Flora of New York/Orchidaceae & Hypoxidaceae

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Dioscoreales & Liliales
Flora of New York — Asparagales (1)
Orchidaceae & Hypoxidaceae

Asparagales (2)
Iridaceae & Asphodelaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
lilioid
monocots
Dioscoreales Nartheciaceae Aletris colic root 1
Narthecium asphodel X
Dioscoreaceae Dioscoreoideae Dioscorea yam 2
Liliales Colchicaceae Uvularieae Uvularia bellwort 4
Colchiceae Colchium autumn crocus X
Melanthiaceae Melanthieae Melanthium bunchflower 2
Veratrum false hellebore 1
Anticlea death camas 1
Amianthium fly poison 1
Stenanthium featherbells 6
Heloniadeae Helonias swamp pink 1
Chionographideae Chamaelirium fairywand, devil's bit 1
Parideae Trillium trillium, wake-robin 7
Smilacaceae Smilax greenbrier 7
Liliaceae Calochortoideae Streptopus twisted stalk 2
Prosartes fairy bells 1
Medeoloideae Clintonia bluebead 1
Medeola Indian cucumber 2
Lilioideae Tulipeae Tulipa wild tulip 1
Lilieae Erythronium trout lily 2
Lilium lily 6
Asparagales Orchidaceae Vanilloideae Pogonieae Pogonia snakemouth orchid 3
Isotria fiveleaf orchid 3
Cypripedioideae Cypripedium lady's slipper 7
Epidendroideae Neottieae Epipactis helleborine 2
Neottia twayblade 4
Triphoreae Triphora noddingcaps 1
Arethuseae Arethusa dragon's mouth 2
Malaxideae Liparis widelip-orchid 2
Malaxis adder's-mouth-orchid 3
Maxillarieae Corallorhiza coralroot 6
Aplectrum Adam and Eve 1
Calypsoeae Calypso fairy slipper 1
Tipularia cranefly orchid 1
Orchidoideae Orchideae Amerorchis roundleaf orchis 1
Coeloglossum frog-orchid 1
Galearis galearis 1
Platanthera fringed-orchid 18
Cranichideae Goodyera rattlesnake-plantain 3
Spiranthes ladies'-tresses 14
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis eastern yellow stargrass 1
Iridaceae Iridoideae Irideae Iris iris 10
Sisyrinchieae Sisyrinchium blue-eyed grass 7
Crocoideae Ixiae Crocus crocus 4
Asphodelaceae Hemerocallidoieae Hemerocallideae Hemerocallis daylily 2
Amaryllidaceae Allioideae Allieae Allium garlic, onion, leek, chives 14
Amaryllidoideae Narcisseae Narcissus daffodil 4
Galantheae Galanthus snowdrop 2
Leucojum snowflake 1
Asparagaceae Scilloideae Ornithogaleae Ornithogalum star-of-Bethlehem 2
Hyacintheae Chionodoxa glory of the snow 1
Hyacinthoides English-bluebell 2
Muscari grape-hyacinth 1
Scilla squill 1
Agavoideae Agaveae Yucca Adam's needle 1
Hosta plantain lily 4
Camassia Atlantic camas 0
Asparagoideae Asparagus asparagus 1
Nolinoideae Convallarieae Convallaria lily-of-the-valley 2
Polygonateae Maianthemum mayflower 4
Polygonatum Solomon's-seal 3
The classification scheme used here for the order Asparagales is from P.F. Stevens, (2001-2015). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, April 2015. - University of Missouri, St Louis, and Missouri Botanical Garden.

Family Orchidaceae[edit | edit source]

The Orchidaceae (orchid family) has about 20 genera with close to 70 taxa growing outside of cultivation in New York.[1]
  1. Orchidaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Vanilloideae[edit | edit source]

The Vanilloideae ...

Tribe Pogonieae[edit | edit source]

Pogonia[edit | edit source]
Pogonia ophioglossoides
rose pogonia

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Vanilloideae — Pogonieae
Pogonia Pogonia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Ker Gawl.

1753. Arethusa ophioglossoides L.
1816. Pogonia ophioglossoides Ker Gawl.
1921. Pogonia ophioglossoides
var. brachypogon Fernald
Rose pogonia,
Snakemouth orchid,
Snake-mouth orchid
Pogonie langue-de-serpent,
Pogonie à langue de serpent
Native,
Likely secure,
CITES II

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Pogonia ophioglossoides Orchi 01.jpg
Pogonia ophioglossoides NY-dist-map.png
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Isotria[edit | edit source]
Isotria verticillata
large whorled pogonia

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Vanilloideae — Pogonieae
IsotriaRaf. (1808) Fiveleaf orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Raf.

1805. Arethusa verticillata Muhl. ex Willd.
1808. Isotria verticillata Raf.
1818. Pogonia verticillata Nutt.
Large whorled pogonia,
Large whorled pogonia orchid,
Purple five-leaved orchid,
Purple fiveleaf orchid
Isotrie verticillée,
Grande pogonie verticillée
Native,
Vulnerable,
DEC-D[1],
CITES II
Isotria verticillata USFWS-1.jpg
Isotria verticillata NY-dist-map.png
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 (Pursh) Raf.

    Arethusa medeoloides
    Pogonia affinis
    Isotria medeoloides
Small whorled pogonia
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[2]
Isotria medeoloides (16977598144).jpg
Isotria medeoloides NY-dist-map.png
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Subfamily Cypripedioideae[edit | edit source]

The Cypripedioideae consists of the lady's slipper orchids.

Cypripedium[edit | edit source]

Cypripedium subg. Cypripedium[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Cypripedioideae — Cypripedium subg. Cypripedium
Cypripediumsubg. Cypripediumsect. Acaulia Lady's-slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Aiton

1789. Cypripedium acaule Aiton
1789. Fissipes acaulis (Aiton) Small
Pink lady's-slipper,
Moccasin flower,
Stemless lady’s-slipper
Cypripède acaule,
Cypripède rose,
Sabot de la Vierge
Native, C:5,
Likely secure

FACW
Pink Lady's Slipper 3.jpg
Cypripedium acaule nymap.svg
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Cypripediumsubg. Cypripediumsect. Cypripedium Lady's-slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Salisb.
var. makasin (Farw.) Sheviak

1918. C. pubescens var. makasin
1993. C. parviflorum var. makasin
Northern yellow lady's slipper,
Greater yellow lady's slipper,
Small yellow lady's slipper
Cypripède mocassin
Native,
Likely secure
Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin Orchi 156-1.jpg
Cypripedium parviflorum var makasin nymap.svg
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 Salisb.
var. pubescens (Willd.) O.W.Knight

1804. Cypripedium pubescens Willd.
1906. C. parviflorum var. pubescens
1938. C. calceolus var. pubescens
Greater yellow lady's slipper,
Large yellow lady's slipper
Cypripède pubescent,
Cypripède jaune
  variété à pétales plats
Native,
Vulnerable
Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens Orchi 015a.jpg
Cypripedium parviflorum var pubescens nymap.svg
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 Salisb.
var. parviflorum

1791. Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb.
1946. C. calceolus var. parviflorum
1968. C. calceolus ssp. parviflorum
Small yellow lady's-slipper Native,
Endangered
Cypripedium parviflorum Orchi 014.jpg
Cypripedium parviflorum var parviflorum nymap.svg
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Muhl. ex Willd.

Small white lady's slipper,
White lady's slipper
Native,
Endangered
Small white lady's slipper (Cypripedium candidum) (8915907256).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Cypripediumsubg. Cypripediumsect. Cypripedium (excluded taxa) Lady's-slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Cypripedium calceolus L.
    
    
Eurasian lady's-slipper Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
Klump.ziedas1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
Kew 
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Cypripediumsubg. Cypripediumsect. Arietinum Lady's-slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 R.Br.

1813. Cypripedium arietinum R.Br.
1905. Criosanthes arietina (R.Br.) House
Ram's head lady's slipper,
Ram's head
Cypripède tête-de-bélier
Native,
Threatened
Cypripedium arietinum - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Cypripedium subg. Irapeana[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Cypripedioideae — Cypripedium subg. Irapeana
Cypripediumsubg. Irapeanasect. Obtusiflora Lady's-slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter

    
    
    
Showy lady's-slipper,
Pink-and-white lady's-slipper,
Queen's lady's-slipper
Cypripède royal
Native,
Vulnerable

FACW
Cypripedium reginae Orchi 2012-05-30 004.jpg
Cypripedium reginae nymap.svg
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Subfamily Epidendroideae[edit | edit source]

The Epidendroideae.

Tribe Neottieae[edit | edit source]

Neottia[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Neottieae — Neottia
NeottiaGuett. (1750) Twayblade N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Rich.

1753. Ophrys cordata L.
1813. Listera cordata (L.) R.Br.
1818. Neottia cordata (L.) Rich.
1825. Distomaea cordata (L.) Spenner
1867. Pollinirhiza cordata (L.) Dulac
1891. Diphryllum cordatum (L.) Kuntze
Broadlipped twayblade,
Heart-leaved twayblade
Listère à feuilles cordées,
Listère à feuilles en coeur
Native,
Vulnerable
Listera cordata - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (Raf.) Baumbach

1840. Listera australis Lindl.
1852. Neottia australis (Lindl.) Rchb.f.
1891. Diphryllum australe Kuntze
1905. Ophrys australis (Lindl.) House
1913. Bifolium australe (Lindl.) Nieuwl.
2009. Neottia bifolia (Raf.) Baumbach
Southern twayblade
Listère australe
Native,
Endangered
Neottia bifolia (as Ophrys australis) BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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(Wiegand) Szlach.

1899. Listera auriculata Wiegand
1905. Ophrys auriculata House
1913. Bifolium auriculatum Nieuwl.
1995. Neottia auriculata Szlach.
Auricled twayblade
Listère auriculée
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Neottia auriculata (as Ophrys auriculata) BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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(Sw.) Rich.

1800. Epipactis convallarioides Sw.
1817. Neottia convallarioides Rich.
1818. Listera convallarioides Nutt.
1823. L. convallarioides Nutt. ex Elliott
1905. Ophrys convallarioides
W.Wight ex House
1828. L. eschscholziana
Cham. & Schltdl.
1840. Neottia eschscholziana Steud.
Broad-leaved twayblade,
Broad-lip twayblade
Listère faux-muguet
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Neottia convallarioides USDA-FS1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Neottia (excluded taxa) Twayblade N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Case) Baumbach

Neottia auriculata ×
Neottia convallarioides

1964. Listera × veltmanii Case
2009. Neottia × veltmanii  Baumbach
Veltman's twayblade,
Veltman's listera,
Hybrid of
 Auricled twayblade &
 Broad-leaved twayblade
Listère de Veltman
Native,
No reports

Perennial
Nymap.svg

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Epipactis[edit | edit source]
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
helleborine, weed orchid

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Neottieae — Epipactis
Epipactis Helleborine N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Crantz

Broad-leaved helleborine,
Eastern helleborine,
Helleborine,
Weed orchid
Introduced Helleborine orchid (Epipactis helleborine) - Flickr - Jay Sturner.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Crantz

Marsh orchid Introduced,
Impersistent
Epipactis palustris 230705b.jpg
Nymap.svg
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USDA-00
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Tribe Triphoreae[edit | edit source]

Triphora[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Triphoreae — Triphora
Triphora Noddingcaps N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. trianthophora

Nodding pogonia,
Threebirds
Native,
Threatened
Triphora trianthophora - N.L.Britton, Man. Fl. N. States.jpg
Triphora trianthophora ssp trianthophora NY-dist-map.png
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Tribe Arethuseae[edit | edit source]

Calopogon[edit | edit source]
Calopogon tuberosus
grass pink

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Arethuseae — Calopogon
Calopogon Grass pink N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
var. tuberosus

1753. Limodorum tuberosum L.
1796. Limodorum pulchellum Salisb.
1813. Calopogon pulchellus R.Br.
1888. Calopogon tuberosus BSP
Grass pink,
Tuberous grass-pink,
Swamp pink
Calopogon tubéreux,,
Calopogon gracieux
Native,
Likely secure

FACW-OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Grass Pink Orchid, (1), NPSPhoto, S (9099846407).jpg
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Arethusa[edit | edit source]

Arethusa is currently a monotypic species.

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Arethuseae — Arethusa
Arethusa Dragon's mouth N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Arethusa bulbosa L.
Dragon's mouth,
Swamp pink
Aréthuse bulbeuse
Native,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Arethusa bulbosa, Waterloo, Mich.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Tribe Malaxideae[edit | edit source]

Liparis[edit | edit source]
Liparis loeselii
The wide-lip orchids (Liparis) comprise about 350 species worldwide, out of which only a few are native to North America, including the two New York natives Loesel's twayblade (Liparis loeselii) and the endangered lily-leaved twayblade (Liparis liliifolia).
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Malaxideae — Liparis
Liparis Wide-lip orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Rich.

1753. Ophrys loeselii L.
1815. Malaxis correana W.P.C.Barton
1817. Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich.
Loesel's twayblade
Fen orchid
Fen orchis
Bog twayblade
Yellow wide-lip orchid

Liparis de Loesel
Liparide de Loesel
Native, C:8,
Likely secure,
S4, G5

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Liparis loeselli PID1306-6.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Rich. ex Lindl.

1753. Ophrys liliifolia L.
1800. Malaxis liliifolia Sw.
1825. Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich.
Lily-leaved twayblade
Brown widelip orchid
Purple twayblade
Large twayblade
Mauve sleekwort

Liparis à feuilles de lis
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
S1, G5,
NYNHP: 1[1]

FACU

Perennial[2],
Herb-forb
Liparis liliifolia - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
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Malaxis[edit | edit source]
Malaxis monophyllos
adder’s-mouth leaf

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Malaxideae — Malaxis
MalaxisSol. ex Sw. (1788) Adder's-mouth orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Malaxis unifolia Michx.
1808. Achroanthes unifolia (Michx.) Raf.
1888. Microstylis unifolia
(Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
Green adder's-mouth
Malaxis unifolié
Native, C:8,
Likely secure
Malaxis unifolia (as Microstylis ophioglossoides) - Edwards vol 15 pl 1290 (1829).jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Sw.
var. brachypoda
(A.Gray) F. Morris & E.A.Eames

1833. Microstylis brachypoda A. Gray
1926. Malaxis brachypoda (A. Gray) Fernald
1929. Malaxis monophyllos var. brachypoda
1969. Malaxis monophyllos ssp. brachypoda
2006. Microstylis monophyllos ssp. brachypoda
North American
  white adder’s-mouth,
White adder's-mouth orchid
Native, C:10,
Likely secure
Malaxis monophyllos var brachypoda 4-eheep (5097457051).jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Fernald

1936. Malaxis bayardii Fernald
Bayard's adder's-mouth orchid,
Appalachian
  adder's-mouth orchid,
Bayard’s malaxis
Malaxis de Bayard
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Nymap.svg
Albany, Orange, Richmond, Suffolk
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Malaxis (excluded taxa) Adder's-mouth orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Sw.
var. monophyllos

1753. Ophrys monophyllos L.
1800. Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.
1828. Malaxis diphyllos Cham.
1830. Microstylis monophyllos
(L.) Lindl.
1891. Achroanthes monophylla
(L.) Greene
1975. Malaxis monophyllos
var. diphyllos (Cham.) Luer
Aleutian adder's-mouth orchid,
Eurasian white adder’s-mouth
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Alaska,
 BC,
N.Y. excluded
Malaxis monophyllos - flora 02.jpg
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Tribe Maxillarieae[edit | edit source]

Corallorhiza[edit | edit source]
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
spotted coralroot
Corallorhiza (coralroot) species are leafless, rootless, mycotrophic orchids.
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Maxillarieae — Corallorhiza
Corallorhiza Coral root N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Raf.) Raf.
var. maculata

1817. Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf.
1823. Corallorhiza multiflora Nutt.
Spotted coralroot,
Summer coralroot
Corallorhize maculée
Native, C:8,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Corallorhiza maculata 0897.JPG
Nymap.svg
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 (Raf.) Raf.
var. occidentalis (Lindl.) Ames

1840. C. multiflora var. occidentalis
1916. C. maculata ssp. occidentalis
1924. C. maculata var. occidentalis
Early spotted coralroot
Summer coralroot
Native, C:10,
Unranked

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Corallorhiza maculata 0905.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Châtel.

1753. Ophrys corallorhiza L.
1760. Corallorhiza trifida Châtel.
1813. Corallorhiza innata R.Br.
1881. C. corallorhiza (L.) H.Karst.
1892. C. corallorhiza (L.) MacMill.
Early coralroot,
Northern coral-root
Native,
Likely secure
Corallorhiza trifida 1996.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Willd.) Poir.
var. odontorhiza

Autumn coralroot Native,
Likely secure
Corallorhiza odontorhiza (37514331044).jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Willd.) Poir.
var. pringlei

Pringle's coralroot,
Pringle's autumn coralroot
Native,
No recent reports
Corallorhiza odontorhiza (15868563507).jpg
Nymap.svg
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var. striata

Striped coral-root Native,
Endangered
Striped Coral Root (2543627137).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Aplectrum[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Maxillarieae — Aplectrum
Aplectrum Adam and Eve N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt. (1818)

Cymbidium hyemale Muhl. ex Willd.
Adam and Eve,
Putty root
Native,
Endangered
Putty root stem aplectrum hyemale with yellow and purple orchid blooms.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Tribe Calypsoeae[edit | edit source]

Calypso[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Calypsoeae — Calypso
Calypso Fairy slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Oakes
var. americana (R.Br.) Luer

    Cytherea bulbosa (L.) House p.p.
    
    
Fairy slipper Native, C:10,
Endangered,
No recent reports

FACW

Perenial,
Herb-forb
Calypso bulbosa 5496.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Calypso (excluded taxa) Fairy slipper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Oakes
var. bulbosa

    
    
    
Fairy slipper Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

Perenial,
Herb-forb
Calypsobulbosa.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
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LBJ

Images
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Tipularia[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Epidendroideae — Calypsoeae — Tipularia
Tipularia Tipularia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Pursh) Nutt.

Cranefly orchid,
Crippled cranefly
Native,
Endangered
Tipularia discolor - Crippled Cranefly Orchid 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
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Subfamily Orchidoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Orchideae[edit | edit source]

Coeloglossum[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — Coeloglossum
Coeloglossum Frog orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Hartm.

1753. Satyrium viride L.
1820. Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm.
1997. Dactylorhiza viridis (L.) R.M.
Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase
Longbract frog orchid,
Long-bract green orchis
Native,
Likely secure
Coeloglossum viride (flowers).jpg
Nymap.svg
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LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Galearis[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — Galearis
GalearisRaf. Galearis N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Raf.

1753. Orchis spectabilis L.
1826. Habenaria spectabilis Spreng.
1833. Galearis spectabilis Raf.
1901. Galeorchis spectabilis Rydb.
Showy orchid,
Showy orchis
Native,
Likely secure
Galearis spectabilis (17413692039).jpg
Galearis spectabilis NY-dist-map.png
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Amerorchis[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — Amerorchis
Amerorchis Amerorchis N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Banks ex Pursh) Hultén

1814. Orchis rotundifolia Banks ex Pursh
1966. Ponerorchis rotundifolia Soó
1968. Amerorchis rotundifolia Hultén
2009. Galearis rotundifolia R.M.Bateman
Round-leaved orchis Native,
Likely extirpated
Galearis rotundifolia (16977189244).jpg
Amerorchis rotundifolia NY-dist-map.png
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Platanthera[edit | edit source]
The grouping used here for the Platanthera species is based primarily on Argue (2012).[1]
Platanthera: Limnorchis group[edit | edit source]
Platanthera dilatata
white bog orchid, bog candle
[1]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — PlatantheraLimnorchis group
PlatantheraLimnorchis group Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Sheviak

1753. Orchis hyperborea L. s.l.p.p.
1813. Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R.Br. (i)
1835. Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl. (i)
1900. Limnorchis hyperborea (L.) Rydb. (i)
1999. Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak
2008. Limnorchis aquilonis
Rebrist. & Elven
Northern green orchid,
Tall northern green orchid,
North wind bog-orchid,
Eagle rein orchid,
Sheviak's bog orchid
Platanthère du Nord
Native,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Platanthera aquilonis 1216011.jpg
Nymap.svg
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var. dilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex L.C.Beck

1814. Orchis dilatata Pursh
1825. Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook.
1833. P. dilatata Lindl. ex L.C.Beck
1839. P. dilatata var. angustifolia Hook.
1901. Limnorchis dilatata (Pursh) Rydb.
Bog-candle,
Scent-bottle,
White bog-orchid,
White northern bog-orchid,
Tall white bog orchid
Platanthère dilatée
Native,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Platanthera dilatata - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (Nutt.) Lindl.

1818. Orchis huronensis Nutt.
1826. P. huronensis (Nutt.) Spreng.
1835. Habenaria huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl.
1901. Limnorchis × media Rydb.
1904. Habenaria × media (Rydb.) G.G.Niles
1923. H. hyperborea var. huronensis Farw.
1975. P. × media (Rydb.) Luer
1975. P. hyperborea var. huronensis Luer
Huron green orchid,
Lake Huron green orchid,
Lake Huron green bog-orchid,
Fragrant green orchid,
Intermediate bog orchid,
Northern green bog orchid
Platanthère du lac Huron
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera huronensis - Flickr 003 (1).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Platanthera aquilonis × dilatata

Platanthera aquilonis ×
Platanthera dilatata

Hybrid of
 Northern green orchid &
 Bog-candle
Native,
Not reported

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D

Images
Wikispecies
Platanthera dilatata × huronensis

Platanthera dilatata ×
Platanthera huronensis

Hybrid of
 Bog-candle &
 Huron green orchid
Native,
Not reported

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D

Images
Wikispecies
PlatantheraLimnorchis group (excluded taxa) Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Lindl.

1767. Orchis hyperborea L.
1813. Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br.
1900. Limnorchis hyperborea (L.) Rydb.
1835. Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl.
Northern green orchid Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Platanthera hyperborea in East Iceland.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Platanthera: Flava group[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — PlatantheraFlava group
PlatantheraFlava group Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Lindl.
var. herbiola (R.Br.) Luer

1813. Habenaria herbiola R.Br.
1943. Habenaria flava
var. herbiola (R.Br.) Ames & Correll
1975. Platanthera flava
var. herbiola (R.Br.) Luer
Palegreen orchid,
Pale green orchid,
Northern tubercled bog-orchid
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera flava var herbiola 1003081 2x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
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PlatantheraFlava group (excluded taxa) Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Lindl.
var. flava

    Perularia flava (L.) Farw.
    Platanthera flava (L.) Lindl.
    
Palegreen orchid N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Platanthera flava 1392187.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Platanthera: Platanthera group[edit | edit source]

Platanthera obtusata is pollinated by mosquitoes.[1]

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — PlatantheraPlatanthera group
PlatantheraPlatanthera group Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Pursh) Lindl.

1814. Orchis orbiculata Pursh
1826. Habenaria orbiculata Torr.
1835. Platanthera menziesii Lindl.
1835. Platanthera orbiculata Lindl.
1901. Lysias orbiculata (Pursh) Rydb.
1950. Habenaria orbiculata
var. lehorsii Fernald
1950. Habenaria orbiculata
var. menziesii Fernald
1977. Platanthera orbiculata
var. lehorsii W.J.Schrenk
Lesser roundleaved orchid,
Lesser roundleaved rein orchid,
Small roundleaved orchid,
Large round-leaved orchid
Platanthère à feuilles orbiculaires,
Habénaire à feuilles orbiculaires
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera orbiculata 5537294.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Goldie) P.M.Brown

1822. Habenaria macrophylla Goldie
1906. Lysias macrophylla House
1929. Habenaria orbiculata
fo. macrophylla
F.J.A.Morris & E.A.Eames
1967. Habenaria orbiculata
var. macrophylla B.Boivin
1975. Platanthera orbiculata
var. macrophylla Luer
1988. P. macrophylla P.M.Brown
Greater round-leaved orchid,
Large-leaved bog-orchid,
Dinner plate orchid,
Goldie's round-leaved orchid
Platanthère à grandes feuilles,
Habénaire à grandes feuilles
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera macrophylla 5515559.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Banks ex Pursh) Lindl.

1814. Orchis obtusata Banks ex Pursh
1823. Habenaria obtusata Richardson
1835. Platanthera obtusata Lindl.
1900. Lysiella obtusata Rydb.
1926. Habenaria obtusata
var. collectanea Fernald
Small northern bog-orchid,
Blunt-leaved orchid,
Blunt-leaved bog-orchid,
One-leaved rein orchid
Platanthère à feuille obtuse,
Habénaire à feuille obtuse
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera obtusata (7833385264).jpg
Platanthera obtusata - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Torr. ex A.Gray) Lindl.

1835. Habenaria hookeri Torr. ex A.Gray
1835. Habenaria hookeriana Lindl.*
1835. Platanthera hookeri Lindl.
1870. Orchis hookeri Alph. Wood
1901. Lysias hookeri Rydb.
1901. Lysias hookeriana * Rydb.
1933. Habenaria hookeri
var. abbreviata Fernald
1977. Platanthera hookeri
var. abbreviata W.J.Schrenk
Hooker's orchid
Platanthère de Hooker,
Habénaire de Hooker
Native,
Endangered
Hooker's orchid (Pancake B).JPG
Nymap.svg
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Platanthera: Lacera group[edit | edit source]
Platanthera psycodes
lesser purple fringed orchid

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — PlatantheraLacera group
PlatantheraLacera group Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) G.Don

1803. Orchis lacera Michx.
1810. Habenaria lacera R.Br.
1839. Platanthera lacera G.Don
1900. Fimbriella lacera Farw.
1901. Blephariglotis* lacera Farw.
1901. Blephariglottis lacera Farw.
1981. Fimbriella lacera Butzin
Green fringed bog-orchid,
Green fringed orchis,
Ragged orchis
Platanthère lacérée,
Habénaire lacérée
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera lacera - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(L.) Lindl.

1753. Orchis psycodes L.
1826. Habenaria psycodes
(L.) Spreng.
1835. P. psycodes (L.) Llindl.
1981. Fimbriella psycodes
(L.) Butzin
Lesser purple fringed orchid,
Lesser purple fringed bog-orchid
Platanthère papillon,
Habénaire papillon,
Habénaire frangée pourpre
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera psycodes 8 (5097456611).jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Bigelow) Lindl.

1824. Orchis grandiflora Bigelow
1835. P. grandiflora (Bigelow) Lindl.
1840. Habenaria psycodes
var. grandiflora
Large purple fringed orchis,
Greater purple fringed orchid
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera grandiflora.jpg
Platanthera grandiflora (as Habenaria fimbriata) - Bot. Reg. 5 pl.405 (1819).jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Nutt.) Lindl.

1835. Orchis leucophaea Nutt.
1835. Platanthera leucophaea Lindl.
1867. Habenaria leucophaea A.Gray
Eastern prairie
  white fringed orchid,
Eastern prairie
  white fringed bog-orchid
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
Likely extirpated

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Eastern Prairie White Fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) (14806074713).jpg
Nymap.svg
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PlatantheraLacera group (excluded taxa) Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1840. Habenaria peramoena A.Gray
1848. Platanthera peramoena
(A.Gray) A.Gray
1901. Blephariglotis peramoena
(A.Gray) Rydb.
Purple fringeless orchid N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Platanthera peramoena (17412546920).jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
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Platanthera lacera ×
Platanthera psycodes

Fringed orchid,
Hybrid of
 Green fringed orchis &
 Lesser purple fringed orchid
Native,
Not listed
Ny hybrid.svg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-0
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P.M.Catling & Brownell

Platanthera lacera ×
Platanthera leucophaea

Fringed orchid,
Hybrid of
 Green fringed orchis &
 Eastern prairie
   white fringed orchid
Native,
No reports
Ny hybrid.svg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-0
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P.M.Brown

Platanthera grandiflora ×
Platanthera lacera

Hybrid of
 Large purple fringed orchis &
 Green fringed bog-orchid
Native,
No reports
Ny hybrid.svg
Excluded nymap.svg
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Platanthera: Blephariglottis group[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Orchideae — PlatantheraBlephariglottis group
PlatantheraBlephariglottis group Fringed orchid N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Willd.) Lindl.
var. blephariglottis

1805. Orchis blephariglottis Willd.
1824. Habenaria blepharoglottis Hook.
1835. Platanthera blephariglottis Lindl.
1836. Blephariglottis albiflora Raf.
1901. Blephariglottis blephariglottis Rydb.
White fringed orchis,
White fringed bog orchid
Platanthère à gorge frangée,
Habénaire à gorge frangée,
Habénaire frangée blanche
Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera blephariglottis (17413720739).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Small green woodland orchid Native,
Likely secure
Platanthera clavellata 5497991.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Lindl.

1753. Orchis ciliaris L.
1813. Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R.Br.
1835. Platanthera ciliaris (L.) Lindl.
1901. Blephariglottis ciliaris (L.) Rydb.
1901. Blephariglotis ciliaris (L.) Rydb.*
Yellow fringed orchid,
Orange fringed bog orchid
Platanthère ciliée,
Habénaire ciliée
Native,
Endangered

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Platanthera ciliaris FWS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Yellow crested orchis Native,
Endangered
Orange yellow crested orchid platanthera cristata blossoms on stem.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Platanthera blephariglottis ×
Platanthera ciliaris

Fringed orchid,
Hybrid of
 White fringed orchid &
 Yellow fringed orchid
Native
Nymap.svg


Images
Wikispecies

Platanthera blephariglottis ×
Platanthera cristata

Fringed orchid,
Hybrid of
 White fringed orchid &
 Yellow crested orchis
Native
Nymap.svg


Images
Wikispecies
 F.W.Case

Platanthera blephariglottis ×
Platanthera clavellata

Native,
No reports
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D

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Tribe Cranichideae[edit | edit source]

Goodyera[edit | edit source]
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Cranichideae — Goodyera
Goodyera Rattlesnake plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Willd.) R.Br.

1805. Neottia pubescens Willd.
1891. Orchiodes pubescens Kuntze
1892. Peramium pubescens MacMill.
1813. Goodyera pubescens R.Br.
Downy rattlesnake-plantain
Goodyérie pubescente
Native,
Likely secure
Goodyera pubescens - Flickr 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) R.Br.

1753. Satyrium repens L.
1813. Goodyera repens (L.) R.Br.
1899. Goodyera repens
var. ophioides Fernald
1901. Peramium ophioides Rydb.
1931. Goodyera ophioides Rydb.
Dwarf rattlesnake-plantain,
Lesser rattlesnake-plantain
Goodyérie rampante
Native,
Likely secure
Goodyera-repens-mgk1.jpg
Goodyera repens NY-dist-map.png
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 Lodd.

1824. Goodyera tesselata Lodd.
1900. Peramium tesselatum A.Heller
1908. Epipactis tesselata A.A.Eaton
1979. Goodyera repens
var. tesselata (Lodd.) B.Boivin
Checkered rattlesnake plantain,
Tesselated rattlesnake-plantain,
Loddiges' rattlesnake-plantain
Goodyérie panachée
Native,
Likely secure
Goodyera tesselata WFNY-041B.jpg
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 Raf.

1833. Goodyera oblongifolia Raf.
1908. Epipactis decipiens Benth.
1923. Goodyera decipiens Hubbard
Western rattlesnake plantain,
Giant rattlesnake plantain
Goodyérie à feuilles oblongues
Native,
Unranked
Rattkesnake Plaintain - Flowers (17020644141).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Spiranthes[edit | edit source]
Spiranthes cernua complex[edit | edit source]
Spiranthes cernua
Nodding ladies'-tresses
Morphologically, the species of the Spiranthes cernua complex are known to be quite variable within species but relatively similar from one species to another. Recent molecular phylogenetic research has redefined this group by moving some species in or out, confirming hybrid origins, and adding newly published species.[1]
  1. Matthew C. Pace, Kenneth M. Cameron (2017) "The Systematics of the Spiranthes cernua Species Complex (Orchidaceae): Untangling the Gordian Knot," Systematic Botany, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Vol. 42, No. 4, December 2017, pp. 640-669(30). https://doi.org/10.1600/036364417X696537
Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Cranichideae — Spiranthes
Spiranthes Ladies' tresses N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Rich.

1753. Ophrys cernua L.
1800. Neottia cernua (L.) Willd.
1817. S. cernua (L.) Rich.
1891. Gyrostachys cernua (L.) Kuntze
1905. Ibidium cernuum (L.) House
1913. Triorchis cernua (L.) Nieuwl.
Nodding lady's tresses,
Nodding ladies'-tresses
Spiranthe penchée,
Spiranthe cernuée
Native, C:2,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes cernua (17573761536).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Wikispecies
(Rydb.) Rydb.

1901. Gyrostachys ochroleuca Rydb.
1905. Spiranthes cernua var. ochroleuca
1932. Spiranthes ochroleuca Rydb.
1941. Spiranthes × steigeri Correll
Yellow ladies'-tresses
Yellow nodding ladies'-tresses

Spiranthe jaunâtre
Native, C:7,
Secure

N. R.

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes ochroleuca Orchi 06.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany VASCAN
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 Catling & Cruise
var. casei

1974. S. casei Catling & Cruise
1981. S. casei var. casei
 auct. S. × intermedianon Ames
 auct. S. vernalisnon Engelm & A.Gray
Case's ladies'-tresses
Spiranthe de Case
Native, C:2,
Threatened

N. R.

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes casei iNat 23381019.jpg
Nymap.svg
Clinton, Cortland, Essex, Franklin, Genesee, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, St.Lawrence, Wyoming
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany VASCAN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
Sheviak

1973. S. magnicamporum Sheviak
Great Plains ladies'-tresses,
Great Plains lady's-tresses
Native, C:8,
Endangered,
CITES-II

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Great Plains Lady's Tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum) (19733569485).jpg
Nymap.svg
Jefferson, St. Lawrence
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
FNA
NatureServe
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
(Jenn.) M.C.Pace

S. cernua s. s. ×
S. magnicamporum

2017. Spiranthes incurva
(Jenn.) M.C.Pace
Sphinx ladies’ tresses,
Ancient hybrid of
 Nodding ladies’ tresses &
 Great Plains ladies'-tresses
Native,
Unranked,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes incurva Schoolcraft County, Michigan (cropped).jpg
Nymap.svg
Fulton, Hamilton, Oswego
NYFA-NU

Images
Wikispecies
M.C. Pace

2017. Spiranthes arcisepala M.C.Pace
Appalachian ladies’ tresses

Native,
Unranked
Spiranthes Arcisepala (cropped).jpg
Nymap.svg
Delaware, Hamilton
NYFA-NU

Images
Wikispecies
Lindl.
var. erostellata Catling

1840. Spiranthes ovalis Lindl.
1983. Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata
October ladies’ tresses Native,
Endangered,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes ovalis - cropped.jpg
Nymap.svg
St. Lawrence only
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Spiranthes outside of cernua complex[edit | edit source]
Spiranthes lucida

Asparagales — Orchidaceae — Orchidoideae — Cranichideae — Spiranthes
Spiranthes Ladies' tresses N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (H.H.Eaton) Ames

1832. Neottia lucida H.H.Eaton
1833. S. plantaginea (Raf.) Raf.
1905. Ibidium plantagineum (Raf.) House
1908. S. lucida (H.H.Eaton) Ames
Shining ladies'-tresses,
Wide-leaved ladies'-tresses
Spiranthe lustrée,
Spiranthe brillante
Native, C:4,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes lucida WFNY-042A.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany VASCAN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Cham.

1828. S. romanzoffiana Cham.
1900. Gyrostachys stricta Rydb.
1905. Ibidium strictum House
1909. S. stricta A.Nelson
Hooded ladies'-tresses,
Irish lady's-tresses
Spiranthe de Romanzoff
Native, C:8,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes romanzoffiana NRCS-001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
 (Raf.) Raf.
var. lacera

1818. Neottia lacera Raf.
1833. S. lacera (Raf.) Raf.
Northern
  slender ladies'-tresses,
Northern
  slender lady's tresses
Spiranthe découpée,
Spiranthe lacérée
Native, C:5,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes lacera (4916811718).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 (Raf.) Raf.
var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer

1824. Neottia gracilis Bigelow
1833. S. gracilis (Bigelow) L.C.Beck
1840. S. beckii Lindl.
1905. Ibidium gracile (Bigelow) House
1906. Ibidium beckii House
1975. S. lacera var. gracilis
Southern
  slender ladies'-tresses,
Slender lady's tresses
Spiranthe grêle,
Spiranthe gracile
Native, C:5,
Unranked

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes lacera var gracilis NRCS-001 2x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 Raf.

1833. Spiranthes tuberosa Raf.
1904. S. grayi Ames
1867. S. simplex A.Gray
1946. S. tuberosa var. grayi
Little ladies'-tresses,
Little lady's tresses
Spiranthe
Native, C:10,
Very vulnerable

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes tuberosa (cropped).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Engelm. & A.Gray

1845. S. vernalis Engelm. & A.Gray
1891. Gyrostachys vernalis Kuntze
1905. Ibidium vernale House
1908. S. sinensis (Pers.) Ames
Twisted ladies'-tresses,
Spring ladies'-tresses,
Spring lady's tresses,
Upland ladiestresses
Spiranthe
Native, C:7,
Especially vulnerable,
NYNHP: S1S2[1]

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Spiranthes vernalis-001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
Go Botany
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Spiranthes (excluded taxa) Ladies' tresses N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Walter) S. Watson

1788. Limodorum praecox Walter
1890. S. praecox (Walter) S. Watson
1906. Ibidium praecox (Walter) House
1913. Triorchis praecox (Walter) Nieuwl.
Greenvein lady's tresses N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Lilies and orchids (Plate XIV) (6279408897).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
FNA
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Catling & Sheviak

S. lacera var. lacera ×
S. romanzoffiana

Native,
No reports
Nymap.svg

FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 P.M.Brown

S. lacera var. gracilis ×
S. tuberosa

Native,
No reports
Nymap.svg


Images
Wikispecies
 Ames

S. lacera var. gracilis ×
S. vernalis

Native,
No reports
Nymap.svg


Images
Wikispecies
  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2019. Online Conservation Guide for Spiranthes vernalis. Available from: https://guides.nynhp.org/spring-ladies-tresses/. Accessed May 7, 2019.

Family Hypoxidaceae[edit | edit source]

The Hypoxidaceae[1]

Hypoxis[edit | edit source]

Asparagales — Hypoxidaceae — Hypoxis
Hypoxis Star grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Coville

1753. Ornithogalum hirsutum L.
1759. Hypoxis erecta L. superfl.
1803. Hypoxis carolinensis Michx.
1814. Hypoxis graminea Pursh
1894. Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville
1894. Hypoxis micrantha Pollard
Eastern yellow stargrass,
Common goldstar,
Common stargrass,
Yellow stargrass
Hypoxis hirsute
Native, C:6,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Hypoxis hirsuta WFNY-025 (18240936449).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
  1. Hypoxidaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.