Flora of New York/Poaceae 4

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Poaceae 3
Flora of New York — Poales : Poaceae : Pooideae : Poeae
Commelinales, Zingiberales, Ceratophyllales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Tribe Poeae R.Br. (1814) worldwide contains 2776 species in 118 genera. Soreng et al. (1990) identified two plastid clades: Chloroplast Group 1 (Aveneae type) and Chloroplast Group 2 (Poeae type).[1]

Tribe Poeae, Chloroplast Group 1 (Aveneae type)[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Torreyochloinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Torreyochloinae Soreng (2003) contains Amphibromus, and Torreyochloa.[1]

Torreyochloa[edit | edit source]

Torreyochloa pauciflora
Torreyochloa (false mannagrass) has also been treated as a section of Puccinellia (alkali grass). Torreyochloa can be distinguished from similar wetland species of Glyceria and Puccinellia by Torreyochloa's open leaf sheaths, 3-veined upper glumes, and conspicuous veins on its lemmas.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Torreyochloinae — Torreyochloa
Genus Torreyochloa False manna grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Torr.) G.L.Church
var. fernaldii (Hitchc.) Dore

1906. Glyceria pallidavar. fernaldii
1917. Glyceria fernaldii
(Hitchc.) H.St.John
1949. T. fernaldii (Hitchc.) G.L.Church
1964. T. pallidavar. fernaldii
1966. Puccinellia fernaldii
(Hitchc.) E.G.Voss
Fernald's false mannagrass
Glycérie de Fernald
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Torr.) G. L. Church
var. pallida

1819. Windsoria pallida Torr.
1829. Uralepis pallida (Torr.) Kunth
1836. Glyceria pallida (Torr.) Trin.
1891. Panicularia pallida
(Torr.) Kuntze
1949. T. pallida (Torr.) G.L.Church
1952. Puccinellia pallida
(Torr.) R.T.Clausen
Pale false mannagrass,
Pale mannagrass
Glycérie pâle
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

NYFA: 5

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Subtribe Aveninae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Aveninae J. Presl (1830) contains Arrhenatherum, Avellinia, Avena, Gaudinia, Graphephorum, Helictotrichon, Koeleria, Lagurus, Leptophyllochloa, Peyritschia, Rostraria, Sphenopholis, Trisetaria, Tricholemma, and Trisetum.[1] Genera in bold text have been found in New York.

Sphenopholis[edit | edit source]

Sphenopholis pensylvanica

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Sphenopholis
Genus SphenopholisScribn. Wedge scale N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Rydb.) Rydb.

1909. Sphenopholis intermedia Rydb
Slender wedge grass,
Slender wedgescale
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(Biehler) Scribn. (1906)

Shiny wedge grass,
Shiny wedgescale
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(Michx.) Scribn. (1906)

Prairie wedgegrass,
Prairie wedgescale
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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(L.) Hitchc.

1753. Avena pennsylvanica L.
1817. Trisetum pensylvanicumin…
1823. Arrhenatherum pensylvanicumin…
1915. Sphenopholis pennsylvanicain…
Swamp oats ...
Swamp wedgescale ...
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Genus Sphenopholis (excluded taxa) Wedge scale N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Sphenopholis obtusata ×
Sphenopholis pensylvanica

    
    
    
Native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Sphenopholis intermedia × nitida

Sphenopholis intermedia ×
Sphenopholis nitida

    
    
    
Native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Trisetum[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Trisetum
Genus Trisetum Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) K.Richt.

Narrow false oats,
Spike trisetum
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(L.) P.Beauv.

1753. Avena flavescens
1805. Trisetum pratense Pers.
1812. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P.Beauv.
1816. Trisetaria flavescens (L.) Baumg.
Yellow oatgrass,
Yellow oat grass,
Golden oat grass
Avoine dorée,
Avoine jaunâtre
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Graphephorum[edit | edit source]

Graphephorum melicoides

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Graphephorum
Genus Graphephorum False oat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) Desv.

1803. Aira melicoides Michx.
1810. Graphephorum melicoidesin…
1818. Poa melicoides (Michx.) Nutt.
1884. Trisetum melicoides (Michx.) Scribn.
Melic oats ...
Purple false oats ...
False melic ...

Trisèe fausse-mélique ...
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Koeleria[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Koeleria
Genus Koeleria June grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Ledeb.) Schult.

1753. Aira cristata L.
1812. Aira macrantha Ledeb.
1824. K. macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult.
 auct. K. cristatanon Pers. (i)
 auct. K. pyramidata
non (Lam.) P. Beauv.
Junegrass,
Prairie Junegrass
Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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Genus Koeleria (excluded taxa) June grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lam.) P. Beauv.

1791. Poa pyramidata Lam.
1812. K. pyramidata (Lam.) P. Beauv.
    
Misapplied to
  American Junegrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Arrhenatherum[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Arrhenatherum
Genus Arrhenatherum Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) P.Beauv. ex J.Presl & C.Presl
ssp. elatius

Tall oatgrass Introduced,
Naturalized

NYFA: X

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Genus Arrhenatherum (excluded taxa) Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) P.Beauv. ex J.Presl & C.Presl
ssp. bulbosum
(Willd.) Schübl. & G.Martens

1799. Avena bulbosa Willd.
1825. Arrh. elatiusvar. bulbosum
1834. Arrh. elatiusssp. bulbosum
Tall oatgrass Introduced,
No specimens

NYFA: D

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Avena[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Avena
Genus Avena Oat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

    Avena fatua L.
    Avena hybrida
Wild oat Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
Unknown naturalization,
IPA

NYFA: X

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 L.

    Avena sativa L.
    Avena byzantina
    Avena fatua  var. sativa
Common oat,
Cultivated oat
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
IPA

NYFA: X

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Rostraria[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aveninae — Rostraria
Genus Rostraria Hair grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Tzvelev

    Festuca cristata (L.) Tzvelev
    Koeleria gerardii
    Koeleria phleoides
Mediterranean hairgrass Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Phalaridinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Phalaridinae Fr. (1835) contains only the genus Phalaris.[1]

Phalaris[edit | edit source]

Phalaris arundinacea
Two canary grasses, Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass) are common in New York.

The New York Flora Atlas (2021) lists Phalaris arundinacea as native to New York because native genotypes of the grass once occurred in the state. But the Atlas states that the native genotypes are either extirpated or very rare, referring to Jakubowski et al. (2012 & 2014)[1] and Nelson et al. (2014).[2]

Although the New York Flora Atlas only lists Phalaris arundinacea var. picta as a synonym of Phalaris arundinacea, the Catalogue of New World Grasses (2003) lists both P. arundinacea var. arundinacea and P. arundinacea var picta as valid taxa.[3] Because the ornamental var. picta is readily identifiable by its striped leaves, it's doubtful that it has naturalized in New York without being reported. However, it is believed that hardy European races of var. arundinacea have been introduced at various times since early European settlement and have probably hybridized with American races. So, the Phalaris arundinacea species may be considered invasive in New York.[4]


Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Phalaridinae — Phalaris
Genus Phalaris Canary grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. arundinacea

1753. Phalaris arundinacea L.
1969. Phalaroides arundinacea Rauschert
Reed canary grass
Reed canarygrass

Alpiste roseau
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 78%[1],
 USGS: L48 not listed,
SNR, G5,
CP-3[2],
Highly invasive[3]

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid,
Sun

NYFA: 5
GBIF

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 L.
var. picta L.

1753. P. arundinaceavar. picta L.
1852. Phalaris picta (L.) Sloboda
1969. Phalaroides arundinaceassp. japonica
Ornamental canary grass,
Ribbon grass,
Gardener's gaiters
Alpiste ruban,
Ruban de la vierge
Introduced,
Potentially invasive

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid,
Sun

NYFA: 0

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 L.

1753. Phalaris canariensis L.
1794. Phalaris ovata Moench
1796. Phalaris avicularis Salisb.
Annual canary grass,
Common canary grass,
Seed canary grass,
Birdseed grass
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Canary Isands

FACU

Annual,
Graminoid
30 counties
NYFA: X

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Subtribe Anthoxanthinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Anthoxanthinae A. Gray (1856) contains only Anthoxanthum.[1]

Anthoxanthum[edit | edit source]

Anthoxanthum is known variously as sweetgrass, vernalgrass, vanillagrass, or holygrass. The merging of the genus Hierochloe into Anthoxanthum by Schouten and Veldkamp (1985) may be cause for confusion between the native Anthoxanthum nitens (formerly Hierochloe odorata) and the Eurasian Anthoxanthum odoratum. These are two distinct species, and A. nitens appears never to have been considered a sub-taxon of A. odoratum.
Anthoxanthum subg. Hierochloe[edit | edit source]
Anthoxanthum nitens
The grasses of Anthoxanthum subg. Hierochloe are generally known as sweetgrass. Because A. hirtum and A. nitens were previously included together under Hierochloe odorata, the county-level distribution shown here for these two species is likely incorrect. The A. hirtum map is based on the BONAP map, while the A. nitens is based on the NYFA map as of 10-Nov-2016.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Anthoxanthinae — Anthoxanthum subg. Hierochloe
Genus Anthoxanthumsubg. Hierochloe Sweet grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Weber) Y.Schouten & Veldkamp
ssp. nitens

1753. Holcus odoratus L.
1787. Poa nitens Weber
1806. Ho. borealis Schrad. (i)
1812. Hierochloe odorata (L.) P.Beauv.
1817. Hi. borealis
(Schrad.) Roem. & Schult. (i)
1898. Savastana nashii E.P.Bicknell
1914. Hi. nashii (E.P.Bicknell) Kaczmarek
1915. Torresia odorata (L.) Hitchc.
1921. T. nashii (E.P.Bicknell) House
1985. Anthoxanthum nitens
(Weber) Y.Schouten & Veldkamp
Vanilla sweet grass,
Vanilla sweetgrass,
Common sweetgrass,
Vanilla grass,
Holy grass,
Manna grass,
Seneca grass
Hiérochloé odorante,
Hiérochloé odorant,
Avoine odorante,
Foin d'odeur,
Herbe sainte,
Houlque boréale
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Schrank) Y.Schouten & Veldkamp

1789. Savastana hirta Schrank
1830. Hierochloe arctica J.Presl
1900. H. hirta (Schrank) Borbas
1930. H. odoratavar. annulata
1971. H. hirtassp. arctica
1973. H. odoratassp. hirta
1976. H. odoratassp. arctica
1979. H. hirtavar. annulata
1985. Anthoxanthum hirtum
(Schrank) Y.Schouten & Veldkamp
1996. A. hirtumssp. arcticum
[1]
Hairy sweetgrass,
Hairy sweet grass,
Northern sweetgrass,
Northern sweet grass
Hiérochloé hérissée
Native, CoC: 2,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

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(Bigelow) Veldkamp
ssp. monticola

1816. Holcus monticola Bigelow
1817. Dimesia monticola (Bigelow) Raf.
1954. Hierochloe orthantha T.J.Sørensen
1962. Hi. alpinavar. orthantha
1964. Hi. monticola
(Bigelow) Á.Löve & D.Löve (i)
1971. Hi. alpinassp. orthantha
1985. A. monticola (Bigelow) Veldkamp
1996. A. monticolassp. orthanthum
2012. A. monticolassp. monticola
Alpine sweetgrass
Hiérochloé des montagnes
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

NYFA: 1

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  1. When separated into subspecies, A. hirtum ssp. arcticum is the only North American native of the species. The New York Flora Atlas (2016) treats all A. hirtum subspecies as one variable taxon, baed on Allred and Barkworth (2007).
  2. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2024. Online Conservation Guide for Anthoxanthum monticola ssp. monticola. Endangered, S1/GNL.
Anthoxanthum subg. Anthoxanthum[edit | edit source]
Anthoxanthum odoratum
The Old-World Anthoxanthum species found in New York often go by the name vernal grass and appear to be more widespread in the state than the native sweetgrass.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Anthoxanthinae — Anthoxanthum subg. Anthoxanthum
Genus Anthoxanthumsubg. Anthoxanthum Vernal grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Anthoxanthum odoratum L.
1823. A. villosum Dumort.
1873. A. odoratumvar. villosum
1880. Xanthonanthos odoratum
(L.) St.-Lag.
Sweet vernal grass,
Sweet vernalgrass,
Large sweet grass,
Large sweet vernalgrass,
Scented vernal grass
Flouve odorante,
Foin d'odeur
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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 Lag.
var. aristatum (Boiss.) Pérez Lara

1842. Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.
1848. A. puelii Lecoq & Lamotte
1854. A. odoratumvar. puelii
1854. A. odoratumvar. aristatum
1886. A. ovatumvar. aristatum
Vernal grass,
Annual vernalgrass,
Small sweet vernal grass
Flouve aristée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not Naturalized

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Brizinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Brizinae Tzvelev (1968) Airopsis and Briza.[1]

Briza[edit | edit source]

Briza maxima
Quakinggrass (Briza).
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Brizinae — Briza
Genus Briza Quakinggrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Big quakinggrass,
Large quaking grass
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

Perennial quaking grass Introduced

NYFA: X

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Genus Briza (excluded taxa) Quakinggrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Little quakinggrass Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Subtribe Echinopogoninae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Echinopogoninae Soreng (2017) contains Ancistragrostis, Dichelachne, Echinopogon, Pentapogon, Relchela,[1] and Greeneochloa.[2]

Greeneochloa[edit | edit source]

Greeneochloa coarctata
Greeneochloa P.M. Peterson, Soreng, Romasch. & Barberá (2019) was segregated from Calamagrostis based on phylogenetic and morphological differences. It contains type species Greeneochloa coarctata (syn. Calamagrostis coarctata Eaton), which is present in New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Echinopogoninae — Greeneochloa
Genus Greeneochloa Reedgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
P.M. Peterson, Soreng, Romasch. & Barberá

 auct. Calamagrostis cinnoides W.P.C.Barton (i)
1823. Arundo coarctata Torr.
1829. Calamagrostis coarctata (Torr.) Eaton
2019. Greeneochloa coarctatain…
Small reedgrass,
Arctic reedgrass,
Nuttall's reedgrass
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

OBL

NYFA: 4?

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Subtribe Agrostidinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Agrostidinae Fr. (1835) contains about 604 species in 16 genera: Agrostis, Ammophila, Ancistragrostis, Bromidium, Calamagrostis, Chaetopogon, Dichelachne, Echinopogon, Hypseochloa, Gastridium, Lachnagrostis, Limnodea, Pentapogon, Podagrostis, Polypogon, and Triplachne.[1]

Agrostis[edit | edit source]

Agrostis scabra
Bentgrass or simply bent (Agrostis)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Agrostidinae — Agrostis
Genus Agrostis Bentgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Willd.

1797. Agrostis scabra Willd.
1813. Trichodium scabrum (Willd.) Muhl.
1824. Agrostis geminata Trin.
1843. Agrostis scabra  var. tenuis  Tuck.
1843. Agrostis laxiflora  var. scabra  (Willd.) Torr.
1921. Agrostis peckii House
1942. Agrostis scabra  var. geminata  (Trin.) Swallen
1948. Agrostis hyemalis  var. scabra  (Willd.) H.L. Blomq.
1952. Agrostis hyemalis  var. tenuis  (Tuck.) Gleason
Northern tickle grass ...
Rough bentgrass ...

Agrostide scabre ...
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 (Walter)
Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1788. Cornucopiae hyemalis Walter
1888. Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) in…
1888. Agrostis hiemalis orth. var.
1898. Agrostis canina  var. hyemalis  (Walter) Kuntze
1908. Agrostis antecedens E.P.Bicknell
Southern tickle grass ...
Southern hair grass
Winter bent grass ...
Hair grass ...
Tickle grass ...

Agrostide d'hiver ...
Native, CoC: 3,
Likely secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 4-5

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(Walter) Tuck.

    A. altissima (Walter) Tuck.
    A. perennans (Walter) Tuck.
    
Autumn bent,
Upland bent,
Upland bentgrass
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 Trin. (1836)

A. borealis Hartm. (1843)
Northern bent,
Northern bentgrass,
Arctic bentgrass
Agrostide de Mertens
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened,
S2, G5,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
Essex
NYFA: 2

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 L.

    A. caninavar. varians
Velvet bent,
Velvet bentgrass
Agrostide des chiens
Introduced,
N. America native

UPL-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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L.

1753. Agrostis capillaris L.
1794. Agrostis tenuis Sibth.
1796. Agrostis vulgaris With.
1855. Agrostis alba  var. vulgaris  (With.) Coss. & Durieu
    Agrostis stricta
    Agrostis sylvatica
Rhode Island bent,
Rhode Island bentgrass,
Colonial bent,
Colonial bentgrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Naturalized

NYFA: X
GBIF

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 L. (1753)

 auct. A. albanon L.
    A. maritima Lam.
    A. palustris Huds.
Creeping bent,
Creeping bentgrass
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
N. America native

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X5

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Roth

1788. Agrostis gigantea Roth
1796. Agrostis nigra With.
1825. Agrostis alba  var. aristata  Spenn.
1834. Agrostis stolonifera  ssp. gigantea  (Roth) Schübl. & G. Martens
1835. Agrostis stolonifera  var. gigantea  (Roth) Bréb.
Redtop,
Red-top,
Black bentgrass
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 68%[2]

NYFA: X

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Genus Agrostis (excluded taxa) Bentgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Schreb.

1771. Agrostis vinealis Schreb.
    
    
Brown bentgrass Introduced from
 Alaska,
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-00
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Wikispecies

Agrostis mertensii ×
Agrostis scabra

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 northern bent &
 northern tickle-grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies

Agrostis canina ×
Agrostis capillaris

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 velvet bent &
 Rhode Island bent
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Wikispecies

Agrostis gigantea ×
Agrostis stolonifera

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 red-top &
 creeping bent
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Wikispecies

Agrostis capillaris ×
Agrostis gigantea

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 Rhode Island bent &
 red-top
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Wikispecies

Calamagrostis[edit | edit source]

Calamagrostis canadensis
Canada bluejoint grass
Jeffery M. Saarela et al. (2017) showed that two species of Ammophila are nested within separate clades in Calamagrostis s.s., making both Ammophila and Calamagrostis polyphyletic. Merging Ammophila into Calamagrostis was the solution.[1]

Molecular and morphological studies have shown that native eastern North American beechgrass comprises a number of lineages with overlapping characteristics that may be best treated as a single species:[2]

  • Coastal populations (A. breviligulata):
    • Northern Atlantic coast,
    • Southern Atlantic coast,
  • Interior populations (A. champlainensis):
    • Lake Champlain & St. Lawrence River, and
    • Great Lakes.

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Agrostidinae — Calamagrostis
Genus Calamagrostis Reedgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) P. Beauv.
var. canadensis

1812. Calamagrostis canadensisin…
1878. Calamagrostis canadensis
var. canadensis autonym
1878. Calamagrostis canadensis
var. robusta Vasey
Canada bluejoint grass,
Bluejoint,
Blue-joint reedgrass
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(Michx.) P. Beauv.
var. langsdorfii

    
    
    
Bluejoint Native,
Endangered
NYFA: 1 county
NYFA: 1?

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Note: [1]
(Fernald) Saarela

1920. Ammophila breviligulata Fernald
1966. A. champlainensis F. Seym.
2006. A. breviligulata  ssp. champlainensis  (F. Seym.) P.J. Walker, C.A. Paris & Barrington ex Barkworth
2017. Calamagrostis breviligulatain…
2017. C. breviligulata  ssp. champlainensis  (F. Seym.) Saarela
Beech grass ...
American beachgrass
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 A.Gray

    
    
    
Pickering's reedgrass,
Pickering's reed bent-grass
Native,
Rare

NYFA: 3

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 (Timm) Koeler
ssp. inexpansa

    Calamagrostis hyperborea
    Calamagrostis inexpansa
    Calamagrostis lacustris
Northern reedgrass Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2

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 (Timm) Koeler
ssp. stricta

    Calamagrostis neglecta
    
    
Slim-stemmed small-reedgrass Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

NYFA: 1

Images
Wikispecies
 A.Gray
ssp. porteri

    
    
    
Porter's reedgrass Native, CoC: 9,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

NYFA: 1-2

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Wood reed grass Native,
Endangered,
Endemic to NY,
NYNHP: 1[4]

NYFA: 1

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 (L.) Roth

1753. Arundo epigejos L.
1788. Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth
1825. Agrostis epigeios (L.) Raspail
1852. Calamagrostis epigeios  var. georgica  (K. Koch) Griseb. (i)
Feathertop ...
Chee reedgrass ...
Bushgrass ...

Calamagrostide épigéois ...
Calamagrostide commune ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Africa,
Highly invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA, G5
NYFA: 10 counties
iNat: 2 counties
NYFA: X
iNat

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Polypogon[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Agrostidinae — Polypogon
Genus Polypogon Rabbitsfoot grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Kunth (1816)

Ditch beard grass,
Ditch rabbitsfoot grass,
Ditch polypogon
Introduced from
 western N. America,
N. America native,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xm

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(L.) Desf.

1753. Alopecurus monspeliensis L.
1798. P. monspeliensis (L.) Desf.
Annual rabbit's-foot grass,
Annual beard grass,
Rabbit's-foot polypogon
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Naturalization unknown

NYFA: X

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Tribe Poeae, Chloroplast Group 2 (Poeae type)[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Sesleriinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Sesleriinae Parl. (1845) contains 37 species in 5 genera: Mibora, Echinaria, Oreochloa, Sesleria, and Sesleriella.[1]

Mibora[edit | edit source]

Mibora species previously listed have now been excluded from the New York Flora.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Sesleriinae — Mibora
Genus Mibora (excluded taxa) Sand grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Desv.

    Mibora minima (L.) Desv.
Early sandgrass,
Early sand grass
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Waif

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: EXCLUDED

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Subtribe Coleanthinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Coleanthinae Rouy (1913) contains Catabrosa, Catabrosella, Coleanthus, Colpodium, Hyalopoa, Paracolpodium, Phippsia, Puccinellia, Sclerochloa, and Zingeria.[1]

Puccinellia[edit | edit source]

Puccinellia distans
The Puccinellia (alkali grass) species are similar in appearance to the wetland genera Glyceria and Torreyochloa, however, alkali grass is adaptable to saline areas.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Coleanthinae — Puccinellia
Genus PuccinelliaParl. Alkali grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Jacq.) Parl.

    
    
    
European alkaligrass,
Weeping alkaligrass
Introduced

NYFA: X

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(Torr.) E.P. Bicknell

    
    
    
Saltmarsh alkaligrass,
Salt marsh alkaligrass,
Salt marsh goosegrass
Introduced

OBL

NYFA: X

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(With.) Fernald & Weath.

    
    
    
Stiff alkaligrass,
British alkaligrass,
Goosegrass
Introduced

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA:

USDA-X
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Genus Puccinellia (excluded taxa) Alkali grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(J. Presl) Fernald & Weath.

    
    
    
Nootka alkaligrass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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(Schult.) Hitchc.

    
    
    
Nuttall's alkaligrass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Scribn. & Merr.

    P. alaskana Scribn. & Merr.
    P. langeanassp. alaskana
    P. pauperculavar. alaskana
    P. tenellassp. alaskana
    
Alaska goose grass,
Tundra alkaligrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded

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Seaside alkaligrass,
Seaside speargrass
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Sclerochloa[edit | edit source]

Sclerochloa dura
Hardgrass (Sclerochloa P. Beauv.)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Coleanthinae — Sclerochloa
Genus Sclerochloa Hardgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv.

1753. Cynosurus durus L.
1812. Sclerochloa dura (L.) P.Beauv.
    
Fairground grass,
Common hardgrass,
Hard meadowgrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Wool mill waif,
GMW[1]

NYFA: Xm

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  1. Grass Manual on the Web and USDA-NRCS seem to contradict about the North American nativity of Sclerochloa dura.

Subtribe Miliinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Miliinae Dumort. (1829) contains about 5 species in 1 geneus: Milium.[1][2]

Milium[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Miliinae — Milium
Genus Milium Millet grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. cisatlanticum Fernald

1950. M. effusumvar. cisatlanticum
2010. M. effusumssp. cisatlanticum
    
American milletgrass,
Tall millet-grass
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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Genus Milium (excluded taxa) Millet grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.
var. effusum

1753. Milium effusum L.
1783. Agrostis effusa (L.) Lam.
1794. Miliarium effusa (L.) Moench.
1796. Melica effusa (L.) Salisb.
1808. Decandolia effusa (L.) Bastard
Millet grass,
Wood millet
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded

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Subtribe Airinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Airinae Caro (1982) contains about 41 species in 7 genera: Aira, Antinoria, Avenella, Corynephorus, Helictochloa, Molineriella, and Periballia.[1]

Avenella[edit | edit source]

Avenella flexuosa
Hairgrass (Avenella Bluff ex Drejer) contains the native Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drej., which is occasionally still listed as Deschampsia flexuosa(L.) Trin. by some sources.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Airinae — Avenella
Genus Avenella Hairgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Drejer

1753. Aira flexuosa L.
1811. Arundo flexuosa (L.) Clairv.
1823. Avena flexuosa (L.) Mert. & Koch (i)
1836. Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.
1838. Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer
1852. Deschampsia flexuosa  var. montana  (L.) A. & D.Löve
1866. Lerchenfeldia flexuosa (L.) Schur
Common hair grass,
Wavy hair grass,
Crinkled hair grass
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5
GBIF

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Aira[edit | edit source]

Aira caryophyllea
Hairgrass
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Airinae — Aira
Genus Aira Hairgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Aira praecox L.
1796. Agrostis praecox (L.) Salisb.
1824. Trisetum praecox (L.) Dumort.
1913. Aspris praecox (L.) Nash
Early hairgrass,
Yellow hairgrass,
Spike hairgrass,
Early silver hairgrass,
Small hairgrass
Introduced,
 USGS: L48 established,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Graminioid

NYFA: X
GBIF

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 L.
 var. caryophyllea

1753. Aira caryophyllea L.
1780. Avena caryophyllea (L.) Weber
1796. Agrostis caryophyllea (L.) Salisb.
1866. Fussia caryophyllea (L.) Schur
1913. Aspris caryophyllea (L.) Nash
Silver hairgrass,
Silvery hairgrass,
Common silver hairgrass
Canche caryophyllée,
Aira caryophyllé
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n. Africa,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
GBIF

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Genus Aira (excluded taxa) Hairgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. capillaris (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Bluff & Fingerh.

1798. Aira capillaris Savi
1823. Avena capillaris Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
1836. Aira caryophylleavar. capillaris Bluff & Fingerh.
1853. Aira elegantissima Schur
 auct. Aira elegans Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
Delicate hairgrass,
Annual silver hairgrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n. Africa,
No specimens,
GMW

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Corynephorus[edit | edit source]

Corynephorus canescens
Clubawn grass
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Airinae — Corynephorus
Genus Corynephorus Clubawn grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv.

1753. Aira canescens L.
1780. Avena canescens (L.) Weber
1796. Agrostis canescens (L.) Salisb.
1812. Corynephorus canescens (L.) P.Beauv.
1821. Aira variegata St.Amans
Gray clubawn grass,
Gray hairgrass
Introduced from
 Europe, Morocco,
Naturalized,
 USGS: L48 established,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X
GBIF

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Subtribe Aristaveninae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Aristaveninae F.Albers & Butzin (1977) contains only Deschampsia with about 51 species worldwide. Soreng et al. (2015) tentatively placed Deschampsia in subtribe Holcinae,[1] but Soreng et al. (2017) moved it to its own subtribe Aristaveninae.[2]

Deschampsia[edit | edit source]

Deschampsia cespitosa
Hairgrass (Deschampsia)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Aristaveninae — Deschampsia
Genus DeschampsiaP.Beauv. Hairgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) P.Beauv.
ssp. cespitosa

1753. Aira cespitosa L.
1796. Agrostis caespitosa (L.) Salisb.
1812. D. caespitosa (L.) P.Beauv.
1846. D. cespitosa  ssp. glauca  (Hartm.) Hartm.
1861. D. cespitosa  var. parviflora  (Thuill.) Coss. & Germ.
1918. D. cespitosa  var. glauca  (Hartm.) Lindm.
1940. D. anadyrensis V.N.Vassil.
Tufted hairgrass,
Small-flowered ticklegrass,
Tussock grass
Deschampsie cespiteuse,
Canche cespiteuse,
Canche gazonnante
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Trin.) Munro

1830. Aira danthonioides Trin.
1830. D. calycina J. Presl
1857. D. danthonioides (Trin.) Munro
Annual hairgrass Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized

FACW

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Holcinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Holcinae Dumort. (1868) contains about 11 species in 2 genera: Holcus and Vahlodea. Soreng et al. (2015) tentatively placed Deschampsia in subtribe Holcinae,[1] but Soreng et al. (2017) moved it to its own subtribe Aristaveninae.[2]

Vahlodea[edit | edit source]

Poa fendleriana & Vahlodea atropurpurea
Mountain hair grass (Vahlodea atropurpurea) is a circumboreal grass that is probably extirpated from New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Holcinae — Vahlodea
Genus Vahlodea Hair grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Wahlenb.) Fr. ex Hartm.

1812. Aira atropurpurea Wahlenb.
1822. Avena atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Link
1826. Holcus atropurpureus (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb.
1843. Vahlodea atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Fr. ex Hartm.
1844. Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Scheele
1937. Vahlodea latifolia (Hook.) Hultén
Mountain hair grass,
Mountain hairgrass,
Arctic hair grass,
Arctic hairgrass
Deschampsie pourpre
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated,
Impersistent

FACW,
Graminoid

NYFA: Z

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Holcus[edit | edit source]

Holcus lanatus
Velvet grass or soft grass (Holcus) contains two non-native grasses found in New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Airinae — Holcus
Genus Holcus Velvetgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Holcus lanatus L.
1787. Aira holcus-lanata Vill.
1802. Avena lanata (L.) Koeler
1817. Holcus argenteus C. Agardh ex Roem. & Schult.
1912. Notholcus lanatus (L.) Nash ex Hitchc.
1916. Ginannia lanata (L.) F.T.Hubb.
Common velvetgrass,
Fog grass
Holoque laineuse
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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 L.
 ssp. mollis

1759. Holcus mollis L.
1771. Aira mollis (L.) Schreb.
1787. Aira holcus-mollis Vill.
1802. Avena mollis (L.) Koeler (i)
1901. Ginannia mollis (L.) Bubani
1915. Notholcus mollis (L.) Hitchc.
Creeping velvet grass ...
Creeping soft grass ...
Creeping fog ...

Houlque molle
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Cynosurinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Cynosurinae Fr. (1835) contains 10 species in the genus Cynosurus.[1][2]

Cynosurus[edit | edit source]

Cynosurus cristatus
Dogtail grass (Cynosurus) contains two non-native grasses occasionally found in New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Cynosurinae
Genus Cynosurus Dogstail grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Crested dog's tail,
Crested dogtail grass
Crêtelle à crêtes
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

Bristly dogtail grass,
Rough dog's tail
Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Dactylidinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Dactylidinae Stapf (1898) contains 2 species in 2 genera: Dactylis and Lamarckia.[1]

Dactylis[edit | edit source]

Dactylis glomerata
Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) is a very common naturalized grass from Eurasia. It is commonly planted for grazing or for hay, but it can become quite weedy and is listed as a restricted noxious weed in states immediately south of New York (PA, NJ, MD, DE, and VA).
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Dactylidinae — Dactylis
Genus Dactylis Orchard grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Dactylis glomerata L.
1771. Bromus glomeratus (L.) Scop.
1785. Festuca glomerata (L.) All.
1817. Limnetis glomerata (L.) Eaton
1828. D. glomeratavar. detonsa
1838. D. glomeratavar. ciliata
1906. D. glomeratassp. lobata
1911. D. glomeratassp. aschersoniana
Orchard grass,
Orchardgrass,
Cock's foot,
Cock's foot grass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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Subtribe Loliinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Loliinae Dumort. (1829) contains about 700 species in 9 genera: Castellia, Drymochloa, Festuca, Leucopoa, Lolium, Megalachne, Patzkea, Podophorus, and Pseudobromus.[1]

Festuca[edit | edit source]

Festuca subverticillata
Fescue (Festuca L. 1753)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Loliinae — Festuca
Genus Festuca Fescue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Pers.) E. B. Alexeev

1805. Poa subverticillata Pers.
1807. Festuca obtusa Biehler
1980. Festuca subverticillatain…
Nodding fescue Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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var. saximontana

Mountain fescue,
Sheep fescue,
Rocky Mountain fescue
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

NYFA: 1

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(Hack.) R.P. Murray

1882. F. ovina  var. trachyphylla  Hack
1895. Festuca trachyphyllain…
 auct. Festuca ovina  var. duriuscula  (L.) W.D.J.Koch
 auct. Festuca longifolianon Thuill.
1930. Festuca trachyphyllain…
1977. Festuca brevipila R.Tracey
Fétuque dressée,
Fétuque à feuilles scabres,
Hard fescue,
Sheep Fescue
Introduced from
 Europe,
Naturalized

UPL

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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 Pourr.

    Festuca capillata Lam.
    Festuca ovinassp. tenuifolia
    Festuca ovinavar. capillata
    Festuca tenuifolia Sibth.
    
Hair fescue,
Fineleaf sheep fescue,
Fine-leaved sheep fescue
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 60%[2]

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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F. rubra var. heterophylla
Various-leaved fescue Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.
ssp. rubra

    Festuca prolifera (Piper) Fernald
Red fescue,
Prolific fescue
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.
ssp. commutata Gaudin

1786. Festuca nigrescens Lam.
1788. Festuca heteromalla Pourr.
1799. Festuca fallax Thuill.
1828. F. rubrassp. commutata
1881. F. rubravar. fallax
1882. F. rubrassp. fallax
Chewing's fescue,
Varioushair fescue
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Genus Festuca (excluded taxa) Fescue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Schult. & Schult.f.

1823. F. brevifolia R.Br. non Muhl.
1827. F. brachyphylla
Schult. & Schult.f.
1871. F. ovinavar. brevifolia
1906. F. ovinavar. brachyphylla
Alpine fescue,
Rock fescue
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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F. ovina var. hispidula
Sheep fescue Introduced,
Synonym

NYFA: X

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Vulpia[edit | edit source]

Vulpia octoflora
Recent souces, including Soreng et al. (2015) and the New York Flora Atlas (2021) place Vulpia species within Festuca, while many other sources continue to treat them as separate species.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Loliinae — Vulpia
Genus Vulpia Fescue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) Rydb.
var. tenella (Willd.) Fernald

1797. Festuca tenella Willd.
1812. Schedonorus tenellusin…
1840. Vulpia tenella (Willd.) Heynh.
1862. Festuca gracilenta Buckley
1932. Festuca octoflora  var. tenella  (Willd.) Fernald
1932. Festuca octoflora  var. glauca  (Nutt.) Fernald
1945. Vulpia octoflora  var. tenella  (Willd.) Fernald
1945. Vulpia octoflora  var. glauca  (Nutt.) Fernald
Northern six-weeks fescue ...
Eight-flowered six-weeks grass ...
Slender 8-flowered fescue ...
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) C.C.Gmel.

    Festuca megalura
    Festuca myuros
1805. Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C.Gmel.
    Vulpia megalura
Annual fescue,
Rat's-tail six-weeks grass
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Genus Vulpia (excluded taxa) Fescue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (L.) Gray

1753. Festuca bromoides L.
1785. Bromus dertonensis
1821. Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray
1901. Festuca dertonensisin…
1904. Vulpia dertonensis (All.) Gola
1905. Vulpia dertonensis (All.) Volkart
1956. Vulpia dertonensis (All.) Parodi
Brome fescue,
Brome six-weeks grass
Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA-Excluded

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Lolium[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Loliinae — Lolium
Genus Lolium Rye grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lam.

Italian ryegrass,
Ivraie multiflore,
Ray-grass d'Italie
Introduced,
GMW

NYFA: X

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 L.

Ivraie vivace,
Perennial ryegrass,
Ray-grass anglais
Introduced,
GMW

NYFA: X

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Boiss. & Hohen. ex Boiss. (1854)

Lolium dorei B. Boivin
Ivraie de Perse,
Persian darnel,
Persian ryegrass
Introduced,
Impersistent,
GMW

NYFA: Xm

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 L.
ssp. temulentum

Darnel,
Darnel ryegrass,
Ivraie enivrante
Introduced,
GMW

NYFA: X

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Schedonorus[edit | edit source]

Schedonorus arundinaceus
Because the Festuca subgenus Schedonorus seems to be more similar to Lolium than to the rest of Festuca, some sources now treat it as its own genus while others now treat it as a subgenus of Lolium.[1]
  1. Stephen J. Darbyshire (1993). "Realignment of Festuca subg. Schedonorus with the genus Lolium (Poaceae)". Novon. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3 (3): 239–243. JSTOR 3391460.
    Stephen J. Darbyshire. "Schedonorus treatment". Grass Manual on the Web (updated 2009).
    "Schedonorus P. Beauv". Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Current Standing: accepted
    "Schedonorus P. Beauv". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). USDA-ARS. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Probable synonym of: Festuca L. … placed by some in Lolium L.
    "Lolium giganteum (L.) Darbysh". Catalogue of New World Grasses. Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Loliinae — Schedonorus
Genus Schedonorus Fescue, ryegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Huds.) P.Beauv.

 auct. Festuca elatiornon L. (1753)
1762. Festuca pratensis Huds.
1812. Schedonorus pratensis
(Huds.) P.Beauv.
1993. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.
Tall rye grass,
Meadow rye grass,
Meadow fescue
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
SNA, G5

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
present in most counties
NYFA: X

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(Schreb.) Dumort

1753. Festuca elatior L. nom. rej.
1771. Poa phoenix Scop.
1771. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.
1789. Bromus arundinaceus
(Schreb.) Roth
1857. Festuca elatiorvar. arundinacea
1867. Festuca elatiorssp. arundinacea
1824. Schedonorus arundinaceus
(Schreb.) Dumort
1993. Lolium arundinaceum Darbysh.
1998. S. phoenix (Scop.) Holub
Tall rye grass,
Alta fescue,
Tall fescue,
Coarse fescue,
Kentucky fescue,
Reed fescue
Fétuque élevée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 65%[1]

FACU
present in at least 20 counties
NYFA: X
iNat

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 (L.) Holub

1753. Bromus giganteus L.
1787. Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill.
1993. Lolium giganteum (L.) Darbysh.
1998. Schedonorus giganteus (L.) Holub
Giant rye grass,
Giant fescue
Introduced,
Unknown naturalization
Bronx,
Westchester (1882)
NYFA: Xu

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Note: GMW

Subtribe Parapholiinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Parapholiinae Caro (1982) contains about 26 species in 8 genera: Agropyropsis, Catapodium, Cutandia, Desmazeria, Hainardia, Parapholis, Sphenopus, and Vulpiella.[1]

Catapodium[edit | edit source]

Catapodium rigidum
Ferngrass (Catapodium rigidum) was collected from Monroe County but has not been reported to naturalize anywhere in the state.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Parapholiinae — Catapodium
Genus Catapodium Fern grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) C.E. Hubb.
ssp. rigidum

1846. Scleropoa rigida (L.) Griseb.
1952. Desmazeria rigida (L.) Tutin
1953. Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb.
Ferngrass Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Alopecurinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Alopecurinae worldwide contains 3 genera with 47 species. According to Soreng et. al. (2015) the genera of Alopecurinae were included in subtribe Poinae.[1] But Soreng et. al. (2017) retained the separation, placing Alopecurinae in supersubtribe Poodinae within tribe Poeae.[2]

Alopecurus[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Alopecurinae — Alopecurus
Genus Alopecurus Foxtail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Sobol.
var. aequalis

1799. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.
1803. Alopecurus aristulatus Michx.
1823. Alopecurus geniculatusvar. aristulatus
1925. Alopecurus aequalisssp. aequalis
1925. Alopecurus aequalisvar. aequalis
1925. Alopecurus aequalisvar. natans
Shortawn foxtail,
Short-awn foxtail,
Short-awned foxtail,
Short foxtail,
Little meadow foxtail,
Water foxtail
Vulpin à courtes arêtes
Native,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 Walter

    
    
    
Tufted foxtail,
Carolina foxtail,
Carolina meadow foxtail
Introduced,
N. America native,
Weed

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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 L.

    
    
    
Meadow foxtail,
Water foxtail,
Floating foxtail,
Marsh foxtail,
Marsh meadow-foxtail,
Knee-joint foxtail
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Weed

FACW-OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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 Huds.

    
    
    
Slender meadow-foxtail
Vulpin des champs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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 L.

    
    
    
Meadow foxtail,
Field meadow-foxtail
Vulpin des prés
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Beckmanniinae[edit | edit source]

According to Soreng et. al. (2014) Beckmanniinae should be included in subtribe Poinae.[1] But Soreng et. al. (2017) retained the separation, placing Alopecurinae in supersubtribe Poodinae within tribe Poeae.[2]

Beckmannia[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Alopecurinae — Beckmannia
Genus Beckmannia Sloughgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Steud.) Fernald

American sloughgrass Introduced,
N. America native

ITIS
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Wikispecies

Subtribe Phleinae[edit | edit source]

According to Soreng et. al. (2015) Phleinae should be included in subtribe Poinae.[1] But Soreng et. al. (2017) retained the separation, placing Alopecurinae in supersubtribe Poodinae within tribe Poeae.[2]

Phleum[edit | edit source]

Phleum pratense
The genus Phleum contains several grasses commonly called timothy. In New York State, it consists almost entirely of common timothy (Phleum pratense), which probably grows in every county and is listed as moderately invasive.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Phleinae — Phleum
Genus Phleum Timothy N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. pratense

1753. Phleum pratense L.
1778. P. pratense  var. nodosum  (L.) Huds.
1821. P. nodosum  var. pratense  (L.) St.-Amans
1824. P. pratense  ssp. nodosum  (L.) Dumort.
1854. P. intermedium Jord.
1859. P. parnassicum Boiss. (i)
Common timothy ...
Meadow timothy
Timothy ...
Meadow cat's-tail ...

Fléole des près ...
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 64%[1]

FACU

NYFA: X

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 L.

Sand timothy Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Huds. (1762)

Phleum asperum (Retz.) Jacq.
British timothy Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Poinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Poinae Dumort. (1829) contains the genera Agrostopoa, Alopecurus, Aniselytron, Apera, Arctagrostis, Arctophila, Beckmannia, Bellardiochloa, Brizochloa(?), Cinna, Cornucopiae, Cyathopus, Dupontia, Dupontiopsis, Gaudiniopsis, Hookerochloa, Limnas, Nephelochloa, Nicoraepoa, Parvotrisetum, Phleum, Pholiurus, Poa, Pseudophleum, Rhizocephalus, Saxipoa, Simplicia, Sylvipoa, Ventenata.[1]

Poa[edit | edit source]

Poa is the largest genus of grasses and contains over 500 species throughout temperate and boreal regions in both hemispheres. North American Poa species are generally known as bluegrass. The system used here for subgeneric Poa organization is based on Gillespie and Soreng (2005).[1] The subgenera names use here are those proposed in Gillespie et al. (2007).[2]
Poa subg. Arctopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa subg. Arctopoa Grisebach (1971) is here considered equivalent of the ArcSyl clade, made up of subg. Arctopa sections Arctopa and Aphydris, and previous subg. Poa sect. Sylvestris: ( Arctopoa + Sylvestres ). It is considered to be the basal clade of the genus Poa. Subgenus Arctopoa comprises five species in two sections found in seashore and interior wetland habitats of northern, cool temperate regions.
Poa subg. Arctopoa sect. Sylvestres[edit | edit source]
Poa alsodes

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Arctopoa sect. Sylvestres
Genus Poasubg. Arctopoasect. Sylvestres Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 A.Gray

1856. Poa alsodes A.Gray
Grove blue grass ...
Grove bluegrass
Grove meadow grass ...
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure,
S5, G4-5

FAC-FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5
iNat

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 Fernald & Wiegand
ssp. languida (A.S. Hitchc.) A. Haines

    
    Poa debilis Torr.
    Poa saltuensisssp. languida
Weak bluegrass,
Woodland bluegrass,
Oldpasture bluegrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

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 Fernald & Wiegand
ssp. saltuensis

Common weak bluegrass,
Drooping bluegrass,
Oldpasture bluegrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

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 A.Gray

1848. Poa sylvestris A.Gray
Woodland bluegrass,
Forest bluegrass
Pâturin des forêts
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Poa subg. Arctopoa sect. Arctopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa arida

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Arctopoa sect. Arctopoa
Genus Poasubg. Arctopoasect. Arctopoa Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Vasey

1893. Poa arida Vasey
1896. Poa pseudopratensis Scribn. & Rydb.
1899. Poa glaucifolia Scribn. & T.A. Williams
Plains bluegrass Introduced from
 great plains,
N. America native
Ontario (1981)
NYFA: X

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Poa subg. Ochlopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa subg. Ochlopoa (Ascherson & Graebner) Hylander (1953) is here treated as equivalent to the BAPO clade, comprising pervious subg. Poa sections: ( ( Bolbophorum + Alpinae ) ( Parodiochloa + Ochlopoa ) ).
Poa subg. Ochlopoa sect. Micrantherae[edit | edit source]
Poa annua
Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is the only annual species of Poa present outside of cultivation in New York State. It is listed in Randall 2012 as one of the most aggressive weeds invading areas in all continents from sea level up to 4000 ft. in elevation.[1] It is the only alien plant having a successfully established population in maritime Antarctica.[2]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Ochlopoa sect. Micrantherae
Genus Poasubg. Ochlopoasect. Micrantherae Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Poa annua L.
1814. Aira pumila Pursh
1830. Poa aestivalis J. Presl
1891. Poa annua  var. reptans  Hausskn.
2003. Ochlopoa annua (L.) H. Scholz
Annual blue grass ...
Annual bluegrass
Annual meadow grass
Annual meadowgrass ...
Speargrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Widespread weed,
Naturalized

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X
iNat

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BONAP
CABI
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Genus  (excluded taxa) Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY /NPT
 Scribn.

1894. Poa chapmaniana Scribn.
Chapman bluegrass,
Chapman's bluegrass
Introduced from
 southeast US,
N. America native,
Excluded

Annual,
Graminoid
excluded
NYFA-Excluded
iNat

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Poa subg. Ochlopoa sect. Arenariae[edit | edit source]
Poa bulbosa
Bulbous bluegrass (Poa bulbosa)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Ochlopoa sect. Arenariae
Genus Poasubg. Ochlopoasect. Arenariae Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. vivipara (Koeler) Arcang.

1799. Poa crispa Thuill.
1802. Poa bulbosa  var. vivipara  Koeler
1882. Poa bulbosa  ssp. vivipara  (Koeler) Arcang.
1915. Paneion bulbosum  var. viviparum  (Koeler) Lunell
1955. Poa bulbosa  f. vivipara  (Koeler) Maire
1972. Poa bulbosa  ssp. crispa  (Thuill.) Tzvelev
Bulbous blue grass
Bulbous bluegrass
Viviparous bulbous bluegrass ...
Bulbous meadow-grass

Pâturin vivipare ...
Pâturin bulbeux vivipare ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Somewhat invasive,
 NYIS: 49%[1]

Perennial,
Graminoid
Albany, Bronx, Broome, Kings, Nassau, Queens, Saratoga, Suffolk, Tompkins, Westchester
NYFA: Xn

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Genus  (excluded taxa) Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY /NPT
L.
ssp. bulbosa

1753. Poa bulbosa L.
1802. Poa bulbosa  var. bulbosa
1882. Poa bulbosa  ssp. bulbosa
Bulbous bluegrass Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Graminoid
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

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Poa subg. Stenopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa subg. Stenopoa (Dumortier) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, Aliso (2006) is here considered to be equivalent to the SPOSTA clade, made up of members of sections:

( Secundae ( Pandemos ( Oreinos + Stenopoa + Tichopoa + Abbreviatae ) ) ).


Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Stenopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa palustris

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Stenopoa
Genus Poasubg. Stenopasect. Stenopoa Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1759. Poa palustris L.
Fowl bluegrass,
Meadowgrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
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ssp. glauca

Glaucous bluegrass Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 2

Images
Wikispecies
 Rydb.

Inland bluegrass Native,
No recent reports,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Poa nemoralis L.
1753. Agrostis alba L.
1808. Poa glaucantha Schleich. ex Gaudin
1915. Agrestis alba  (L.) Lunell
1915. Paneion nemorale (L.) Lunell
Woodland bluegrass,
Woods bluegrass,
Wood bluegrass
Introduced

NYFA: Xn

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Genus Poasubg. Stenopa (excluded taxa) Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Haenke
ssp. laxa

    
    
    
Mt. Washington bluegrass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
Haenke

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 gaucous bluegrass &
 Mt. Washington bluegrass
Native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Oreinos[edit | edit source]
Poa laxa

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Oreinos
Genus Poasubg. Stenopasect. Oreinos Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Haenke
ssp. fernaldiana (Nannf.) Hyl.

1935. Poa fernaldiana Nannf.
1953. Poa laxassp. fernaldiana Hyl.
1964. Poa flexuosassp. fernaldiana
Á. Löve & D. Löve
Fernald's bluegrass Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Essex (1890-1990)
NYFA: 1

USDA-NN
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Slender marsh bluegrass,
Bog bluegrass
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Pandemos[edit | edit source]
Poa trivialis
Rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Pandemos
Genus Poasubg. Stenopasect. Pandemos Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. trivialis

1753. Poa trivialis L.
1854. Poa attica Boiss. & Heldr.
Rough bluegrass,
Rough-sheathed bluegrass,
Rough-stalk bluegrass,
Rough-stalk meadow grass,
Scribner bluegrass,
Scribner's bluegrass
Introduced from
 Europe,
Widespread weed,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Tichopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa compressa

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Stenopoa sect. Tichopoa
Genus Poasubg. Stenopasect. Tichopoa Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Poa compressa L.
    
    
Flat-stemmed blue grass ...
Canada blue grass ...
Canada bluegrass ...
Flattened meadow grass ...
Wiry bluegrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 69%[1],
CP-2[2]

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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Poa subg. Poa[edit | edit source]
The Poa subgenus is here considered to be composed of the HAMBADD clade (supersect. Homalopoa) and the PoM clade (supersect. Poa).
Poa subg. Poa sect. Homalopoa[edit | edit source]
Poa pratensis

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Poa
Genus Poasect. Homalopoa Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Poa brachyphylla
Early bluegrass Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S1, G5

Perennial,
Graminoid
Monroe (2013),
New York (1897),
Richmond, Yates
NYFA: 1

USDA-N0
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 Vill.

Chaiz bluegrass,
Broadleaf bluegrass
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Poa subg. Poa sect. Poa[edit | edit source]
Poa pratensis
Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is listed as invasive in New York State [1] North American sources treat Poa pratensis ssp. angustifolia as a subspecies,[2] European sources appear to have reverted to treating these two taxa a distinct species.[3]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Poa subg. Poa
Genus Poasect. Poa Bluegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
 ssp. pratensis

1753. Poa pratensis L.
1800. Poa pratensis  var. pratensis
1828. Poa pratensis  ssp. pratensis
1915. Paneion pratense (L.) Lunell
1938. Poa peckii Chase
Common Kentucky bluegrass ...
Kentucky bluegrass ...
Smooth meadow grass ...
Smooth meadow-grass ...

Pâturin des prés ...
Wiesenrispengras ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n.Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 68%[1],
SNA, G5

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X
iNat
GBIF

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POWO
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 L.

1753. Poa angustifolia L.
1800. Poa pratensis  var. angustifolia  Sm.
1828. Poa pratensis  ssp. angustifolia  (L) Lej.
1882. Poa pratensis  ssp. angustifolia  (L.) Arcang.**
Narrow-leaved Kentucky blue grass ...
Narrow-leaf meadow grass ...

Schmalblättriges Rispengras ...
Smalgröe ...
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized,
SNA

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X
iNat
GBIF

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Cinna[edit | edit source]

Cinna latifolia
According to Soreng et. al. (2014)[1] Cinna should be included in Poinae.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Cinna
Genus Cinna Wood reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Cinna arundinacea L.
Stout woodreed ...
Sweet woodreed ...
Sweet wood-reed ...
Wood reedgrass
Wood-reed ...
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 (Trevir. ex Göpp.) Griseb.

1830. Agrostis latifolia Trevir. ex Göpp.
1832. Muhlenbergia pendula Trin.
1841. Cinna pendula Trin.
1852. Cinna latifolia (Trevir. ex Göpp.) Griseb.
1856. Cinna arundinacea  var. pendula  (Trin.) A. Gray
Drooping woodreed
Drooping wood-reed ...
Slender wood reedgrass
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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Apera[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Apera
Genus Apera Silky bent N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv.

    Agrostis interrupta
    Apera interrupta P.Beauv.
Dense silky bentgrass,
Interrupted windgrass
Introduced,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR
Delaware, Lewis
NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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Silky bentgrass,
Loose silkybent,
Common windgrass
Introduced,
Unk. naturalization,
SNA, GNR
Bronx, New York, Rensselaer
NYFA: Xun

USDA-XX
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Ventenata[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Poeae — Poinae — Ventenata
Genus VentenataKöhler (excluded taxa) North Africa grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Leers) Coss.

1775. Avena dubia Leers
1802. Ventenata avenacea Koeler
1855. Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.
1855. Ventenata dubia (Leers) Durieu
1912. Heteranthus dubius (Leers) Thell.
North Africa grass Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
N.Y. excluded

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded

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