Polish/Neuter noun declension

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Neuter noun declension[edit]

The neuter gender in Polish is least common. Many neuter words end in "-o" and their declension is somewhat similar to inanimate-masculine.


Beer
Singular Plural
Nominative Piwo Piwa
Genitive Piwa Piw
Dative Piwu Piwom
Accusative Piwo Piwa
Instrumental Piwem Piwami
Locative Piwie Piwach
Vocative Piwo Piwa
Chair
Singular Plural
Nominative Krzesło Krzesła
Genitive Krzesła Krzeseł
Dative Krzesłu Krzesłom
Accusative Krzesło Krzesła
Instrumental Krzesłem Krzesłami
Locative Krześle Krzesłach
Vocative Krzesło Krzesła
Cake
Singular Plural
Nominative Ciastko Ciastka
Genitive Ciastka Ciastek
Dative Ciastku Ciastkom
Accusative Ciastko Ciastka
Instrumental Ciastkiem Ciastkami
Locative Ciastku Ciastkach
Vocative Ciastko Ciastka
Child
Singular Plural
Nominative Dziecko Dzieci
Genitive Dziecka Dzieci
Dative Dziecku Dzieciom
Accusative Dziecko Dzieci
Instrumental Dzieckiem Dziećmi
Locative Dziecku Dzieciach
Vocative Dziecko Dzieci
Eye
Singular Plural
Nominative Oko Oczy
Genitive Oka Oczu
Dative Oku Oczom
Accusative Oko Oczy
Instrumental Okiem Oczami or archaic Oczyma
Locative Oku Oczach
Vocative Oko Oczy
Ear
Singular Plural
Nominative Ucho Uszy
Genitive Ucha Uszu
Dative Uchu Uszom
Accusative Ucho Uszy
Instrumental Uchem Uszami
Locative Uchu Uszach
Vocative Ucho Uszy

The archaic instrumental oczyma doesn't have much to do with the neuter gender - it was the Indoeuropean dual number (for a pair of things), which disappeared in almost all modern Indo-European languages. You can still find it in some expressions.

In the singular locative "krześle" you can see how softening works on a group of consonants - all consonants are softened, in that case "s" changes to "ś" and "ł" to "l".

As with other declensions, "e" may appear between two final consonants if there is no vowel after them ("null" ending).

The plural instrumental is "-ami"/"-iami" in almost all nouns, and "-imi"/"-ymi" in almost all adjectives. Here you can see one of the exceptions. For some weird historical reasons "a" disappeared and we have "-ćmi" instead of the expected "-ciami".

In the case of "dziecko", "oko" and "ucho" you can see that a slightly different form is used as the base for the singular and plural forms. This is also quite archaic.

If you find some neuter noun, try to decline it rather like "piwo", "krzesło" and "ciastko" rather than like "dziecko", "oko" or "ucho".

Examples:

  • Dziecko je ciastka - child eats cakes (cake in accusative)
  • Dzieci nie piją piwa - children don't drink beer (beer in genitive)
  • Oczy Piotra są zielone - Piotr's eyes are green (eyes in nominative, Piotr in genitive, green in nominative)
  • Kot jest na krześle - cat is on chair (chair in locative)
  • zielone - plural neuter form of adjective "green"

Neuter nouns ending in "-e" or "-ę"[edit]

The most common template is:

Meeting
Singular Plural
Nominative Spotkanie Spotkania
Genitive Spotkania Spotkań
Dative Spotkaniu Spotkaniom
Accusative Spotkanie Spotkania
Instrumental Spotkaniem Spotkaniami
Locative Spotkaniu Spotkaniach


Other templates are:

Given name/First name
Nominative Imię Imiona
Genitive Imienia Imion
Dative Imieniu Imionom
Accusative Imię Imiona
Instrumental Imieniem Imionami
Locative Imieniu Imionach
Baby
Singular Plural
Nominative Niemowlę Niemowlęta
Genitive Niemowlęcia Niemowląt
Dative Niemowlęciu Niemowlętom
Accusative Niemowlę Niemowlęta
Instrumental Niemowlęciem Niemowlętami
Locative Niemowlęciu Niemowlętach