Ancient History

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Ancient Chinese terra cotta soldiers.
A Roman Colosseum.
Greek amphitheater at Delphi.
The Great Sphinx.
A map of the eastern hemisphere in 323 CE.
Terra cotta soldiers of Xi'an
The Athenian Parthenon.
Angro Mainyus devoring the Sacred Gayomaretan.
The Aztec calendar.
The ruins of Great Zimbabwe.
A Mesopotamian ziggurat.
An ancient Greek arrowhead.
A script in Cuneiform.
Wikibooks Ancient History

Population, Governance, Philosophy, Invention, Combat, and Trade
A prehistoric cave painting.
One of the famous Olmec head statues.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi.
The Great Pyramid at Giza
An artifact known as the "Priest-King," unearthed at Mohenjo-daro.
The façade of the Flavian Amphitheatre (also called the Colosseum)
The Great Mosque of Damascus.
Moai statues of Easter Island.
An Egyptian water clock.
A Persian cistern.
Ancient Mesopotamian Coin.
This project is a complete survey of Ancient History, listed by country and divided into the categories of Old World, New World, and Miscellaneous. The free nature of this project opens it to modification and change.

Instead of a chronological approach to history, this text assumes a geographical perspective. However, as it is important to also understand broad patterns within ancient history, each chapter covers a variety of material, though its title may suggest a specific region rather than a time period.


The study of ancient history covers the period between the origins of human beings' ancestors, and either the fall of Rome and Han-dynasty China, or the rise of Islam.

Chapter 1 - World Geography

One of the most difficult aspects of studying ancient history is that although the physical geography of Earth is largely the same, the political boundaries can be unfamiliar, especially for people who are learning for the first time.

Chapter 2 - Human Evolution

There were human societies long before there were cities or writing. How they lived, and how they became human, are matters of intense, passionate debate. This chapter examines the scientific perspective on the origins of human beings in the deep past, as well as the ways in which humans as a whole advanced between three million years and ten thousand years before the present-day.

Chapter 3 - The Ancient Near East

The Ancient Near East is sometimes considered the cradle of civilization. It was the first to practice intensive year-round agriculture; it produced the first writing system, invented the potter's wheel and then the vehicular- and mill wheels, created the first centralized governments, law codes and empires, as well as introducing social stratification, slavery and organized warfare, and it laid the foundation for the fields of astronomy and mathematics.

Chapter 4 - Ancient Egypt

From 5000BCE up till modern times, explore the history of the pyramids.

Chapter 5 - Ancient China

See how the country of over one billion people began.

Chapter 6 - Ancient India

Ancient India gave rise to Hinduism and Buddhism...

Chapter 7 - Ancient Greece

Western civilization today views the culture of ancient Greece as one of its early ancestors. From the Greeks came ideas about democracy and freedom, theater, literature, science and ethics, which are still considered important in the West. The truth may be more complicated.

Chapter 8 - Ancient Rome

From a small village to one of the most powerful empires and through the eventual collapse.

Chapter 9 - Ancient Iran

Ancient Iran was a region that was home to many civilizations such as the Persian dynasties of the Seleucids, Sassanids and Parthians.

Chapter 10 - Islam

Although not a geographical region, Islam is very important in ancient history and deserves its own chapter. Borrowing from earlier civilizations, while adding new religious and cultural elements, Islam sprang from the Arabian peninsula in the early 8th century CE, to create a culture that served as a bridge between China, India, Africa and Europe.

Chapter 11 - The Ancient Americas

North and South America were not barren. In Central America, the Olmecs, Maya, and Aztecs established important civilizations that endured through successive periods of challenge and change. The Mound-Builder culture of central North America was just coming to light, while the Inca and other civilizations of South America showed an intensive effort to use and manage their landscape.

Chapter 12 - Ancient Africa

Though often derided as the "dark continent", Africa developed several important civilizations of its own. Apart from Egypt, the modern countries of Mali, Ghana, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Zimbabwe all hosted ancient civilizations.

Chapter 13 - Ancient Polynesia

As people spread out across the Pacific to the islands both small and great, they carried with them foods, technology and culture that diversified and changed, even as it continued to unite across thousands of miles of open water.


Glossary, Bibliography, Atlas, Gazeteer, selected biographies... Everything necessary to help make your understand of ancient history more complete.

Modules not worked into TOC[edit]


East Asia[edit]

South East Asia[edit]


Middle East[edit]