Chapter 7 Late modern period until 1914

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This covers the late modern period until 1914. The late modern period started circa 1750 or 1800, and ended circa 1945 or at the present day. The "long nineteenth century" was 1789–1914.

States and territories of the late modern period[edit | edit source]

Europe in 1815

In 1815 states included:

Northern Europe
Included Sweden–Norway (1814–1905) and Denmark. The Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801) (of England, Wales and Scotland) would merge with the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1801) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922); this later became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
Western and Central Europe
Included France and Switzerland. The German Confederation included some of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) roughly covered the present-day Netherlands and Belgium; Luxembourg was part of the German Confederation, but was in personal union with the Netherlands.
Eastern Europe
Included the Russian Empire and Congress Poland; Congress Poland became a puppet state of Russia, although the Polish Free City of Cracow (1815–1846) was autonomous until annexed by the Austrians. The Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro (1516–1852) would later became the Principality of Montenegro. The Ottoman Empire included the semi-autonomous Principality of Serbia (1815–1882). The Danubian Principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) were Ottoman vassals which would later become the United Principalities (1859–1881), later renamed to Romania; they eventually, with Transylvania, formed the basis for the Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947). With the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832), Greece would obtain independence from the Ottomans as the Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924).
Iberian Peninsula
Included Spain and Portugal.
Italian Peninsula
Included the kingdoms of Sicily and Naples. Northern Italy included the Kingdom of Sardinia (with Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, Genoa), the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian), the Papal States, and the duchies of Lucca, Massa and Carrara, Modena and Reggio, and Parma; and San Marino.

Late eighteenth century[edit | edit source]

Age of Revolution[edit | edit source]

Age of Revolution, from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries, saw a rise of revolutionary activities, especially away from absolute monarchy and towards constitutional republics.

The Atlantic Revolutions was a revolutionary wave within the Atlantic World. Prominent examples included:

  • American Revolution (1765–1783)
  • French Revolution (1789–1799)
  • Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), a large slave rebellion followed by a massacre of the French (1804)
  • Irish Rebellion of 1798, which would contribute to the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
  • Spanish American wars of independence (1808–1833)

Other revolutionary waves included the Revolutions of 1820 and the Revolutions of 1830. The Ottoman Empire would also experience unrest in this period, with the Serbian Revolution (1804–1835) and the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832). The Revolutions of 1848, with widespread revolt across Europe, contributed to the French Revolution of 1848, and the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849).

Seven Years' War, and French and Indian War[edit | edit source]

North America in 1750
Mount Rushmore with sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln (left to right)

Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, and can be seen as a world war. It was principally a struggle for primacy between Great Britain and France, with two coalitions:

  • Kingdom of Great Britain coalition: including the German states of Prussia and Hanover, and Portugal
  • Kingdom of France coalition: including the Habsburg/Austrian Monarchy, Russian Empire, Bourbon Spain, and Sweden.

Major European theaters included: Silesia, Pomeranian War (Sweden and Prussia), and the Spanish invasion of Portugal (1762). Other European theaters included: Bohemia and Moravia; Westphalia, Hesse, and Lower Saxony; Upper Saxony; Brandenburg; and East Prussia. The Seven Years' War also had theaters in North America, West Indies, West Africa, India, and Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul.

It resulted in a Anglo-Prussian coalition victory; although there was little change in European territories, transfers of colonial possessions occurred, including in North America and India (the Northern Circars ceded to Great Britain).

French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a North American theater of the Seven Years' War, although warfare was extended during the period 1688 and 1763. Principally it was British America against New France and its Indian allies. It ended with Louis XV ceding the remains of New France (a North American territory roughly west of the Thirteen Colonies) to Spain and Great Britain after France's defeat, with the Treaty of Paris (1763):

  • Canada (of New France) and the remaining Acadian territories were ceded to Britain.
  • Louisiana (of New France) was divided along the Mississippi River: the east was ceded to Britain, and the west was ceded to Spain.

Hudson's Bay, some Acadian territories, and the island of Newfoundland had already been ceded to Britain by the French. French possessions in North America were thus reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, although they maintained islands in the Caribbean. After the American Revolutionary War in 1783, Britain lost its mainland territories outside of Canada. In 1800 Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France; but Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

After the Anglo–Spanish War (1762–1763), Spain ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for the return of Manila (in the Philippines) and Havana (in Cuba). Britain returned Florida back to Spain after the American Revolutionary War in 1783. After the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, the Spain ceded Florida to the United States.

American Revolution[edit | edit source]

American Revolution (1765–1783): resulted in the Kingdom of Great Britain losing possession of the United States of America (USA), called the Thirteen Colonies until the Declaration of Independence of the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It included the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). In 1765 the First Congress of the American Colonies met in response to taxation introduced by the Stamp Act. The Boston Tea Party (1773) was an act of symbolic defiance against the tax on tea. In 1774, the First Continental Congress attempted to create at a separatist government. War erupted in 1775, with the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish, and Dutch allies) against the British and Loyalists (also known as Tories).

In 1783 the British capitulated to the Americans, and signed the Treaty of Paris. George Washington was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), and the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. George Washington is one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, along with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison.

Partitions of Poland[edit | edit source]

Partitions of Poland (1772–1795): in a series of partitions, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was partitioned to the Habsburg/Austrian Monarchy, Kingdom of Prussia, and Russian Empire. Three partitions took place in 1772, 1793, and 1795. In 1807, Napoleon resurrected Poland when he set up the Duchy of Warsaw.

French Revolution[edit | edit source]

Storming of the Bastille (1789)
Execution of Louis XVI, 21 January 1793
Jean-Paul Marat in the La Mort de Marat (Jacques-Louis David)
Thermidorian Reaction: Saint-Just and Robespierre at the Hôtel de Ville of Paris on the night of 27–28 July 1794 (9–10 Thermidor Year II).

The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of French history that resulted in the abolition of the Ancien Régime (the Old Rule of the monarchy and nobles), the establishment of a republic based on secular democracy and liberalism, and the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. Louis XVI and his wife Marie Marie Antoinette would both be executed with the guillotine.

It began with the formation of the Third Estate of the Estates-General (May 1789), an assembly representing commoners, as opposed to clergy (the First Estate) and nobility (the Second Estate); it was then renamed the National Assembly (17 June 1789).

National Constituent Assembly and Legislative Assembly[edit | edit source]

National Constituent Assembly (July 1789 to September 1791) followed the National Assembly on 9 July, after its members had taken the Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789). Events included:

  • The Storming of the Bastille (a state prison), a mainly symbolic gesture, commenced on 14th July 1789, and is now commemorated on Bastille Day.
  • The abolition of feudalism (August 1789), and later the privileges of the nobility (June 1790).
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (in part drafted by the Marquis de Lafayette) was adopted in August 1789, and was later followed by the Declaration of the Rights of Woman (September 1791).
  • The Women's March on Versailles (October 1789) compelled the Louis XVI and most of the Assembly to return with them to Paris; Louis took up residence in the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • Jacobin Club, a nationwide republican movement, was re-founded in Paris in November 1789.

The Jacobin Club would greatly influence three main bodies of revolutionaries of whom many were members: the more radical Montagnards, the more moderate Girondins, and the uncommitted Maraisards. The sans-culottes (lower-class radicals) were closely aligned, and involved in the September Massacres, a series of killings of prisoners in Paris (September 1792).

  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790) caused the immediate subordination of the French clergy to the French government. Many anti-clerical laws would later be passed.
  • The Flight to Varennes (June 1791) of Louis XVI, and his subsequent capture, damaged his prestige.
  • The Champ de Mars massacre (July 1791) took place after it was announced that Louis XVI would retain his throne.

Legislative Assembly (October 1791 to September 1792) replaced the National Constituent Assembly as legislative body, with government on the basis of a constitutional monarchy, a position favored by moderates such as the Count of Mirabeau.

  • The Paris Commune, who ruled Paris and became dominated by Jacobins, in 1792, and would became insurrectionary that summer; it lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795 by the French Directory.

National Convention and French First Republic[edit | edit source]

National Convention (1792–1795) replaced the National Legislative Assembly on 20 September; it was dominated by Jacobins. This took place after the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, the storming of the Tuileries Palace, the residence of Louis XVI.

The French First Republic (1792–1804) was declared on 22 September 1792 by the National Convention. This ended the reign of Louis XVI; he was then executed in January 1793, followed by his wife Marie Antoinette nine months later.

The Committee of Public Safety (1793–1795) was first chaired by the Montagnard Georges Danton, who was later executed with Camille Desmoulins in April 1794. It held de facto executive from April 1793, and organized the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), with resulted in over 40,000 executions, particularly from the Law of Suspects (September 1793).

Some moderate Girondins were purged from the National Convention after the Insurrection of 31 May to 2 June 1793. In July 1793 Jean-Paul Marat, a Girondin opponent, was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, a Girondin sympathizer. In October 1793 many prominent Girondins were then executed, including Jacques Pierre Brissot.

Thermidorian Reaction and French Directory[edit | edit source]

The Thermidorian Reaction ended the Reign of Terror; Montagnard committee member Maximilien Robespierre, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, and twenty of their allies were executed by the Thermidorians on 28 July 1794. It was followed by the First White Terror (1794–1795) against people identified as being associated with the Reign of Terror, particularly those of the Jacobin Club which was suppressed and disbanded.

French Directory (1795–1799) in November 1795 became the new five-member executive elected by the legislature (the Council of Five Hundred and Council of Ancients), after 13 Vendémiaire (an October 1795 battle between revolutionary troops and royalist forces in Paris). The Committee of Public Safety and National Convention were abolished.

There was a number of coups during the French Directory: the Conspiracy of the Equals (May 1796, a failed royalist coup), the Coup of 18 Fructidor (September 1797, against the royalists), and the Coup of 30 Prairial VII (June 1799, with Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès gaining control). The Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799) ended the French Directory and the French Revolution era; the French Consulate and Napoleonic Era began the next day.

French Revolutionary Wars[edit | edit source]

French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802): were wars of French Republic against Great Britain, Austria and others, sparked by the overthrow of Louis XVI. They included two wars, well as numerous other conflicts:

  • War of the First Coalition (1792–1797): with French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands, the Left Bank of the Rhine and other smaller territories. Northern Italy and other territories were turned into several French sister republics.
  • War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802): the previous annexations by France were confirmed. France was led by Paul Barras (until 1799) and Napoleon Bonaparte (from 1799).

The French Revolutionary Army was greatly strengthened by Lazare Carnot. The Levée en masse introduced mass national conscription (August 1793). Napoleon was the most successful general for France, and conquered much of Italy (campaigns of 1796 and 1797), and made the Austrians sue for peace; he also led the French campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801). The French Revolutionary Wars temporarily ended with the Treaty of Amiens 1802, but would flare up in 1803 with the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleonic Era[edit | edit source]

Napoleon Bonaparte
Europe in 1812, before the French invasion of Russia
1st Duke of Wellington (Arthur Wellesley)

Napoleonic Era (1799–1815) was the era when France was led by Napoléon Bonaparte, as First Consul (1799–1804) and then Emperor (1804–1814, 1815).

The French Consulate (1799–1804) began with Napoleon Bonaparte seizing control on 10 November 1799 and becoming First Consul. The Provisional Second and Third Consuls Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès and Roger Ducos were soon replaced by J.J. Cambacérès and Charles-François Lebrun. The three parliamentary assemblies were the Conseil d'État, Tribunat, and Corps législatif; the Sénat conservateur directly advised the First Consul.

It was followed by the First French Empire (1804–1814, 1815), when Napoléon was crowned Emperor of the French, replacing the Consulate. He had previously gained Life Consulship (May 1802). In 1812, France was enlarged with territories such as the Low Countries and parts of Italy; and had client states such as the Confederation of the Rhine, Switzerland, the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Warsaw, and Spain; and had allies such as Austria and Prussia.

Napoleonic Wars[edit | edit source]

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of conflicts between Napoleon's France its allies and client-states, against the Coalition Forces of the Napoleonic Wars (the third through to the seventh). They began with the United Kingdom declaring war on France in May 1803. Co-belligerents with the UK included Holy Roman Empire (pre-1806), Austria (from 1804), Prussia, and Russia, among others; the French were allied with their client states. The wars were a continuation of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802), with the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) being part of the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Era.

Major battles and aspects of the Napoleonic Wars included the following:

  • War of the Third Coalition (1803–1806). The Franco-Spanish navy was defeated by the British Navy (commanded by Horatio Nelson) at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), off Cape Trafalgar, Spain; this prevented a French invasion of England. But the French were victorious over the Russian-Austrian army at the Battle of Austerlitz (1805) in Austrian Moravia. The Confederation of the Rhine was created, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire followed (1806).
  • War of the Fourth Coalition (1806–1807). The French victory over Prussia and Saxony at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt (1806) in Germany, ended with the Fall of Berlin (1806). The Continental System, established after the Berlin Decree (1806), was a large-scale embargo against British trade. The Russians were defeated at the Battle of Friedland (1807) in Prussia. After the Treaties of Tilsit (1807) with Prussia and Russia, Napoleon created the French sister republics of the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Free City of Danzig.
  • French Invasion of Portugal (1807) was after Portugal openly refused to join the Continental System. Subsequently, the Spanish Bourbons were overthrown (1808) with the occupation of both Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular War (1808–1814) eventually resulted in the expulsion of the French from Portugal and then Spain. The Battle of Vitoria (1813) in Spain was a decisive victory for the British, who were led by the Duke of Wellington (Arthur Wellesley).
  • War of the Fifth Coalition (1809), with a French victory over the Austrians at the Battle of Wagram (1809) in Austria. The French imposed harsh terms on the Austrians.
  • French invasion of Russia (1812), and the resulting catastrophe for the French; the French Grande Armée of circa 685,000 troops had losses of circa 500,000; the Russians lost a similar amount. It included the major but indecisive Battle of Borodino (1812) in Russia.
  • War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814), with French defeat by coalition forces at the Battle of Leipzig (1813) in Saxony; but the French had success in the Six Days' Campaign (1814) in northeastern France. The Battle of Paris (1814) ended the war in favor of the coalition.
  • Hostilities temporarily ended with Provisional Government of 1814, and then the first Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815) of the Kingdom of France under Louis XVIII. Napoleon was forced to abdicate, and was temporarily exiled to the island of Elba (1814–1815).
  • The Hundred Days, or War of the Seventh Coalition (1815), was the from 20 March 1815 (the French Government of the Hundred Days after Napoleon's return from Elba), to 8 July 1815 (the second Bourbon Restoration), a period of 111 days. Napoleon's was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (1815) in present day Belgium; this was by an Anglo-allied army (commanded by the Duke of Wellington), and a Prussian army (commanded by Field Marshal Blücher). The French had previously beaten the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny two days earlier.

The French Provisional Government of 1815 was followed by the second Bourbon Restoration (1815–1830), the restoration of the Kingdom of France at first under Louis XVIII. Napoleon was permanently exiled to St. Helena, where he died in 1821. The Bourbons were overthrown in 1830, but the French monarchy survived until the French Second Republic (1848–1852).

Other wars of the Napoleonic Era included the following (some of which may be also included in the Napoleonic Wars): Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808); English Wars (of the UK and Sweden against Denmark-Norway, 1801–1814); Russo-Persian War (1804–13); Franco-Swedish War (1805–1810 which included the Finnish War of 1808–1809); Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812); Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809); Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812); Anglo-Swedish War (1810–1812); War of 1812 (between the United States and the United Kingdom, 1812–1815); Swedish-Norwegian War (1814). The Latin American wars of independence, the wars for independence of countries in Latin America mainly from the Spanish, were greatly influenced by the Napoleonic Wars.

Post-Napoleonic Europe[edit | edit source]

Congress of Vienna
Queen Victoria in 1882

Congress of Vienna was completed with the Final Act in 1815. The were many territorial changes, but major ones included:

  • Russia obtained most of the Duchy of Warsaw, and kept Finland which they had annexed from Sweden in 1809, and which they held until 1917.
  • Prussia gained Swedish Pomerania, and parts of Saxony, the Duchy of Warsaw, Danzig, and the Rhineland/Westphalia.
  • Austrian Empire gains included Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866), and they regained Tyrol and Salzburg.
  • Congress Poland (1815−1867) was created, which later became part of Russian Empire 1867 to 1915.
  • United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) was created, which is now the Low Countries.
  • Sweden kept Norway, which they had obtained from Denmark.
  • There were various colonial changes and restorations, such as Britain with Cape Colony, Tobago, Ceylon, and various other colonies.
  • German Confederation (1815–1866) was created; for Italian changes see the Risorgimento.

Concert of Europe (1815): also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System, it was a system of dispute resolution founded by the Quadruple Alliance (Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the UK) that defeated Napoleon. The Quadruple Alliance, minus the UK, also formed the Holy Alliance that same year. The principles were that no important change take place without the consent of these Great Powers, and that a the balance of power be maintained.

Pax Britannica (1815–1914) was a period of relative peace between the five great powers of the period: the Austrian Empire, France, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Other powers had lessened influence, such as Spain, Portugal, and Sweden. The United Kingdom in particular had a position of hegemony (that is, leadership and dominance) through its British Empire and Royal Navy. The Royal Navy had surpassed the Dutch Navy and the French Navy to "rule the waves". Slavery was abolished within the British Empire in 1833 under William IV. Queen Victoria, who reigned 1837–1901, ruled over the Victorian era of the United Kingdom, characterized by great national confidence in empire and industry.

France after 1814[edit | edit source]

Liberty Leading the People (Eugène Delacroix) commemorated the July Revolution (1830); Marianne (Liberty) is a symbol of France and French liberty

France 1814–1848[edit | edit source]

During most of this period France was a monarchy.

  • Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815): with the reign of Louis XVIII, preceded by a Provisional Government.
  • First French Empire restored, and the French Government of the Hundred Days (1815). After Napoleon's successful return from Elba, until Napoleon abdicated in favor of his son Napoleon II.
  • Bourbon Restoration (1815–1830): with the reigns of Louis XVIII (1815–1824) and Charles X (1824–1830), preceded by a Provisional Government.
  • July Monarchy: after the July Revolution (1830) resulted in the reign of the Orléans King Louis Philippe I (1830–1848). During this period, the June Rebellion (1832) was an unsuccessful Paris uprising immortalised in Les Misérables.

France after 1848[edit | edit source]

After the French Revolution of 1848 (the February Revolution), France was mostly republican; the main exceptions being the Second French Empire, and occupation during World War II.

  • French Second Republic (1848–1852): preceded by Provisional Government, and with President Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (the nephew of Napoleon) ruling after the presidential election of 1848.
  • Second French Empire (1852–1870): after the French coup d'état of 1851, with Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte ruling as Emperor Napoleon III.
  • French Third Republic (1870–1940): after the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III, during defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871). The Paris Commune (1871) was bloodily suppressed. The first government was the Government of National Defense.
  • In 1940, during World War II, mainland France separated into: (i) zone libre ("free zone") administered by Vichy France, although the zone sud ("south zone") was later occupied by Italy; (ii) zone occupée/nord ("occupied/north zone") occupied by Germany, with the zone interdite/réservée ("forbidden/reserved zone") reserved for coastal military and German settlement. Alsace-Lorraine was secretly annexed by Germany, and some border areas were annexed by Italy. France's colonies came under occupation by Germany, Italy, Japan, and Thailand. Free France was a government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle.
  • Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–1946), after the liberation of continental France.
  • French Fourth Republic (1946–1958), a post-World War II republic.
  • French Fifth Republic (1958 to the present day) was established after the Algerian crisis of 1958.

Revolutions of 1848[edit | edit source]

Revolutions of 1848: across much of Europe (1848–1849), with numerous revolutions and periods of unrest. In France it contributed to the formation of the French Second Republic (1848–1851). In Hungary, the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 would eventually give rise to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise (1867), which gave birth to Austria-Hungary. In Italy, temporary independence in Sicily was created, followed soon after by the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849). In the Danish Duchy of Schleswig, unrest contributed to the First Schleswig War (1848–1852) against the Germans, which ended with a Danish victory; but in the Second Schleswig War (1864), Schleswig-Holstein would be lost to the Germans.

There were numerous other events; 1848 was also the year of the publication of The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Spain during the nineteenth century[edit | edit source]

The Third of May 1808; French reprisals following the Dos de Mayo Uprising (1808) in Madrid following occupation (by Francisco Goya)

Bourbon monarchs ruled the Kingdom of Spain between 1700 and 1808, interrupted by Joseph Bonaparte of the House of Bonaparte (1808–1813), who was installed by Napoleon during the Peninsular War. After Spanish victory in the Peninsular War the Bourbons were restored (1813–1868) with Ferdinand VII (who reigned in 1808 and 1813–1833); during this period the Spanish colonies in the New World were lost, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Carlism was an attempt to promote a rival branch of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish monarchy; it stemmed from Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, who claimed the monarchy after the death of his brother Ferdinand VII in 1833, over Ferdinand's daughter Isabella II. This led to the Carlist Wars for the monarchy, which were unsuccessful. But Carlism would continue as right-wing political movement, and Carlists were instrumental for the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). Carlist claimants to the Spanish monarchy continue to the present-day.

Isabella II was later deposed in the Spanish Glorious Revolution (1868). The Glorious Revolution was followed by the Sexenio Democrático (six democratic years): Provisional Government (1868–1871), King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy (1871–1873), and the First Spanish Republic (1873–1874). The Bourbons were then restored again during the period known as the Restoration (1874–1931), with the reign of Alfonso XII.

Crimean War[edit | edit source]

Crimean War (1853–1856): the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. Russia was expanding into the Danubian Principalities, then vassals of the Ottoman Empire. Also involved the rights of Christians (Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox) at Holy Land sites, then under the Ottoman Empire. Fighting took part on the Crimean peninsula and around the Black Sea.

Risorgimento[edit | edit source]

Risorgimento (Italian unification) animated map

The Risorgimento, or Italian unification, occurred between 1815 and 1871. After the Congress of Vienna (1815), there were many changes in the Italian makeup:

  • Kingdom of Sardinia was restored to include Sardinia, Piedmont, Genoa, Nice, and Savoy. Its capital was Turin. It was a Savoyard state, a term used for all of the states ruled by the counts and dukes of Savoy until the Risorgimento. The Savoyard state was founded by Humbert I, Count of Savoy, who died in the 11th century.
  • Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was created from Sicily and Naples (southern Italy); it was restored to the Bourbon King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies.
  • Lombardy-Venetia (Lombardy and Venice) was gained by the Austrian Empire.
  • Italy also consisted of the Papal States, and some central states: the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Toscana); the duchies of Parma, Modena (and Reggio), Massa and Carrara, and Lucca; and the Republic of San Marino.

Key events included:

  • Massa and Carrara would be annexed by Modena (1829); and Lucca would be annexed by Tuscany and Modena (1847).
  • Revolutions of 1848 created insurrection across Italy; the Sicilian revolution of 1848 created independence in Sicily for 16 months.
  • First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849): resulted in a victory of Austria over Sardinia, without territorial changes.
  • Second Italian War of Independence (1859): Sardinia then annexed the majority of Lombardy from Austria.
  • United Provinces of Central Italy (1859) was created by Sardinia from Tuscany, Parma, and Modena, and the Papal Legations (Romagna).
  • Central Italy was united with Sardinia in 1860, but Savoy and Nice were annexed by the French that year.
  • Most of the Two Sicilies, and much of the Papal States, were annexed by Sardinia in 1860.
  • Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) was proclaimed in 1861 under King Victor Emmanuel II, who had been King of Sardinia and Duke of Savoy.
  • Third Italian War of Independence (1866): Italy annexed Venetia (Venice) from Austria.
  • Remaining Papal States were annexed by Italy in 1870; in 1929 Vatican City was established with the Lateran Treaty.
  • Italian capital city was moved to Rome in 1871; earlier it had been Turin (1861–1865) and Florence (1865–1871).

Only San Marino was to remain independent, although Vatican City achieved independence in 1929. Giuseppe Garibaldi was a popular statesman and the greatest military leader during unification, his actions included leading the Expedition of the Thousand (1860–1861) to conquer the Two Sicilies.

German Empire[edit | edit source]

The proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, 18 January 1871. Wilhelm I stands centrally on the left, and Otto von Bismarck appears in white.
Austria-Hungary, with Cisleithania (1–15), Hungary (16), Croatia-Slavonia (17), and Bosnia and Herzegovina (18)

The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved to form the Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813). It was eventually replaced by the German Confederation (1815–1866), with 39 states created from the previous 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire. The German Confederation contained (in part) two major states: the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918) and the Austrian Empire (1804–1867).

After Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War (1866), the North German Confederation (1867–1871) of mainly Protestant northern German states was formed; this excluded the Austrian Empire and the mainly Catholic southern German states. With the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), which included the Siege of Paris (1870–71), France was defeated by Prussia, and Alsace-Lorraine was annexed by the Germans. In January 1871 the German Empire was declared, which now included the southern states of Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, and Hesse. The new Constitution of the German Empire was then adopted, with Germany under the permanent presidency of Prussia.

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich) (1871–1918) was a federal semi-constitutional monarchy; the German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the King of Prussia; they were Wilhelm I (1871–1888), Friedrich III (1888), and Wilhelm II (1888–1918). The empire was composed of four kingdoms: Prussia (Preußen), Bavaria (Bayern), Saxony (Sachsen), and Württemberg. It also included many other territories; larger ones included Baden, Hesse, Oldenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Alsace-Lorraine. The first chancellor was Otto von Bismarck (1873–1890), who had been Minister President of Prussia from 1862; nicknamed the "Iron Chancellor", he is regarded as an outstanding statesman and architect of the German Empire.

After defeat in World War I, the German Empire became a much reduced state called the Weimar Republic (1918–1933); this became Nazi Germany (1933–1945), the "3rd Reich" in Nazi terminology; they considered the 1st as being the Holy Roman Empire, and the 2nd as being the German Empire. After World War II, Germany would be divided into West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany) and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic), until German reunification in 1990.

Austria-Hungary[edit | edit source]

Austria-Hungary (1867–1918): was created after the Austrian Empire had left the German Confederation, and the Austro-Hungarian Compromise (1867). Austria-Hungary was a constitutional union between the Austria, Hungary, and Croatia-Slavonia; the Habsburg Austrian Emperor was the monarch.

  • Hungary and Croatia-Slavonia, termed the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania, were administered by the Hungarian government; Hungary included Transylvania, and the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat.
  • Cisleithania, the other Austro-Hungarian lands, were administered by the Austrians. Included Bohemia, Bukovina, Carinthia, Carniola, Dalmatia, Galicia, Küstenland, Lower Austria, Moravia, Salzburg, Silesia, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, and Vorarlberg.

Following the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Bosnia and Herzegovina nominally remained under sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, but was de facto ceded to Austria-Hungary. The Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 was created by the formal annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary.

After defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary was broken up, and separated into Austria and Hungary; and Austria-Hungarian lands were ceded to Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Poland, Italy, and Liechtenstein. Before World War II, the Anschluss was the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938. After World War II, Austria was again separated from the German states (West Germany and East Germany).

Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg[edit | edit source]

The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) included most of the present-day Netherlands and Belgium; Luxembourg was not technically part of it, but in personal union (that is, sharing a monarch). It was based on lands that had been occupied by the French: the Dutch Republic (1588–1795); and the Southern Netherlands, which had been earlier been controlled by Spain (1556–1714), and then Austria (1714–1794). Today the Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of mainland Netherlands (informally called "Holland") and the Dutch Caribbean, having lost Belgium. The House of Orange-Nassau has remained the royal house of the Netherlands.

With the Belgian Revolution (1830–1831), Belgium separated from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, mainly on the grounds of religion: Belgium was mainly Catholic and the Netherlands was mainly Protestant. The Ten Days' Campaign (1831) was an attempt by the Dutch to reunite the Netherlands with Belgium. The Treaty of London (1839) guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium; when the German Empire invaded Belgium in 1914 the Germans described the treaty as a mere "scrap of paper", but the British declared war. The Kingdom of Belgium has been a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy since the installation of Leopold I (House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) as king on 21 July 1831, now celebrated as Belgium's National Day.

Luxembourg (officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) was in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, but was part of the German Confederation. Luxembourg also received independence in 1839, but was reduced to the area were they spoke a German dialect called Luxembourgish, and remained in personal union with the Netherlands. The Luxembourg Crisis (1867) was a diplomatic crisis between the French Empire and Prussia, after King William III of the Netherlands accepted the French government's acquisition of Luxembourg, and the Prussian Prime Minister, Otto von Bismarck, objected. The Treaty of London (1867) peacefully reaffirmed the neutrality of Luxembourg. Luxembourg remained in personal union with the Netherlands until 1890.

The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg were occupied by Germany during World War II, but only Belgium and Luxembourg were occupied during World War I. The Dutch East Indies and Dutch Guiana survived as Dutch colonies until after World War II. Similarily, the Belgian Congo (1908–60) survived as a Belgian colonies until after World War II.

New Imperialism[edit | edit source]

Imperialism in 1914
Mainland expansion of the United States
Scramble for Africa
Colonial Africa in 1913
Atrocities in the Congo Free State
All territories that were part of the British Empire

New Imperialism is a term for the imperialism that followed the first wave of European colonization (1402 to 1815). From 1800 onward most of the colonies in the Americas would be lost, with the United States already independent; the largest remaining European colony in the Americas would be Canada, which gradually gained independence.

At around 1800, European power was comparatively weak outside of Europe and the Americas; the larger empires there included the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, Qajar Iran, the Chinese Qing dynasty, and the Indian Maratha Empire. But by 1914 European colonization outside of the Americas had greatly increased.

Colonialism in the Americas[edit | edit source]

Most New World possessions of Spain were lost during the Spanish American wars of independence (1808–1833), partly a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Simón Bolívar led the secession of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama from Spain. The Viceroyalty of New Spain mainland became the Mexican Empire after the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821). Additionally, Portugal lost Brazil after the War of Independence of Brazil (1822–1825).

After these wars, most mainland European colonies in the Americas were lost. South American colonies that continued included French Guiana, Suriname (then Dutch), and Guyana (then British). British Honduras (now Belize) continued in Central America.

West Indies colonies were slower to gain independence or would remain dependent. The British West Indies included large territories such as Jamaica and the Bahamas. The Danish West Indies consisted of the present-day United States Virgin Islands. The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch West Indies) consisted of islands in the Lesser Antilles. With the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), Haiti achieved independence from the French West Indies. The Spanish West Indies in 1815 consisted of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic).

The Northern American mainland now consist of the United States (independent of the British since 1783), Mexico (independent of the Spanish since 1821), and Canada (with independence from the British culminating in the Canada Act of 1982).

United States expansion and history[edit | edit source]

Manifest destiny was the 19th century imperialist cultural belief that the United States of America was destined to expand across North America. United States expansion and colonialism included:

  • Louisiana Purchase (1803): France sold French Louisiana to the United States.
  • Adams–Onís Treaty (1819): Florida ceded by Spain.
  • Commonwealth of Liberia (1821–1847): a private African colony of the American Colonization Society, now the Republic of Liberia.
  • Texas annexation (1845): annexation of the Republic of Texas, which had gained independence from Mexico with the Texas Revolution (1835–1836).
  • Oregon Treaty (1846), and Treaty of 1818: Oregon Country divided between the United States (Oregon Territory) and Great Britain (British Columbia).
  • Mexican–American War (1846–1848) and the Gadsden Purchase (1854): resulted in a major cession of Mexican territories.
  • Alaska Purchase (1867): from Russia, with Alaska becoming a state.
  • Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom (1893) and Newlands Resolution (1898): Hawaii was annexed, and became a state.

Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands were annexed by the United States after the Spanish–American War (1898). The Philippine Revolution (1898) ended Spanish colonization, but colonization by the United States was confirmed by their victory in the Philippine–American War (1899–1902); colonial rule lasted until 1946. Cuba became a US-backed Republic in 1902. Fulgencio Batista was ousted in 1959, and an independent Cuba came under the communist rule of Fidel Castro.

The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war in the United States; with a Union victory, it maintained its territorial integrity with the dissolution of the Confederate States of America; slavery was abolished, and it was the beginning of the Reconstruction era.

The Banana Wars (1898–1934) were United States military interventions largely to protect commercial interests, including in Cuba, Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The subsequent Good Neighbor policy had the main principle of non-intervention in Latin America, but was overshadowed by Cold War interventions such as the the unsuccessful CIA-backed Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961.

Scramble for Africa[edit | edit source]

Scramble for Africa was the rapid colonization of Africa beginning in the late nineteenth century. The British, French, Portuguese and Spanish colonized Africa; new empires mostly centered on Africa included the Italian (1869–1960), German (1884–1918), and Belgian (1885–1962) colonial empires.

In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was formally under European control. Between 1881 and 1914 the majority of Africa was colonized, with only with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberia remaining independent in 1914. The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 to some extent formalized the Scramble for Africa. In 1936 Ethiopia fell to the Italians, and only Liberia remained independent.

Gradually, decolonization resulted in the loss of these African colonies by 1975, accelerated by the devastation of the world wars.

Britain's imperial century[edit | edit source]

Britain's imperial century (1815–1914) was a time of unprecedented expansion of the British Empire; it reached a territorial peak in 1921. The East India Company was a British charted company founded in 1600; it seized British possessions on the Indian subcontinent, South East Asia, and Hong Kong. The rivalry between Britain and Russia in Afghanistan and surroundings during this period became known as the Great Game (1830–1895).

The British Empire included:

  • British Raj (1858–1947), now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar (Burma).
  • Asian and Oceanic possessions to the east: British Malaya and British Borneo (now Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore); Hong Kong; British New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea); the Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Seychelles, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka); and some islands in the Pacific Ocean.
  • British African colonies included: Egypt, Sudan, Somaliland, South Africa, South-West Africa (now Namibia), Basutoland (now Lesotho), Swaziland, Bechuanaland (now Botswana), Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), British East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania/Tanganyika, Zanzibar), Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, British Togoland (now part of Ghana), Cameroons (now parts of Cameroon and Nigeria), Gold Coast (now Ghana), Nyasaland (now Malawi).
  • The British expanded Canada, and had other American, Caribbean, and Atlantic colonies. They expanded Australia and New Zealand. They had protectorates in southern and eastern Arabia and Kuwait. They had possessions in Europe.

Other European colonialism[edit | edit source]

Other than the British, European colonialism included:

  • The Dutch controlled the Dutch East Indies (1816–1949), which followed on from the possessions of the defunct Dutch East India Company; the territories would form the basis for present-day Indonesia. The Dutch also controlled Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles.
  • French colonialism in Africa would become extensive, with French North Africa, French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, and French East Africa (including Madagascar). Outside of Africa, French colonies included French Indochina (now Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), French Polynesia, French Guiana, and the French West Indies.
  • German colonial empire was the third-largest colonial empire by 1914, after the British and French; African possessions included German Kamerun, German South West Africa, German East Africa, and German Togoland. Outside of Africa, it also included German New Guinea and German Samoa.
  • Belgian colonization included that of Leopold II of Belgium, who was founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State (1885–1908), which became infamous for atrocities and lack of judicial interference, which created international outrage. It was succeeded by the Belgian Congo (1908–1960), and the Belgians also controlled Rwanda and Burundi.
  • Italian colonization included in the Balkans, Italian East Africa, Italian Libya, and territories in the Western Mediterranean and Far East. It gained momentum with the rise of Benito Mussolini in 1922, who conquered Albania, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, parts of south-eastern France, western Egypt, and most of Greece; by 1947 it had lost them all, but Italian Somaliland would then become its protectorate.
  • Portuguese colonies in Africa included Angola, Mozambique, Guinea, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Príncipe. Portugal also controlled Macau, Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Portuguese Timor (now East Timor). To this day they control the Azores, Madeira, and Savage Islands.
  • Spanish colonies in Africa included Northern Spanish Morocco, Spanish West Africa, and Spanish Guinea. After the Dominican Restoration War (1863–1865), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) restored independence. After the Spanish–American War (1898), Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands would be lost by Spain.

Japan and China[edit | edit source]

The Empire of Japan (1868–1947) would gain prominence in world affairs after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Japan built an extensive empire from 1894. It included Taiwan (1895–1945), Korea (1910–1945), Manchuria (as Manchukuo, 1932–1945), and parts of northern China. Japan fought and defeated Russia during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), with Russia losing territories and local influence.

The century of humiliation (1839–1949) was a period of intervention and imperialism by Western powers and Japan in China, with China under the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) and Republic of China (1912–1949). It included defeat in the Opium Wars (1839–1842 and 1856–1860), defeat in the Sino-French War (1884–1885), the First and Second Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895 and 1937–1945), Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931-1932), and many other aspects.

Industrialization and cultural changes[edit | edit source]

The First Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in Europe and the USA. Around 1750, developments included the mechanisation of the textiles, developments of iron-making, the introduction of canals, the development of steam power and railways, and the development of all metal machine tools. Luddites protested against the use of machinery, and committed acts of sabotage.

The Second Industrial Revolution was the rapid industrialization between late 19th century and early 20th century. It included the Machine Age, circa 1880–1945. As industrial work forces grew in Western Europe, socialism and trade union activity developed. The last vestiges of serfdom were abolished in Russia in 1861 by Alexander II.

Other important historical periods included:

  • Victorian era and the Edwardian periods (1837–1901–1910) in the UK, with British Empire building and industry at its peak.
  • Gilded Age (1870–1900) of the United States, was a period of rapid growth in industry.
  • Meiji era (1868–1912) was the rule of Emperor Meiji in Japan, and a period of Japanese industrialization in which it emerged as a great power.
  • Long Depression was between 1873–1879 by some metrics.
  • Great Depression (1929–1939), which came after the Roaring Twenties.

Arts of the late modern period[edit | edit source]

Classical music composers montage. First row: Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Friedrich Händel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven. Second row: Gioachino Rossini, Felix Mendelssohn, Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Giuseppe Verdi. Third row: Johann Strauss II, Johannes Brahms, Georges Bizet, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonín Dvořák. Fourth row: Edvard Grieg, Edward Elgar, Sergei Rachmaninoff, George Gershwin, Aram Khachaturian

European arts can be divided into many Western art movements and periods. For music these include:

  • Early Music (circa 500–1600)
  • Baroque era (c. 1600–1750)
  • Galant music era (c. 1720s–1770s)
  • Classical era (c. 1730–1820)
  • Romantic era (c. 1780–1910)
  • Modernist era (c. 1890–1950)
  • Postmodern era or Contemporary period (c. 1930 to the present-day)

Common practice period (circa 1600 to 1910) was the musical era of the tonal system. The Classical period of music was named after the 18th century rise in classicism (drawing inspiration from classical antiquity). The term "classical music" can be applied to all Western art music.

Visual arts and architecture movements and periods, from circa 1750 onward, included:

  • Rococo, or Late Baroque, emerged circa the 1730s to the 1760s, as highly ornate styles in architecture and arts.
  • Neoclassicism, began circa 1760 in opposition to the Rococo style, and continues to the present day. As a form of classicism, it draws inspiration from classical antiquity. Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend.
  • Romanticism in art and music was circa 1780 to 1910, and was in part a reaction to modernity. The Pre-Raphaelitess were influenced by romanticism.
  • Realism, as an art movement, emerged in the 1840s, and nouveau réalisme (new realism) developed in the 1960s.
  • Impressionism in art and music, emerged early 1860s. It was followed by Post-Impressionism, and Neo-Impressionism and Pointillism.
  • Modernism was circa 1860s to the 1970s. Late modernism was after World War II, and it was followed by postmodern art.
  • Arts and Crafts movement was between circa 1880 and 1920, and stood for traditional craftsmanship. It is related to Art Nouveau.
  • Expressionism in art and music, is a modernist movement from the early 20th century onward. It is related to abstract expressionism, and it was followed by neo-expressionism.
  • Art Deco emerged in the 1910s as a popular modern art movement, particularly with architecture and design.
  • Dada started circa 1915, and rejected the logic, reason, and aestheticism of modern capitalist society; it was followed by Neo-Dada.
  • Surrealism started in 1917, and applied aspects of dreams and reality.
  • Avant-garde ("advance guard") is cutting-edge experimental art, and was the term was particularly applied to 20th-century music and theater.
  • Pop art, from the 1950s onward, was so named as it glorified and expanded upon popular culture.
  • Conceptual art emerged late 20th century; new concepts and ideas take precedence over traditional craftsmanship.
  • Contemporary art is a period of art post-World War II to the present day.

There were many other movements. Other 20th century movements include: Fauvism (circa 1900 to 1935), Cubism (circa 1907 to 1914), Futurism (circa 1909 to 1920s), Constructivism (1913 onward), Suprematism (1913 onward), Bauhaus (circa 1919 to 1933), Constructivism (1920s), The International Typographic Style (1945 onward), Op Art (1950s to 1960s), Arte Povera (1960s), Land art (1960s onward), Minimalism (1960s to 1970s), Installation art (1970s onward), and Memphis design aesthetic (1980s).

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