Flora of New York/Ferns 1

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Lycophytes
Flora of New York — Pre-polypod ferns
Polypodiales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order Family Genus Subgenus Common names #
Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium Botrychium moonwort, grape fern 8
Osmundopteris rattlesnake fern 1
Sceptridium evergreen grapefern 4
Ophioglossum adder's tongue 1
Equisetales Equisetaceae Equisetum Equisetum horsetail 6
Hippochaete scouring rush 7
Osmundales Osmundaceae Osmundastrum cinnamon fern 1
Osmunda Claytosmunda interrupted fern 1
Osmunda royal fern 1
Hymenophyllales Hymenophyllaceae Crepidomanes grotto felt, weft fern 1
Schizaeales Lygodiaceae Lygodium climbing fern 1
Schizaeaceae Schizaea curlygrass fern 1
Salviniales Salviniaceae Azolla mosquitofern 1
Salvinia watermoss, floatingfern 2
Marsileaceae Marsilea waterclover, waterfern 1

Order Ophioglossales[edit]

The order Ophioglossales contains the oldest of the plants now considered to be ferns s.l.[1]

Family Ophioglossaceae[edit]

The Ophioglossaceae (adder's-tongue family) comprises primitive ferns that have traditionally been considered part of a group informally known as fern-allies. In New York, the family is represented by about a dozen native species, all of which are listed as protected plants.[2]

Genus Botrychium[edit]

The genus Botrychium contains the moonworts, evergreen grapeferns, and rattlesnake ferns, each of which is treated here as a subgenus of Botrychium. These groups are also sometimes treated as separate genera within the Ophioglossaceae.

Botrychium subg. Botrychium[edit]
Ophioglossaceaegenus Botrychiumsubg. Botrychium
Botrychiumsubg. Botrychium Moonwort, grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 11
(Döll) A.Braun ex W.D.J.Koch

1843. B. lunaria var. matricariifolium
1847. B. neglectum  Alph.Wood
1847. B. matricariifolium  ex W.D.J.Koch
Chamomile grape-fern,
Matricary grapefern,
Daisy-leaved moonwort

Botryche à feuille
 de matricaire
Native,
Likely secure,
C value: 7
Moonwort (4752770708).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngMoonwort (4752770714).jpg
Botrychium matricariifolium nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
(S.G.Gmel.) Angstr.
ssp. angustisegmentum
(Pease & A.H.Moore) R.T.Clausen

1906. B. lanceolatum
   var.
angustisegmentum
1915. B. angustisegmentum  Fernald
1937. B. lanceolatum
   ssp.
angustisegmentum
Lance-leaved grape-fern,
Narrow triangle moonwort
Native,
Likely secure,
C value: 7
Botrychium lanceolatum NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngLance-Leaf Moonwort (3816257528).jpg
Botrychium lanceolatum ssp angustisegmentum nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 E.Hitchc.

1823. B. simplex  E.Hitchc.
1899. B. tenebrosum  A.A.Eaton
Least grape-fern,
Little grape-fern
Native,
Likely secure,
C value: 9
Simple Moonwort (3599528767).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngBotrychium simplex BB-1913.png
Botrychium simplex nymap.svg
NYFA-4-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
A.A.Eaton

     B. simplex var. tenebrosum
     B. tenebrosum  A.A.Eaton
    
Shade-loving moonwort,
Swamp moonwort
Native,
Unranked,
C value: 10
BB-0007 Botrychium tenebrosum.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
NEW 




Images, wsp
 (L.) Sw.

1753. Osmunda lunaria  L.
1801. B. lunaria  (L.) Sw.
1903. B. onondagense  Underw.
1923. B. lunaria var. onondagense
Moonwort grape-fern,
Common moonwort
Native,
Endangered,
CA,
C value: 10,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Botrychium lunaria (Vanoise)2.JPG
Botrychium lunaria nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
 Vict.

B. lunaria ssp. minganense
B. lunaria var. minganense
Mingan's moonwort,
Mingan moonwort,
Mingan Island moonwort

Botryche de Mingan
Native,
Endangered,
CA,
C value: 10,
NYNHP: 1[4]
Botrychium minganense drawing.png
Botrychium minganense nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner & Farrar

B. minganense (in part)
Dunewort,
Iowa moonwort,
Prairie dunewort,
Prairie moonwort
Native,
No recent reports,
C value: 10,
NYNHP: 1[5]
Botrychium campestre - NPS Photo.jpg
Botrychium campestre nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner

1986. B. ascendens  W.H.Wagner
Triangle-lobe moonwort,
Upswept moonwort,
Ascending grapefern

Botryche ascendant
Native,
Unreported
Botrychium ascendens.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris[edit]

The subgenus Osmundopteris (sometimes treated as the genus Botrypus) contains a single, fairly widespread species in New York.

Ophioglossaceaegenus Botrychiumsubg. Osmundopteris
Botrychiumsubg. Osmundopteris Rattlesnake fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 11
 (L.) Sw.

1753. Osmunda virginiana  L.
1800. Botrychium virginianum  Sw.
1803. Botrypus virginianus  Michx.
1938. Osmundopteris virginiana  Small
1958. Japanobotrychium virginianum
Rattlesnake fern,
Rattlesnake grapefern,
Virginia grapefern

Botryche de Virginie
Native,
Secure,
C value: 8
Botrychium virginianum.JPG
Botrychium virginianum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Botrychium subg. Sceptridium[edit]

The subgenus Sceptridium, often treated as a separate genus Sceptridium Lyon (1905), contains the evergreen grape ferns, four species of which are native to New York.

Ophioglossaceaegenus Botrychiumsubg. Osmundopterissect. Sceptridium
Botrychiumsubg. Sceptridium Evergreen grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 11
 Spreng.

1804. Botrychium dissectum  Spreng.
1810. Botrychium obliquum  Muhl.
1902. B. dissectum var. obliquum Clute
1905. Sceptridium dissectum  Lyon
1905. Sceptridium obliquum  Lyon
Cut-leaved grape-fern,
Cutleaf grapefern,
Dissected grapefern
Native,
Secure,
C value: 3
Botrychium dissectum dissectum.JPG
Botrychium dissectum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
(S.G.Gmel.) Rupr.

B. californicum Underw.
B. coulteri Underw.
B. silaifolium C.Presl
Sceptridium multifidum
Leathery grape-fern,
Leather grape-fern
Native,
Secure,
C value: 3
Botrychium multifidum2 4x3.jpg
Botrychium multifidum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
(Gilbert) House

1901. B. ternatum var. oneidense Gilbert
1905. B. oneidense  House
1916. B. multifidum var. oneidense Farw.
1924. B. dissectum var. oneidense Farw.
1998. Sceptridium oneidense  Holub
Blunt-lobe grape-fern,
Bluntlobe grapefern
Native,
Threatened,
CA,
C value: 5,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Botrychium oneidense drawing.png
Botrychium oneidense nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner

B. multifidum fo. dentatum
B. ternatum auct. non (Thunb.) Sw.
Sceptridium rugulosum
Ternate grapefern,
Rugulose grape-fern,
St. Lawrence grape-fern,
Botryche à limbe rugueux
Native,
Endangered,
Few populations,
CA,
C value: 6,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Botrychium rugulosum by OpenCage 4x3.jpg
Botrychium rugulosum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN


FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp

Genus Ophioglossum[edit]

Ophioglossaceaegenus Ophioglossum
Ophioglossum Adder's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
Raf. (1814)

     O. vulgatum var. alaskanum
     O. vulgatum var. pseudopodum
auct. O. vulgatum non L.
Northern adder's-tongue

Herbe-sans-couture
Native,
Vulnerable,
C value: 5
Ophioglossum pusillum (5098045214) cropped.jpg
Ophioglossum pusillum nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N
NEW 
ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp

Order Equisetales[edit]

The order Equisetales contains the plants commonly known as horsetails and scouring rushes. This order contains the single living genus Equisetum, which is represented in every county of New York.

Family Equisetaceae[edit]

The Equisetaceae (horsetail family) ...

Genus Equisetum[edit]

Equisetum subg. Equisetum[edit]
Equisetaceaegenus Equisetumsubg. Equisetum
Equisetumsubg. Equisetum Horsetail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 13
 L.

1753. Equisetum arvense  L.
1832. Equisetum boreale  Bong.
1912. Allostelites arvensis  (L.) Börner
1960. Equisetum calderi  B.Boivin
Field horsetail,
Common horsetail,
Common field horsetail

Prêle des champs,
Queue de renard
Native,
Secure,
C value: 2
Equisetum arvense foliage.jpg
Equisetum arvense nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE 
IPN
Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum fluviatile  L.
1753. Equisetum limosum  L.
1904. E. fluviatile var. limosum (L.) Farw.
Water horsetail,
River horsetail

Prêle fluviatile
Native,
Secure,
C value: 4
Equisetum fluviatile 001.JPG
Equisetum fluviatile nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum sylvaticum  L.
1795. Equisetum capillare  Hoffm.
Wood horsetail,
Woodland horsetail

Prêle des bois
Native,
Secure,
C value: 7
Equisetum sylvaticum 04.jpg
Equisetum sylvaticum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Kühlew. ex Rupr. (pro sp.)

Equisetum arvense ×
Equisetum fluviatile

1845. Equisetum litorale  Kühlew. ex Rupr.
Litoral horsetail

Prêle littorale
Native,
Rare
Equisetum × litorale drawing.png
Equisetum × litorale nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN

ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum palustre  L.
1927. E. palustre var. americanum Vict.
Marsh horsetail

Prêle des marais
Native,
Threatened,
C value: 5,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Equisetum palustre3.JPG
Equisetum palustre nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 Ehrh.

1784. Equisetum pratense  Ehrh.
Meadow horsetail,
Shady horsetail

Prêle des prés
Native,
Threatened,
C value: 4,
NYNHP: 2[2]
Equisetum pratense detail.jpeg
Equisetum pratense nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Equisetum subg. Hippochaete[edit]
Equisetaceaegenus Equisetumsubg. Hippochaete
Equisetumsubg. Hippochaete Scouring rush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 13
 L.
ssp. affine Calder & Roy L.Taylor

     Equisetum affine  Engelm.
     Equisetum praealtum  Raf.
     Equisetum robustum  A.Braun
     Hippochaete hyemalis  (L.) Braun
Common scouring rush,
Rough horsetail,
Scouringrush horsetail

Prêle d'hiver
Native,
Secure,
C value: 2
Equisetum (577317244).jpg
Equisetum hyemale ssp affine nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Michx. (1803)
Dwarf scouring rush

Prêle faux-scirpe
Native,
Secure,
C value: 9
Equisetum scirpoides00.jpg
Equisetum scirpoides nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
ssp. variegatum
Variegated horsetail,
Variegated scouring rush
Native,
Likely secure
Equisetum variegatum2.jpg
Equisetum variegatum ssp variegatum nymap.svg
NYFA-4





Images, wsp

Equisetum hyemale ×
Equisetum variegatum
Rough-toothed scouring rush Native,
Vulnerable,
C value: 3
Equisetum hyemale kz2.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngEquisetum variegatum 01.jpg
Equisetum × mackaii nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N





Images, wsp
A.Braun (1844)

E. funstonii
E. kansanum
Hippochaete laevigata
Smooth scouring-rush Native,
Likely extirpated
Equisetum laevigatum (6127553746).jpg
Equisetum laevigatum nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
(A.A.Eaton) J.H.Schaffn.

Equisetum laevigatum ×
Equisetum variegatum

1904. E. variegatum var. nelsonii
1926. E. nelsoni  J.H.Schaffn.
Nelson's scouring rush,
Nelson's horsetail
Native,
Unranked
Equisetum laevigatum NPS-2.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngEquisetum variegatum kz1.jpg
Equisetum × nelsonii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 Clute

Equisetum hyemale ×
Equisetum laevigatum

1903. E. hyemale var. intermedium
1904. Equisetum ferrissii  Clute
1917. Equisetum intermedium  Rydb.
1951. E. hyemale var. elatum
Ferris' scouring rush Native,
Unranked
Equisetum hyemale (5283299599).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngEquisetum laevigatum NPS-2.jpg
Equisetum × ferrissii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS 



Images, wsp

Order Osmundales[edit]

The Osmundales contains a single family with three native species represented outside of cultivation in New York.

Family Osmundaceae[edit]

The Osmundaceae (royal fern family)...

Genus Osmundastrum[edit]

Osmundaceaegenus Osmundastrum
Osmundastrum Cinnamon fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(L.) C.Presl
var. cinnamomeum

1753. Osmunda cinnamomea  L.
1841. Osmunda cinnamomea var. frondosa
1847. Osmundastrum cinnamomeum  (L.) C.Presl
1868. Osmunda cinnamomea var. imbricata
1902. Osmunda cinnamomea var. glandulosa
1909. Osmunda cinnamomea var. fokiensis
Cinnamon fern,
Buckhorn
Native,
Secure,
DEC-D[1],
C value: 6

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Cinnamon fern smokies.jpg
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
Trop.

Note FEIS
Images, wsp

Genus Osmunda[edit]

Osmundaceaegenus Osmunda
Osmundasubg. Claytosmunda Osmunda N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1753. Osmunda claytoniana  L.
1801. Struthiopteris claytoniana  (L.) Bernh.
1848. Plenasium claytonianum  (L.) C. Presl
1941. Osmundastrum claytonianum  (L.) Tagawa
Interrupted fern Native,
Secure,
DEC-D[1],
C value: 4

NWI: FAC

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Osmunda claytoniana JSG.jpg
Osmunda claytoniana nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N


Trop.


Images, wsp
Osmundasubg. Osmunda Osmunda N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.
var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray

1810. Osmunda spectabilis  Willd.
1856. Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis
1977. Osmunda regalis ssp. spectabilis
Royal fern Native,
Secure,
DEC-D[1],
C value: 6

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Osmunda regalis.jpeg
Osmunda regalis var spectabilis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N

ARS 



Images, wsp

Order Hymenophyllales[edit]

The order Hymenophyllales contains a single family, the Hymenophyllaceae, or filmy fern family. In New York, only one species of this family has been verified as living outside of cultivation, and that species is considered to be endangered in the state.

Family Hymenophyllaceae[edit]

Genus Crepidomanes[edit]

The only member of the Hymenophyllaceae found in New York is a gametophitic weft fern Crepidomanes intricatum, which was transferred from Trichomanes to the mostly Asian Crepidomanes genus by Ebihara & Weakley (2011) based on molecular sequence. Crepidomanes intricatum is assumed to be gametophitic only. Sporophitic generations of this plant have not been observed. [1][2]

Hymenophyllaceaegenus Crepidomanes
Crepidomanes Grotto felt N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley

1992. Trichomanes intricatum  Farrar
2011. Crepidomanes intricatum
   (Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley
Appalachian bristle fern,
Appalachian trichomanes,
Filmy fern,
Weft fern
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[3],
C value: 10
Trichomanes intricatum1-BobKlips.jpg
Crepidomanes intricatum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Order Schizaeales[edit]

The order Schizaeales contains the seemingly dissimilar curly-grass and climbing ferns.

Family Lygodiaceae[edit]

The Lygodiaceae (climbing-fern family) consists of the single genus Lygodium, which in New York, is represented by the endangered American climbing fern.

Genus Lygodium[edit]

Lygodiaceaegenus Lygodium
Lygodium Climbing fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Bernh.) Sw.

1800. Gisopteris palmata  Bernh.
1806. Lygodium palmatum  (Bernh.) Sw.
American climbing fern,
Creeping fern,
Hartford fern,
Windsor fern
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1],
C value: 10

NWI: FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Lygodium palmatum NRCS-007.jpg
Lygodium palmatum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0


FNA 


Images, wsp

Family Schizaeaceae[edit]

The Schizaeaceae (curly-grass family)...

Genus Schizaea[edit]

Schizaeaceaegenus Schizaea
Schizaea Curlygrass fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Pursh
Curlygrass,
Curly-grass fern,
Little curlygrass fern
Native,
Endangered,
C value: 9

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Schizaea pusilla.JPG
Schizaea pusilla nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N


FNA 


Images, wsp

Order Salviniales[edit]

The order Salviniales (the heterosporous or water ferns) contains the families Salviniaceae (mosquitoferns) and Marsileaceae (waterferns), which have few species represented in New York.

Family Salviniaceae[edit]

The family Salviniaceae contains the aquatic fern genera Azolla and Salvinia.

Genus Azolla[edit]

Azolla has previously been placed in its own family, the Azollaceae.

Salviniaceaegenus Azolla
Azolla Mosquitofern N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Kaulf.

Azolla caroliniana auct. non Willd.
Azolla filiculoides auct. non Lam.
Carolina mosquitofern,
Eastern mosquito-fern,
Fairy-moss,
Mosquito-plant
Native,
Threatened,
C value: 2

NWI: OBL

Annual,
Herb-fern
Azolla caroliniana1.jpg
Azolla cristata nymap.svg
NYFA-2?
USDA-NX




Note [1][2]
Images, wsp
  1. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Evrard and Hove (2004) provide evidence that the correct name for this taxon is A. cristata and that A. caroliniana, which has been misapplied to A. cristata, is a true synonym of A. filiculoides."
  2. C. Evrard & C. Van Hove (2004) Taxonmy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a critical review Systematics and Geography of Plants 74:301-318

Genus Salvinia[edit]

Salviniaceaegenus Salvinia
Salvinia Watermoss N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Baker

Salvinia natans auct. non (L.) All.
Salvinia rotundifolia auct. non Willd.
Floating-fern,
Water-fern,
Water spangles
Introduced,
Vulnerable[1],
S. America native
Salvinia minima 1.jpg
Salvinia minima nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X

ARS 



Images, wsp
Floating watermoss Introduced,
Rare,
Old World native
Salvinia natans - Kellusaniainen, Simbräken C DSC07930.JPG
Salvinia natans nymap.svg

USDA-X

ARS 


Note [2]
Images, wsp
  1. S. minima appears on the NYS-DEC list of Protected Native Plants even though many sources list this plant as a tropical South American native.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Most likley all New York material previously referred to as Salvinia natans is actually S. minima."

Family Marsileaceae[edit]

The Marsileaceae (water-clover family) has a single represenative (Marsilea quadrifolia) surviving outside of cultivation in New York. Although fairly rare, this species can have large local populations and is considered to be potentially invasive in the Finger Lakes and Lower Hudson Valley.[1][2] According to the USDA-NRCS PLANTS database, Marsilea quadrifolia is native to parts of Ontario, Canada,[3] but other sources list it as only a European native.[4]

Genus Marsilea[edit]

Marsileaceaegenus Marsilea
Marsilea Waterclover N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
European water-clover,
European water fern,
Water shamrock,
European pepperwort

Marsilée à quatre feuilles,
Marsile à quatre feuilles
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 45%[5]
Marsilea quadrifolia colony.JPG
Marsilea quadrifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XN‽
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp