then they divide the transversals proportionally.

- Chapter 2. Geometry/Angles
- Chapter 3. Geometry/Properties
- Chapter 4. Geometry/Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
- Chapter 5. Geometry/Proof
- Chapter 6. Geometry/Five Postulates of Euclidean Geometry
- Chapter 7. Geometry/Vertical Angles
- Chapter 8.
**Geometry/Parallel and Perpendicular Lines and Planes** - Chapter 9. Geometry/Congruency and Similarity
- Chapter 10. Geometry/Congruent Triangles
- Chapter 11. Geometry/Similar Triangles
- Chapter 12. Geometry/Quadrilaterals
- Chapter 13. Geometry/Parallelograms
- Chapter 14. Geometry/Trapezoids
- Chapter 15. Geometry/Circles/Radii, Chords and Diameters
- Chapter 16. Geometry/Circles/Arcs
- Chapter 17. Geometry/Circles/Tangents and Secants
- Chapter 18. Geometry/Circles/Sectors
- Appendix A. Geometry/Postulates & Definitions
- Appendix B. Geometry/The SMSG Postulates for Euclidean Geometry

- Part II- Coordinate Geometry:

- Two and Three-Dimensional Geometry and Other Geometric Figures
- Geometry/Perimeter and Arclength
- Geometry/Area
- Geometry/Volume
- Geometry/Polygons
- Geometry/Triangles
- Geometry/Right Triangles and Pythagorean Theorem
- Geometry/Polyominoes
- Geometry/Ellipses
- Geometry/2-Dimensional Functions
- Geometry/3-Dimensional Functions
- Geometry/Area Shapes Extended into 3rd Dimension
- Geometry/Area Shapes Extended into 3rd Dimension Linearly to a Line or Point
- Geometry/Polyhedras
- Geometry/Ellipsoids and Spheres
- Geometry/Coordinate Systems (currently incorrectly linked to Astronomy)

- Traditional Geometry:

- Modern geometry