Flora of New York/Iridaceae & Xanthorrhoeaceae

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Asparagales (1)
Orchidaceae & Hypoxidaceae
Flora of New York — Asparagales (2)
Iridaceae & Xanthorrhoeaceae

Asparagales (3)
Ammaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order P Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Asparagales 1 Orchidaceae Vanilloideae Pogonieae Pogonia (snakemouth orchid)
Isotria (fiveleaf orchid)
2 3
Cypripedioideae Cypripedium (lady's slipper) 1 8
Epidendroideae Neottieae Epipactis (helleborine)
Listera (twayblade)
2 6
Triphoreae Triphora (noddingcaps) 1 1
Arethuseae Arethusa (dragon's mouth) 2 2
Malaxideae Liparis (widelip-orchid)
Malaxis (adder's-mouth-orchid)
2 5
Maxillarieae Corallorhiza (coralroot)
Aplectrum (Adam and Eve)
3 6
Calypsoeae Calypso (fairy slipper)
Tipularia (cranefly orchid)
2 2
Orchidoideae Orchideae Amerorchis (roundleaf orchis)
Coeloglossum (frog-orchid)
Galearis (galearis)
Platanthera (fringed-orchid)
4 23
Cranichideae Goodyera (rattlesnake-plantain)
Spiranthes (ladies'-tresses)
2 12
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis (eastern yellow stargrass) 1 1
2 Iridaceae Iridoideae Irideae Iris (iris)
Belamcanda (blackberry lily)
2 10
Sisyrinchieae Sisyrinchium (blue-eyed grass) 1 7
Crocoideae Ixiae Crocus (crocus) 1 4
Xanthorrhoeaceae Hemerocallidoieae Hemerocallideae Hemerocallis (daylily) 1 2
3 Ammaryllidaceae Allioideae Allium (garlic, onion, leek, chives) 1 14
Amaryllidoideae Narcisseae Narcissus (daffodil) 1 4
Galantheae Galanthus (snowdrop)
Leucojum (snowflake)
2 3
Asparagaceae Scilloideae Ornithogaleae Ornithogalum (star-of-Bethlehem) 1 2
Hyacintheae Chionodoxa (glory of the snow)
Hyacinthoides (English-bluebell)
Muscari (grape-hyacinth)
Scilla (squill)
4 5
Agavoideae Agaveae Yucca (Adam's needle)
Hosta (plantain lily)
2 4
Asparagoideae Asparagus (asparagus) 1 1
Nolinoideae Convallaria (lily-of-the-valley) 1 2
Maianthemum (mayflower)
Polygonatum (Solomon's-seal)
2 6

The classification scheme used here for the order Asparagales is from P.F. Stevens, (2001-2015). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, April 2015. - University of Missouri, St Louis, and Missouri Botanical Garden.

Family Iridaceae[edit]

The Iridaceae (iris family) ...

Subfamily Iridoideae[edit]

Tribe Irideae[edit]

Genus Iris[edit]
Iris subg. Limniris[edit]
Iridaceaesubfam. Iridoideaetribe Irideaegenus Irissubg. Limniris
Irissect. Limniris Iris N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 L.

Iris hookeri (2n=38) ×
Iris virginica (2n=70) → 2n=104

1753. Iris versicolor  L.
1863. Xiphion versicolor  (L.) Alef.
2007. Limniris versicolor  (L.) Rodion.
Harlequin blueflag,
Larger blue flag,
Northern blue flag,
Hybrid of
 Hooker's iris &
 Southern blueflag

Iris versicolore,
Clajeux
Native,
Secure

Wetland OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Iris versicolor 3.jpg
Iris versicolor nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Pursh

1814. Iris prismatica  Pursh
1840. Iris carolina  Radius ex Steud.
2007. Limniris prismatica  Rodion.
Slender blue flag,
Slender blue iris,
Cube iris,
Coastal iris
Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]
Iris prismatica NRCS-4x3.jpg
Iris prismatica nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NX
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Iris virginica  L.
1890. Iris caroliniana  S.Watson
1913. Iris georgiana  Britton
1927. Iris shrevei  Small
1936. Iris virginica var. shrevei
Southern blueflag,
Shreve's iris,
Virginia iris,
Iris de Virginie
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[2]
Iris virginica NRCS-4x3.jpg
Iris virginica nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 L. (1753)
var. smalliana Fernald (1947)

Neubeckia verna (L.) Small
Dwarf iris,
Dwarf violet iris,
Upland violet iris,
Vernal iris
Introduced,
North America native
Iris verna 1392140.jpg
Iris verna var smalliana nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N

ARS 
FNA 

Note POW
Images, wsp
 L. (1753)
Siberian iris,
Iris de Sibérie
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
IPA
Iris sibirica, The Hague, Netherlands - 20040527.jpg
Iris sibirica nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Iris pseudacorus  L.
1789. Iris palustris
   (L.) L.Gaterau superfl.

1817. Iris paludosa  Pers.
1852. Limnirion pseudacorus  Opiz
1866. Limniris pseudacorus  Fuss
Yellow iris,
Pale-yellow iris,
Yellow flag,
Yellow water iris

Iris faux-acore,
Iris jaune,
Iris des marais,
Fleur-de-lis
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 76%[3],
CP-3[4]
Iris pseudacorus 001.jpg
Iris pseudacorus nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Irissect. Lophiris Iris N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 Sol. ex Aiton

1789. Iris cristata  Sol. ex Aiton
1863. Neubeckia cristata  Alef.
1882. Evansia cristata  Klatt
1913. Iris cristata var. alba Dykes
Crested iris,
Dwarf crested iris
Introduced from
 southeast USA,
North America native
Iris cristata FWS-02.jpg
Iris cristata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Iris subg. Iris[edit]
Iridaceaesubfam. Iridoideaetribe Irideaegenus Irissubg. Iris
Irissubg. Iris Iris N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 N.C.Hend.
[ I. pallida × I. variegata × I. … ]

1753. Iris germanica  L.
1753. Iris × germanica  L. (pro sp.)
1759. Iris florentina  L.
1993. Iris × conglomerata  N.C.Hend.
German iris,
Orris,
Tall bearded iris,
Flag, Flags

iris d'Allemagne,
iris bleu d'Allemagne
Introduced from
 e. Mediterranean,
Widely cultivated
Iris germanica 7923-1725-4x3.jpg
Iris × conglomerata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Iris subg. Hermodactyloides[edit]
Iridaceaesubfam. Iridoideaetribe Irideaegenus Irissubg. Hermodactyloides
Irissubg. Hermodactyloides Iris N.Y. Status Images Distribution 8
 Mabberley & Goldblatt

1753. Epidendrum domesticum  L.
1753. Ixia chinensis  L.
1794. Belamcanda punctata  Moench
1797. non Iris chinensis  Curtis
1805. Belamcanda chinensis  (L.) DC.[1]
1891. Gemmingia chinensis  (L.) Kuntze
2005. Iris domestica  Mabberley & Goldblatt[2]
Blackberry lily,
Leopard flower,
Leopard lily,
Iris tigre
Introduced from
 temperate Asia
Belamcanda chinensis - Belamkanda chińska 01.jpg
Iris domestica nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Tribe Sisyrinchieae[edit]

Genus Sisyrinchium[edit]
Iridaceaesubfam. Iridoideaetribe Sisyrinchieae
SisyrinchiumL. 1753 Blue-eyed-grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution 7
 Greene
var. montanum

1899-1. S. montanum  Greene
1899-7. S. heterocarpum  E.P.Bicknell
1899-8. S. alpestre  E.P.Bicknell
Strict blue-eyed grass,
Mountain blue-eyed grass,
Common blue-eyed grass,
Little blue-eyed grass

Bermudienne montagnarde,
Herbe aux yeux bleus
Native,
Secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Sisyrinchium fls 03.JPG
Sisyrinchium montanum var montanum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Greene
var. crebrum Fernald

1946. S. montanum var. crebrum Fernald
1948. S. montanum ssp. crebrumBöcher
1949. S. bermudiana
   var.
crebrum B.Boivin
auct.. S. angustifolium non Mill.
Strict blue-eyed grass,
Mountain blue-eyed grass

Bermudienne brunissante
Native,
Endangered
Montane blue-eyed grass (Whitefish I).JPG
Sisyrinchium montanum var crebrum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Mill.

1768. S. angustifolium  Mill.
1783. S. gramineum  Lam.
1896. S. graminoides  E.P.Bicknell
auct.. S. bermudiana non L.
Narrowleaf
    blue-eyed grass,
Narrow-leaved
    blue-eyed grass
Native,
Secure
Sisyrinchium angustifolium04.jpg
Sisyrinchium angustifolium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
E.P.Bicknell

1896. S. atlanticum  E.P.Bicknell
1899. S. apiculatum  E.P.Bicknell
1964. S. mucronatum
   var.
atlanticum H.E.Ahles
Eastern blue-eyed grass Native,
Likely secure
Sisyrinchium atlanticum.jpg
Sisyrinchium atlanticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
E.P.Bicknell

(=) S. arenicola
(=) S. farwellii
(=) S. incrustatum
(=) S. rufipes
(=) S. tenellum
Coastal-plain
    blue-eyed grass
Native,
Rare
Sisyrinchium fuscatum drawing 1.png
Sisyrinchium fuscatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA 


Images, wsp
Michx.

1803. S. mucronatum  Michx.
1892. S. angustifolium
   var.
mucronatum Baker
1899. S. intermedium  E.P.Bicknell
Michaux's blue-eyed-grass,
Needletip blue-eyed grass
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-1[1]
Sisyrinchium-mucronatum.png
Sisyrinchium mucronatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA 


Images, wsp
 Raf.

(=) S. asheianum
(=) S. bermudianum var. albidum
(=) S. floridanum
(=) S. hastile
(=) S. niveum
(=) S. scabrellum
White blue-eyed grass,
Pale blue-eyed grass
Native,
Endangered
Sisyrinchium albidum NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngSisyrinchium albidum NRCS-2.jpg
Sisyrinchium albidum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-?
USDA-NN
NEW 

FNA 

Note FNA[2]
Images, wsp
Species Stem-
branching
Stem
width (mm)
Stem
length
Leaf
width
Leaf
length
Petal
length
Flower
color
S. angustifolium some broad, 2.5-5 ≤ 5 dm (20") 1.5-6 mm (< 1/4") long ≥ 7 mm blue-violet
S. atlanticum some narrow, 0.5-2 long ≤ 2 mm (<1/12") short blue-violet
S. montanum rarely broad, 1.5-4 ≤ 5 dm (20") 2-3 mm (~1/8") long ≥ 8 mm blue-violet
S. mucronatum none wiry, 0.9-1.5 ≤ 4.5 dm (18") 1-2 mm (~1/12") short, 70-150 mm blue-violet
S. albidum broad, 1.5-4 ≤ 4 dm (16") 1.5-4 mm white

Subfamily Crocoideae[edit]

Tribe Ixiae[edit]

Genus Crocus[edit]

Although there are no vouchered Crocus specimens listed from New York, these non-native species have appeared on the checklist of New York State plants.[1]

Iridaceaesubfam. Crocoideaetribe Ixiaegenus Crocus
Crocus Crocus N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 (L.) Hill

1756. Crocus sativus var. vernus L.
1765. Crocus vernus  (L.) Hill
1805. Crocus vernus
   var.
neapolitanus Ker Gawl.
Dutch crocus,
Spring crocus

Crocus de printemps,
Crocus de Naples,
Crocus printanier
Introduced from
 Europe,
No specimens
Heuberg Krokus2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Weston
Cloth of gold Introduced,
No specimens
Crocus-angustifolius.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngNIEdot330.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS



Images, wsp
Ten. (1826)
Early crocus,
Naples crocus
Introduced,
No specimens
Crocus imperati 'De Jager'.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS



Images, wsp
J.Gay (1831)
Sieber's crocus,
Greek crocus
Introduced,
No specimens
Crocus sieberi Tricolor09.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS



Images, wsp
  1. Mitchell, R.S. (ed.). 1986. A checklist of New York State plants. Contributions of a Flora of New York State, Checklist III. New York State Bulletin No. 458. New York State Museum, Albany.

Family Xanthorrhoeaceae[edit]

The Xanthorrhoeaceae (or Hemerocallidaceae[1]) family contains the non-native orange and yellow daylilies.

Submily Hemerocallidoideae[edit]

Tribe Hemerocallideae[edit]

Genus Hemerocallis[edit]

Although the common form of the orange daylily Hemerocallis fulva is a seedless triploid and essentially sterile, it has persisted after, and escaped from cultivation so successfully using vegetative means such as root fragments, that it is considered invasive in much of the world, including New York. By contrast, the fertile diploid yellow daylily, Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus, though reportedly naturalized in some places, is not currently considered invasive.

Xanthorrhoeaceaesubfam. Hemerocallidoideaetribe Hemerocallideaegenus Hemerocallis
Hemerocallis Daylily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1753. H. lilioasphodelus var. fulvus L.
1762. Hemerocallis fulva  L.
1866. H. fulva var. kwanso Regel
1930. H. fulva var. rosea Stout
Orange daylily,
Tawny daylily,
Fulvous daylily,
Ditch lily

Hémérocalle fauve,
Lis d’un jour
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
 India,
Invasive,
NYIS: 46%[2],
CP-3[3]
HemerocallisFulva1UME.jpg
Hemerocallis fulva nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus  L.
1762. Hemerocallis flava  L.
1790. Hemerocallis lutea  Gaertn.
Yellow daylily,
Lemon-lily,
Lemon daylily
Introduced from
 Eurasia
Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus flower.jpg
Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp