Flora of New York/Ferns 1

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Lycophytes
Flora of New York — Pre-polypod ferns
Polypodiales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order Family Genera G T
Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium subg. Botrychium (moonwort)
Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris (rattlesnake fern)
Botrychium subg. Sceptridium (evergreen grapefern)
Ophioglossum (adder's tongue)
2 12
Equisetales Equisetaceae Equisetum subg. Equisetum (horsetail)
Equisetum subg. Hippochaete (scouring rush)
1 13
Osmundales Osmundaceae Osmundastrum (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda (royal fern, interrupted fern)
2 3
Hymenophyllales Hymenophyllaceae Trichomanes (bristle fern) or Crepidomanes (grotto felt) 1 1
Schizaeales Lygodiaceae Lygodium (climbing fern) 1 1
Schizaeaceae Schizaea (curlygrass fern) 1 1
Salviniales Salviniaceae Azola (mosquitofern)
Salvinia (watermoss, floatingfern)
2 3
Marsileaceae Marsilea (waterclover, waterfern) 1 1

Order Ophioglossales[edit]

The order Ophioglossales contains the oldest of the plants now considered to be ferns s.l.[1]

Family Ophioglossaceae[edit]

The Ophioglossaceae (adder's-tongue family) comprises primitive ferns that have traditionally been considered part of a group informally known as fern-allies. In New York, the family is represented by about a dozen native species, all of which are listed as protected plants.[2]

Genus Botrychium[edit]

The genus Botrychium contains the moonworts, grapeferns, and rattlesnake ferns, each of which is treated here as a subgenus of Botrychium. These groups are also sometimes treated as separate genera within the Ophioglossaceae.

Botrychium subg. Botrychium[edit]
Ophioglossaceae – genus Botrychium – subg. Botrychium
Botrychium subg. Botrychium Moonwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 11
(Döll) A.Braun ex W.D.J.Koch

1843. B. lunaria
   var.
matricariifolium Döll
1847. B. neglectum  Alph.Wood
1847. B. matricariifolium  A.Braun ex ...
Chamomile grape-fern,
Matricary grapefern,
Daisy-leaved moonwort

Botryche à feuille
 de matricaire
Native,
Likely secure
Moonwort (4752770708).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngMoonwort (4752770714).jpg
Botrychium matricariifolium nymap.svg
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN
NEW Can

FNA 


Images, wsp
(S.G.Gmel.) Angstr.
ssp. angustisegmentum
(Pease & A.H.Moore) R.T.Clausen

1906. Botrychium lanceolatum
   var.
angustisegmentum
1915. B. angustisegmentum  Fernald
1937. Botrychium lanceolatum
   ssp.
angustisegmentum
Lance-leaved grape-fern,
Narrow triangle moonwort
Native,
Likely secure
Botrychium lanceolatum NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngLance-Leaf Moonwort (3816257528).jpg
Botrychium lanceolatum ssp angustisegmentum nymap.svg
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN
NEW 

FNA 


Images, wsp
 E. Hitchc.

B. tenebrosum A.A.Eaton
Least grape-fern,
Little grape-fern
Native,
Likely secure
BB-0004 Botrychium simplex.png
Botrychium simplex nymap.svg
NYFA-4-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 




Images, wsp
 (L.) Sw.

(=) B. lunaria var. onondagense
(=) B. onondagense  Underw.
(=) Osmunda lunaria  L.
Moonwort grape-fern,
Common moonwort
Native,
Endangered,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Botrychium lunaria (Vanoise)2.JPG
Botrychium lunaria nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN
NEW 




Images, wsp
 Vict.

B. lunaria ssp. minganense
B. lunaria var. minganense
Mingan's moonwort,
Mingan moonwort,
Mingan Island moonwort
Native,
Endangered,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[4]
Botrychium minganense drawing.png
Botrychium minganense nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-N
NEW 




Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner & Farrar

B. minganense (in part)
Dunewort,
Iowa moonwort,
Prairie dunewort,
Prairie moonwort
Native,
No recent reports,
NYNHP: 1[5]
Botrychium campestre - NPS Photo.jpg
Botrychium campestre nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
NRCS-NN
NEW 




Images, wsp
 W.H.Wagner

1986. Botrychium ascendens  W.H.Wagner
Triangle-lobe moonwort,
Upswept moonwort,
Ascending grapefern

Botryche ascendant
Native,
Unreported
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
NRCS-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris[edit]

The subgenus Osmundopteris (sometimes treated as the genus Botrypus) contains a single, fairly widespread species in New York.

Ophioglossaceae – genus Botrychium – subg. Osmundopteris
Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris Rattlesnake fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 11
 (L.) Sw.

1753. Osmunda virginiana  L.
1800. Botrychium virginianum  Sw.
1803. Botrypus virginianus  Michx.
1938. Osmundopteris virginiana  Small
1958. Japanobotrychium virginianum
Rattlesnake fern,
Rattlesnake grapefern,
Virginia grapefern

Botryche de Virginie
Native,
Secure
Botrychium virginianum.JPG
Botrychium virginianum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Botrychium subg. Sceptridium[edit]

The subgenus Sceptridium, often treated as a separate genus Sceptridium Lyon (1905), contains the evergreen grape ferns, four species of which are native to New York.

Ophioglossaceae – genus Botrychium – subg. Osmundopteris – sect. Sceptridium
Botrychium subg. Sceptridium Evergreen grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 11
 Spreng.

1804. Botrychium dissectum  Spreng.
1810. Botrychium obliquum  Muhl.
1902. B. dissectum var. obliquum Clute
1905. Sceptridium dissectum  Lyon
1905. Sceptridium obliquum  Lyon
Cut-leaved grape-fern,
Cutleaf grapefern,
Dissected grapefern
Native,
Secure
Botrychium dissectum dissectum.JPG
Botrychium dissectum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
(S.G.Gmel.) Rupr.

B. californicum Underw.
B. coulteri Underw.
B. silaifolium C.Presl
Sceptridium multifidum
Leathery grape-fern,
Leather grape-fern
Native,
Secure
Botrychium multifidum2 4x3.jpg
Botrychium multifidum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 




Images, wsp
(Gilbert) House

1901. B. ternatum var. oneidense Gilbert
1905. B. oneidense  House
1916. B. multifidum var. oneidense Farw.
1924. B. dissectum var. oneidense Farw.
1998. Sceptridium oneidense  Holub
Blunt-lobe grape-fern,
Bluntlobe grapefern
Native,
Threatened,
CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Botrychium oneidense drawing.png
Botrychium oneidense nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
NRCS-NN
NEW 




Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner

B. multifidum fo. dentatum
B. ternatum auct. non (Thunb.) Sw.
Sceptridium rugulosum
Ternate grapefern,
Rugulose grape-fern,
St. Lawrence grape-fern,
Botryche à limbe rugueux
Native,
Endangered,
Few populations,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Botrychium rugulosum by OpenCage 4x3.jpg
Botrychium rugulosum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN


FNA 


Images, wsp

Genus Ophioglossum[edit]

Ophioglossaceae – genus Ophioglossum
Ophioglossum Adder's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
Raf. (1814)

O. vulgatum auct. non L.
O. vulgatum var. alaskanum
O. vulgatum var. pseudopodum
Northern adder's-tongue,
Herbe-sans-couture
Native,
Vulnerable
Ophioglossum pusillum (5098045214) cropped.jpg
Ophioglossum pusillum nymap.svg
NYFA-3
NRCS-N
NEW 
ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp

Order Equisetales[edit]

The order Equisetales contains the plants commonly known as horsetails and scouring rushes. This order contains the single living genus Equisetum, which is represented in every county of New York.

Family Equisetaceae[edit]

The Equisetaceae (horsetail family) ...

Genus Equisetum[edit]

Equisetum subg. Equisetum[edit]
Equisetaceae – genus Equisetum – subg. Equisetum
Equisetum subg. Equisetum Horsetail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 13
 L.

1753. Equisetum arvense  L.
1832. Equisetum boreale  Bong.
1912. Allostelites arvensis  (L.) Börner
1960. Equisetum calderi  B.Boivin
Field horsetail,
Common horsetail,
Common field horsetail

Prêle des champs,
Queue de renard
Native,
Secure
Equisetum arvense foliage.jpg
Equisetum arvense nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE 
IPN
Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum fluviatile  L.
1753. Equisetum limosum  L.
1904. E. fluviatile var. limosum (L.) Farw.
Water horsetail,
River horsetail

Prêle fluviatile
Native,
Secure
Equisetum fluviatile 001.JPG
Equisetum fluviatile nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum sylvaticum  L.
1795. Equisetum capillare  Hoffm.
Wood horsetail,
Woodland horsetail

Prêle des bois
Native,
Secure
Equisetum sylvaticum 04.jpg
Equisetum sylvaticum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Kühlew. ex Rupr. (pro sp.)

Equisetum arvense ×
Equisetum fluviatile

1845. Equisetum litorale  Kühlew. ex Rupr.
Litoral horsetail

Prêle littorale
Native,
Rare
Equisetum × litorale drawing.png
Equisetum × litorale nymap.svg
NYFA-3
NRCS-NN

ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum palustre  L.
1927. E. palustre var. americanum Vict.
Marsh horsetail

Prêle des marais
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Equisetum palustre3.JPG
Equisetum palustre nymap.svg
NYFA-2
NRCS-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 Ehrh.

1784. Equisetum pratense  Ehrh.
Meadow horsetail,
Shady horsetail

Prêle des prés
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]
Equisetum pratense detail.jpeg
Equisetum pratense nymap.svg
NYFA-2
NRCS-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Equisetum subg. Hippochaete[edit]
Equisetaceae – genus Equisetum – subg. Hippochaete
Equisetum subg. Hippochaete Scouring rush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 13
 L.
ssp. affine Calder & Roy L.Taylor

E. affine Engelm.
E. praealtum Raf.
E. robustum A.Braun
Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Braun
Common scouring rush,
Rough horsetail,
Scouringrush horsetail,
Prêle d'hiver
Native,
Secure
Equisetum (577317244).jpg
Equisetum hyemale ssp affine nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Michx. (1803)
Dwarf scouring rush,
Prêle faux-scirpe
Native,
Secure
Equisetum scirpoides00.jpg
Equisetum scirpoides nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN

ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
ssp. variegatum
Variegated horsetail,
Variegated scouring rush
Native,
Likely secure
Equisetum variegatum2.jpg
Equisetum variegatum ssp variegatum nymap.svg
NYFA-4





Images, wsp
[ hyemale × variegatum ]
Rough-toothed scouring rush Native,
Vulnerable
Equisetum hyemale kz2.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngEquisetum variegatum 01.jpg
Equisetum × mackaii nymap.svg
NYFA-3
NRCS-N





Images, wsp
A.Braun (1844)

E. funstonii
E. kansanum
Hippochaete laevigata
Smooth scouring-rush Native,
Likely extirpated
Equisetum laevigatum (6127553746).jpg
Equisetum laevigatum nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
NRCS-NN





Images, wsp
(A.A.Eaton) J.H.Schaffn. (pro sp. 1926)
[ laevigatum × variegatum ]

Equisetum nelsoni
E. variegatum var. nelsonii
Nelson's scouring rush,
Nelson's horsetail
Native,
Unranked
Equisetum laevigatum NPS-2.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngEquisetum variegatum kz1.jpg
Equisetum × nelsonii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
NRCS-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 Clute (1904)
[ hyemale × laevigatum ]

E. hyemale var. elatum
E. hyemale var. intermedium
E. intermedium
Ferris' scouring rush Native,
Unranked
Equisetum hyemale (5283299599).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngEquisetum laevigatum NPS-2.jpg
Equisetum × ferrissii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
NRCS-NN





Images, wsp

Order Osmundales[edit]

The Osmundales contains a single family with three native species represented outside of cultivation in New York.

Family Osmundaceae[edit]

The Osmundaceae (royal fern family)...

Osmundaceae
Osmundastrum Cinnamon fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(L.) C. Presl (1848)

Osmunda cinnamomea L. (1753)
Osmunda cinnamomea var. cinnamomea
Osmunda cinnamomea var. glandulosa
Osmunda cinnamomea var. imbricata
Osmunda cinnamomea var. frondosa
Cinnamon fern Native,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]
Cinnamon fern smokies.jpg
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-N
NEW 
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Osmunda Osmunda N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.
Interrupted fern Native,
Secure
Osmunda claytoniana JSG.jpg
Osmunda claytoniana nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-N





Images, wsp
 L.
var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray

Osmunda spectabilis
Royal fern Native,
Secure
Osmunda regalis.jpeg
Osmunda regalis var spectabilis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-N





Images, wsp

Order Hymenophyllales[edit]

The order Hymenophyllales contains a single family, the Hymenophyllaceae, or filmy fern family. In New York, only one species of this family has been verified as living outside of cultivation, and that species is considered to be endangered in the state.

Family Hymenophyllaceae[edit]

Genus Crepidomanes[edit]

The only member of the Hymenophyllaceae found in New York is a gametophitic weft fern Crepidomanes intricatum, which was transferred from Trichomanes to the mostly Asian Crepidomanes genus by Ebihara & Weakley (2011) based on molecular sequence. Crepidomanes intricatum is assumed to be gametophitic only. Sporophitic generations of this plant have not been observed. [1][2]

Hymenophyllaceae – genus Crepidomanes
Crepidomanes Grotto felt N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley

1992. Trichomanes intricatum  Farrar
2011. Crepidomanes intricatum
   (Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley
Appalachian bristle fern,
Appalachian trichomanes,
Filmy fern,
Weft fern
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[3]
Trichomanes intricatum1-BobKlips.jpg
Crepidomanes intricatum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-N0
NEW 
ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Order Schizaeales[edit]

The order Schizaeales contains the seemingly dissimilar curly-grass and climbing ferns.

Family Lygodiaceae[edit]

The Lygodiaceae (climbing-fern family) consists of the single genus Lygodium, which in New York, is represented by the endangered American climbing fern.

Genus Lygodium[edit]

Lygodiaceae – genus Lygodium
Lygodium Climbing fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Bernh.) Sw.

1800. Gisopteris palmata  Bernh.
1806. Lygodium palmatum  (Bernh.) Sw.
American climbing fern,
Creeping fern,
Hartford fern,
Windsor fern
Native,
Endangered
Lygodium palmatum NRCS-007.jpg
Lygodium palmatum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-N0


FNA 


Images, wsp

Family Schizaeaceae[edit]

The Schizaeaceae (curly-grass family)...

Genus Schizaea[edit]

Schizaeaceae – genus Schizaea
Schizaea Curlygrass fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Pursh
Curlygrass,
Curly-grass fern,
Little curlygrass fern
Native,
Endangered
Schizaea pusilla.JPG
Schizaea pusilla nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-N


FNA 


Images, wsp

Order Salviniales[edit]

The order Salviniales (the heterosporous or water ferns) contains the families Salviniaceae (mosquitoferns) and Marsileaceae (waterferns), which have few species represented in New York.

Family Salviniaceae[edit]

The family Salviniaceae contains the aquatic fern genera Azolla and Salvinia. Though Azolla has previously been placed in its own family, the Azollaceae.

Salviniaceae
Azolla Mosquitofern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Kaulf.

Azolla caroliniana auct. non Willd.
Azolla filiculoides auct. non Lam.
Carolina mosquitofern,
Eastern mosquito-fern,
Fairy-moss,
Mosquito-plant
Native,
Threatened
Azolla caroliniana1.jpg
Azolla cristata nymap.svg
NYFA-2?
NRCS-NX




Note [1][2]
Images, wsp
Salvinia Watermoss N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Baker

Salvinia natans auct. non (L.) All.
Salvinia rotundifolia auct. non Willd.
Floating-fern,
Water-fern,
Water spangles
Introduced,
Vulnerable[3],
S. America native
Salvinia minima 1.jpg
Salvinia minima nymap.svg
NYFA-X
NRCS-X

ARS 



Images, wsp
Floating watermoss Introduced,
Rare,
Old World native
Salvinia natans - Kellusaniainen, Simbräken C DSC07930.JPG
Salvinia natans nymap.svg

NRCS-X

ARS 


Note [4]
Images, wsp
  1. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Evrard and Hove (2004) provide evidence that the correct name for this taxon is A. cristata and that A. caroliniana, which has been misapplied to A. cristata, is a true synonym of A. filiculoides."
  2. C. Evrard & C. Van Hove (2004) Taxonmy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a critical review Systematics and Geography of Plants 74:301-318
  3. S. minima appears on the NYS-DEC list of Protected Native Plants even though many sources list this plant as a tropical South American native.
  4. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Most likley all New York material previously referred to as Salvinia natans is actually S. minima."

Family Marsileaceae[edit]

The Marsileaceae (water-clover family) has a single represenative (Marsilea quadrifolia) surviving outside of cultivation in New York. Although fairly rare, this species can have large local populations and is considered to be potentially invasive in the Finger Lakes and Lower Hudson Valley.[1][2] According to the USDA-NRCS PLANTS database, Marsilea quadrifolia is native to parts of Ontario, Canada,[3] but other sources list it as only a European native.[4]

Marsileaceae
Marsilea Waterclover N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
European water-clover,
European water fern,
Water shamrock,
European pepperwort

Marsilée à quatre feuilles,
Marsile à quatre feuilles
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 45%[5]
Marsilea quadrifolia colony.JPG
Marsilea quadrifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XN‽
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp