Flora of New York/Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae

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Asparagales (3)
Ammaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae
Flora of New York — Poales (1)
Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae

Poales (2)
Juncaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Family Typhaceae[edit]

The Typhaceae (cattail family) contains the genus Typha, which was the sole genus until the APG III system added the genus Sparganium (bur-reeds) in 2009 by merging the similar family Sparganiaceae into Typhaceae.

Genus Typha[edit]

Cattails, Typha spp., are wetland plants that are native to much of the world. Broad-leaved cattails (T. latifolia) are considered to be North American natives, while the native status of narrow-leaved cattails (T. angustifolia) in North America is in question.[1] In either case it is thought that narrowleaf cattails were introduced to most of inland New York from coastal regions, with the possible exception of central New York's inland salt marshes,[2] where some think that T. angustifolia may be native.[3]

The first record of T. angustifolia in North America is from northeast coastal regions in 1820, and it appears to have remained along the coast for the remainder of the 19th century. But by the end of the 20th century, it had migrated to the west coast, and as far south as Arkansas. Along its path, it seems to have preferred "early successional habitats with basic, calcareous, or somewhat salty soils."[4] It is thought that ditches along salted roadways may have helped facilitate the migration from coastal marshes.[5]

Typhaceaegenus Typha
Typha Cat-tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Typha latifolia  L.
1808. Typha elatior  Raf. nom. illeg.
1832. Typha crassa  Raf.
1900. T. latifolia ssp. eulatifolia Graebn.
1940. T. latifolia var. typica Rothm.
Broad-leaved cattail,
Common cattail

Quenouille à feuilles larges,
Massette à larges feuilles,
Typha à feuilles larges
Native,
Secure

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Girona 009.JPG
Typha latifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Typha angustifolia  L.
1949. Typha foveolata  Pobed.
1972. Typha pontica
   V.M.Klokov & Krasnova
Narrow-leaved cattail

Quenouille à feuilles étroites,
Massette à feuilles étroites,
Typha à feuilles étroites
Native,
Introduced

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Typha angustifolia.jpeg
Typha angustifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-MN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
 Godr. (pro sp.)

Typha angustifolia ×
Typha latifolia

1844. Typha glauca  Godr.
1886. T. latifolia var. elongata Dudley
1924. T. angustifolia var. elongata Wiegand
Blue cattail,
Hybrid of
 narrow-leaved cattail &
 broad-leaved cattail

Quenouille glauque
Introduced,
Invasive

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Typha angustifolia3.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngTypha latifolia 7831.jpg
Typha × glauca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Genus Sparganium[edit]

Bur-reeds (Sparganium) were previously included alone in the family Sparganiaceae. They are perrenial aquatic plants that grow in shallow ponds, streams, and marshes.

Typhaceaegenus Sparganium
Sparganium Bur-reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 7
Nutt. (1818)
American bur-reed,
American burreed

Rubanier d’Amérique
Native,
Secure
Sparganium americanum NRCS-2.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngBB-0163 Sparganium americanum.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp
Unbranched bur-reed Native,
Secure
Sparganium.emersum.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngSparganiumEmersum.jpg
Nymap.svg






Images, wsp
Large bur-reed,
Giant burreed
Native,
Secure
Sparganium eurycarpum 5474907.jpg
Nymap.svg






Images, wsp
(Engelm.) Morong (1888)

S. lucidum Fernald & Eames
Branching bur-reed,
Branched burreed

Rubanier rameux
Native,
Vulnerable
BB-0162 Sparganium androcladum.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngBB-0164 Sparganium lucidum.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN

ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp
Michx. (1803)

S. multipedunculatum
S. emersum var. angustifolium
S. emersum var. multipedunculatum
Narrowleaf bur-reed,
Narrow-leaved bur-reed,
Floating bur-reed

Rubanier à feuilles étroites
Native,
Vulnerable
BB-0170 Sparganium angustifolium.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngSparganium angustifolium2.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN

ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp
Floating bur-reed Native,
Vulnerable
Sparganium fluctuans 5499164.jpg
Nymap.svg






Images, wsp
Small bur-reed Native,
Threatened
Nymap.svg






Images, wsp

Family Eriocaulaceae[edit]

The Eriocaulaceae (pipewort family).[1]

Subfamily Eriocauloideae[edit]

Genus Eriocaulon[edit]

Eriocaulaceaesubfam. Eriocauloideaegenus Eriocaulon
Eriocaulon Pipewort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (Hill) Druce

1769. Cespa aquatica  Hill
1776. Eriocaulon septangulare  With.
1778. Nasmythia articulata  Hudson
1803. Eriocaulon pellucidum  Michx.
1833. Eriocaulon pumilum  Raf.
1835. Nasmythia septangularis  Mart.
1891. Eriocaulon articulatum  Morong
1909. Eriocaulon aquaticum  Druce
Sevenangle pipewort,
Seven-angled pipewort

Ériocaulon aquatique
Native,
Secure

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Eriocaulon aquaticum 6884.jpg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 B.L.Rob. 1903
Parker's pipewort,
Estuary pipewort

Ériocaulon de Parker
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
NYFA-Xm
USDA-NN

ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp
  1. Eriocaulaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Family Xyridaceae[edit]

The Xyridaceae (yellow-eyed grass family).[1]

Subfamily Xyridoideae[edit]

Genus Xyris[edit]

Xyridaceaesubfam. Xyridoideaegenus Xyris
Xyris Yellow-eyed grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Ries (1892)
Northern yelloweyed grass,
Northern yellow-eyed grass

Xyris de montagne
Native,
Secure
Xyris montana BB-1913.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN


FNA 


Images, wsp
 Chapm. (1860)
var. difformis

Xyris elata Chapman
Bog yellow-eyed grass,
Carolina yellow-eyed grass,
Southern yellow-eyed grass

Xyris difforme
Native,
Likely secure
Xyris difformis NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngXyris difformis NRCS-2.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN


FNA 


Images, wsp
 Smith (1819)

Kotsjelottia flexuosa
Xyris bulbosa
Twisted yellow-eyed-grass Native,
Vulnerable
NYFA-3-4
USDA-N0


FNA 


Images, wsp
 Nash (1895)

X. caroliniana var. olneyi
X. congdonii Small
Small's yellow-eyed grass Native,
Threatened
Xyris smalliana.jpg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0


FNA 


Images, wsp
 E.P.Bicknell
ex L.M.Campb. (2011)
Bog yelloweyed grass Native,
No recent reports
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN




Note [2]
Images, wsp
  1. Xyridaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. NYFA includes Xyris bracteicaulis as a newly described species, but NRCS lists it as a synonym of Xyris difformis.